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  • Hyartt, Anne (2016)
    Extraterritorial use of force by States against suspected terrorists is no longer a new phenomenon in today’s world, yet it remains controversial how such situations should be classified under international law and which rules should govern extraterritorial counterterrorism operations. The purpose of this study is to contribute to this topical discussion. This thesis examines the practice of United States (U.S.) to conduct targeted killings against Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) in Yemen via drone strikes and aims at finding potential answers to controversial issues surrounding the targeted killings operations. The underlying purpose of targeted killing is to intentionally deprive a person of life, and therefore the legal basis for such a conduct should be known. It is vital to understand that the assessment on the legality of a specific targeted killing depends on the context in which it is conducted. If a targeted killing is conducted within armed conflict, then international humanitarian law is the applicable legal framework; if it is conducted outside armed conflict, then human rights law is the applicable legal framework. It has long been the U.S. assertion that it is in an armed conflict with Al-Qaida, Taliban and their associated forces. This thesis takes as its starting point the U.S. assertion and attempts to establish whether and under what conditions this claim could be true with respect to the situation in Yemen. Thus, the subject is examined solely from an international humanitarian law (IHL) perspective, though human rights are taken into account as far as they also apply during armed conflict. Questions relating to inter-State use of force are not studied in this thesis, as the U.S. is conducting its operations with the consent of Yemen. The topic is further framed to concern only targeted killings conducted with drones, as drone technology has raised additional concern over the legality of targeted killings operations, and because drone strikes have been particularly typical way of conducting operations by the Obama administration. First of all, this thesis seeks to determine that if the U.S. drone strikes in Yemen are conducted within an armed conflict, how the conflict should be classified under IHL. IHL recognizes two types of armed conflicts: international armed conflict (IAC) and non-international armed conflict (NIAC). The U.S. position is that it is engaged in a single armed conflict with Al-Qaida and its associated forces, and that the type of the armed conflict is some kind of global non-international armed conflict. This position is rejected in this thesis. However, classification of the situation faces problems both under the law governing IAC and the law governing NIAC. Much of the study on this question regards the threshold of armed conflict. It is suggested that customary rules of IHL which are same for both IACs and NIACs could be applied to the situation between the U.S. and AQAP even if the nature of the conflict is not decisively determined. After coming to such conclusion, this thesis studies which are the rules of customary IHL applicable in both NIACs and IACs that are relevant when assessing the legality of U.S. drone strikes in Yemen. First, drone technology and drones as weapons are studied and it is concluded that even though drones are relatively new weapons IHL still applies to them, and that under the rules of IHL, drones cannot categorically be seen as illegal weapons. Focus is then turned to rules governing targeting, as it is possible that drones are used in a way which violates IHL even if they are not illegal as weapons. The following concepts are examined: principle of distinction and prohibition on indiscriminate attacks, combatant status, direct participation in hostilities and status of members of organized armed groups, principle of proportionality, feasible precautions in attack and whether there is a requirement to not kill unless necessary under IHL. Attention is then turned to human rights and it is determined that while IHL is the applicable law as lex specialis during armed conflict, if a particular killing during armed conflict violates norms of IHL, then it also violates the right to life under human rights law. Finally, it is studied whether it seems that the U.S. is abiding by the applicable rules of IHL in its actions when conducting drone strikes in Yemen. While it is acknowledged that it is a positive development that the U.S. is publishing any information related to its counterterrorism operations, it is also noted that usually the information given is too general and vague to be used in proper legality assessments. The U.S. constantly states that it adheres to all applicable law in its operations, yet mixes different legal concepts and fails to provide critical information, based on which the correctness of its claim could be determined. As long as the U.S. is not publishing detailed data on its drone strikes and on the criteria which makes an individual targetable, it is impossible to properly assess the legality of the U.S. actions. Still, some remarks can be made. It is concluded that at least some of the targeting practices the U.S. is using seem to violate rules of IHL. Brief remarks are then given on what kind of conduct amounts to serious violations of IHL under both IAC and NIAC and on the related transparency and accountability obligations of States.
  • Laivo, Soila Pauliina (2018)
    This thesis answers to a question “Why adolescent girls drop out of school in Northern Uganda?” In Uganda, approximately 70% of the children drop out of public school before 7th grade, the final year of primary school. In northern Uganda, girls drop out of school in more significant numbers than boys, and it happens around the age when girls reach puberty. Northern Uganda is also a particular location because it is recovering from long conflict, affecting strongly the whole population living in the area. The thesis is based on two-month ethnographic fieldwork in northern Uganda during the spring of 2015. To answer the main research question this study seeks to analyse it through taking a look how the school, the community and the girls themselves experience and talk about dropping out, education and growing up in the current post-conflict state of the social life. The thesis argues that the dropout rate is linked to the adolescence as life-stage of becoming an adult that is making the girls to make decisions about the future. The analysis is done through three different perspectives – the educational, societal and personal narratives of the youth. The first perspective is the education and schooling in northern Uganda. It explores the concept of ’educated person’ by Levinson and Holland through sexual education and gender in education. The study shows that Ugandan public primary and secondary education is deriving its ideas and understanding of educated person from the national curriculum, which often conflict with the local concepts of the educated person in the Acholi community, influencing the blamed and real reasons for dropping out. The second perspective looks into the community and the societal pressures the girls are facing when growing up. It will describe family, kinship, marriage and gender in post-conflict context and show how in these areas of life, the past conflict, “loss of culture”, generational conflicts and subsequent disobedience are presented as reasons behind the challenges to stay in school. The third perspective tells the stories of the girls met and talked to during the ethnographic fieldwork in Northern Uganda. It answers the question “What is happening in the life of a girl when she drops out of school?”. It is argued that the girls take actions of a gendered agency to further their lives and become adults. Thus, dropping out of school cannot just be explained as a simple event just suddenly happening without their own will. It will further answer the question “What makes some girls stay in school?” to show how those girls still in school manage the crosscurrents of growing up in Acholiland. The thesis argues that the girls in northern Uganda are active appropriators and social agents who through their own actions contest, struggle and penetrate the structures in their society while also at the same time reproduce them. In Northern Uganda, both the community and the state together with different international agencies will have plans and expectations for the girls’ future. The study shows how the girls navigate the school, community and peer expectations and sociocultural and economic structures to stay or finally drop out of school. These structures are state organised and aid-infused formal schooling and society in amidst of post-conflict recovery which creates a framework where the girls are acting. The school presents the modern and globally orientated educated person, and in contrast to it, the community is looking for to restore ‘traditional’ way of life. It is argued that these two sides are often in conflict and in the middle of this conflict the girls act and solve their way out of it, looking for adulthood and gaining respectable status in the society. The schools, the community and even sometimes the development actors see the girls as passively following the things they will encounter. The thesis will show that they are not. The girls either stay in school or drop out of it, but more often as a consequence of their own decisions and actions than passively because the school or the community could not support them. It is demonstrated that dropping out of school looks more of line a tactic for the future as a respectable grown-up than mere problem to be solved.
  • Heinonen, Tero (2015)
    The subject of this study is the transmission of religious ecstasy as a cultural model in the devotional Vaiṣṇava religion of South India. Representations of religious ecstasy are found underlying the practices, doctrine and rituals of the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava religion. The religious tradition is extant present day. The primary object of this study is to delineate the method of transmission by which ecstasy has been transmitted from one religious tradition to another in South Indian Vaiṣṇavism. The secondary object of this study is to define ecstasy in the theoretical framework of the psychology of religion and to examine its application in the modern Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava religion as devotional music. The modern object of this thesis is ISKCON or International Society for Krishna Consciousness which belongs to the Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava religious tradition. I will concentrate on the musical induction of religious ecstasy in ISKCON. A method of content analysis has been applied for the thesis in order to find out how ecstasy is manifested in a body of literature of each examined tradition. The literature consists of devotional texts, most originating from 16th century. Some of the sources originate from the end of the first millenium, and at least one has been created before the turn of the first millenium. Many modern devotional songs were studied in order to find out whether consistent elements could be found. Results were examined against the background of earlier studies, which have concentrated on psychological research. Results show that the religious tradition of the worship of Viṣṇu in South India has had an active element of religious ecstasy since seventh century CE. The religious ecstasy remained a cultural model during the medieval age and is still prevalent in the tradition present day. Results show that devotional music plays a role in inducing ecstatic states as the primary method of cultural transmission. The doctrinal foundation reveals application of the medieval aesthetic theory to devotional religion. Modern application involves musically induced religious ecstasy that can be studied with methods of psychology and physiology. My thesis statement is that ecstasy is transmitted with devotional music, which functions as a form of conducted communial ecstasy. The ecstasy is a cultural model supported by beliefs and ritual practices. It can be understood in terms of the attachment theory of religion as proximity behaviour in relation to God as the primary attachment figure. Thus, musically induced ecstasy functions as the primary vehicle in the transmission of Vaiṣṇava bhakti devotional religion.
  • Ranne, Katriina (2006)
    Euphrase Kezilahabi on tansanialainen kirjailija, joka ensimmäisenä julkaisi swahilinkielisen vapaalla mitalla kirjoitetun runokokoelman. Perinteisessä swahilirunoudessa tiukat muotosäännöt ovat tärkeitä, ja teos synnytti kiivasta keskustelua. Runoteokset Kichomi ( Viilto , Kipu , 1974) ja Karibu Ndani ( Tervetuloa sisään , 1988) sekä Kezilahabin muu tuotanto voidaan nähdä uuden sukupolven taiteena. Kezilahabi on arvostettu runoilija, mutta hänen runojaan ei aiemmin ole käännetty englanniksi (yksittäisiä säkeitä lukuunottamatta), eikä juurikaan tutkittu yksityiskohtaisesti. Yleiskuvaan pyrkivissä lausunnoissa Kezilahabin runouden on hyvin usein määritelty olevan poliittista. Monet Kezilahabin runoista ottavatkin kantaa yhteiskunnallisiin kysymyksiin, mutta niiden pohdinta on kuitenkin runoissa vain yksi taso. Sen lisäksi Kezilahabin lyriikassa on paljon muuta ennen kartoittamatonta tämä tutkimus keskittyy veden kuvaan (the image of water). Kezilahabi vietti lapsuutensa saarella Victoria-järven keskellä, ja hänen vesikuvastonsa on rikasta. Tutkimuskysymyksenä on, mitä veden kuva runoteoksissa Kichomi ja Karibu Ndani esittää. Runojen analysoinnissa ja tulkinnassa on tarkasteltu myös sitä, miten äänteellinen taso osallistuu kuvien luomiseen. Tutkimuksen määritelmä kuvasta pohjautuu osittain Hugh Kennerin näkemykseen, jonka mukaan oleellista kuvassa on kirjaimellinen taso. Kennerin lähtökohtaan on yhdistetty John Shoptawin teoriaa, joka korostaa runon äänteellisen puolen tärkeyttä merkityksen muodostumisessa. Foneemien analyysissä vaikutteena on ollut Reuven Tsurin teoria. Analyysiosio osoittaa, että veden kuva edustaa ja käsittelee teoksissa lukuisia teemoja: elämää, kuolemaa, fyysistä vetovoimaa, runoutta, mielikuvitusta ja (ali)tajuntaa sekä moraalia. Veden kuvan tutkimuksen pohjalta on nähtävissä, että Kezilahabin filosofia asettuu elävä/kuollut- ja elämä/kuolema dikotomioiden ulkopuolelle.
  • Kosma, Oona (2016)
    The leading causes of vision loss in developed countries are related to the impairment of the posterior segment of the eye. The drug delivery to the posterior segment with topical or systemic methods is challenging due to the protective barriers of the eye. The conventional and effective technique to deliver therapeutic concentrations of drugs to the posterior segment is intravitreal injection. Since naked molecules usually have a rapid vitreal clearance, the invasive injections need repeated administration in chronic conditions, resulting to increased risk of complications and poor patient compliance. The growing field of research of drug delivery systems, such as implants, nano- and microparticles and liposomes emphasizes to answer these challenges by enhancing time-controlled and targeted drug release to retinal and choroidal tissues, enabling less frequent administration and reduced off-target side effects. Liposomal drug delivery systems have potential in delivering therapeutics to posterior eye tissues in sustained and targeted manner. The experimental part of the thesis focused on studying the cell uptake, content release and cytotoxicity of light triggered pH-sensitive gold nanoparticle liposomes in human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19), human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) and monkey choroidal endothelial (RF/6A) cell lines. To enhance the cell differentiation to resemble the in vivo morphology, ARPE-19 cells were also used as a filter-cultured model. HUVEC cells were cultured on an artificial basement membrane matrix and induced with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to form capillary like tube structures. The liposomes were not cytotoxic during 24-hour incubation. All cells internalized liposomes to some extent, but in HUVEC capillary tubes the uptake seemed to be negligible. The light induced calcein release was variable between the experiments, possibly due to the study setting related factors, such as difficulties in temperature control. The liposomal carrier system has promising attributes to posterior eye drug delivery. Liposome-encapsulation prolongs the half-live of a drug. Light triggered release and pH-sensitivity enables highly targeted intracellular drug release decreasing the off-target side effects. Optimization of the study arrangement and liposome production procedure is needed in order to get more reliable results and further assess the future potential of these liposomes in the treatment of posterior eye diseases.
  • Ibadov, Rustam (2023)
    Poly(2-oxazoline)/poly(2-oxazine)-based block copolymers have gained significant attention in recent years for their potential use in drug delivery systems. The architecture of amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline)/poly(2-oxazine) based block copolymers, consisting of hydrophilic outer blocks and a hydrophobic inner block, allows the formation of micelles. The hydrophobic drug is encapsulated within the core, and the hydrophilic shell provides the stability and solubility in aqueous solution. The size and properties of the micelles can be tuned by adjusting the composition of the copolymer, making them a versatile platform for drug delivery. In this work, three different poly(2-oxazoline)/poly(2-oxazine)-based triblock, diblock and gradient copolymers were synthesized via cationic ring-opening polymerization and compared in terms of their drug formulation capability. Triblock copolymers consisting of three polymer blocks, can be tailored to have different hydrophobic and hydrophilic block ratios, allowing for tunable drug release profiles. However, triblock copolymers are more difficult to synthesize, especially if one aims to produce symmetrical ratio of hydrophilic blocks. Diblock copolymers, consisting of two polymer blocks, can also self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solutions and can encapsulate hydrophobic drugs, however, the lower stability of their formulations compared to that of triblock copolymers can limit their drug loading capacity and drug release profiles. In theory, entropy wise, when forming a micelle, the diblock copolymer should be favorable as it doesn’t need to fold, unlike the triblock copolymers, however, the drug formulations by triblock copolymers has shown to be more stable than that of diblock copolymers. Thus, more detailed analysis is needed since the lack of literature on the systematic comparison of these different architectures. Gradient copolymers, consisting of two or more types of monomers that are incorporated into a polymer chain with a gradually changing composition, have more variable properties and are easier to synthesize through one step, than block copolymers. This makes their usage in drug formulation very attractive. However, depending on the reactivity of monomers added, the resulting product can be very different, thus, the kinetics of the copolymerization deserves an attention of the study as well.
  • Väänänen, Suvi (2020)
    On 15 November 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the Palermo Convention). The United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 was used as a model. Drug-related crime had been long controlled with severe punishments and developed control mechanisms, but also there was already quite good knowledge on how drug-related organized criminals operate - despite the drug industry’s fast growth that was ever so difficult to slow down. Drug-related crime was part of the discussions as one type of transnational organized crime when the talks of the Convention began, and it was part of the first drafts of the Convention. Ultimately, the Palermo Convention lacks any mentioning of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs. However, what sparked the elaboration of the Palermo Convention was a growing need for international regulation concerning traffic in persons, and especially to protect women and children from abuse and effects of organized crime. Traffic in persons was perceived to be quite profitable for example due to minor risks compared to possible financial gains from drug trafficking which has however much higher risks for severe punishments and then confiscation. Also, women and children were seen to be the most vulnerable groups for exploitation and in urgent need for protection. This thesis focuses on firstly to recognize the reasons why illicit traffic in narcotic drugs was omitted from the text of the Palermo Convention and secondly on transnational organized crime, especially drug-related crime. This latter research aims to put the Palermo Convention in a larger context. There was an urgent need for this new comprehensive convention on organized crime and its elaboration was a speedy process. In this thesis I study the whole elaboration of the Palermo Convention in the sense of what types of questions were raised during the elaboration of it, and how these questions may have affected the question of illicit drug trafficking as part of the Convention. The research regarding the omitting of drug-related crime from the Palermo Convention’s text after its first drafts is done based on the Travaux Préparatoires, that is the preparatory work of the Convention and its Protocols, and other preparatory materials and official documents that were formed during the Convention’s elaboration. In the study on drug-related crime and transnational organized crime from a wider perspective, related literature is used. Ultimately, there is not enough support to conclude that particularly illicit traffic in narcotic drugs, as the form of crime appeared in the first drafts of the Convention, wanted to be left out of the Convention. Some main themes that had an impact in the omission of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs are the scope and comprehensiveness of the Convention, removing a designated list of offences from the Convention and the urgency and speediness of the negotiations. More important and pervasive provisions against transnational organized crime in general were articles on criminalization of participation to organized criminal group’s activity, articles on money-laundering and corruption. These crimes can take place in link to other crimes like trafficking narcotic drugs and human trafficking. Targeting against the “business” activity, those things that keep facilitating a criminal group’s business, is most likely more efficient in the fight against transnational organized crime.
  • Kuosmanen, Teemu (2020)
    Cancer is a dynamic and complex microevolutionary process. All attempts of curing cancer thus rely on successfully controlling also the evolving future cancer cell population. Since the emergence of drug resistance severely limits the success of many anti-cancer therapies, especially in the case of the promising targeted therapies, we need urgently better ways of controlling cancer evolution with our treatments to avoid resistance. This thesis characterizes acquired drug resistance as an evolutionary rescue and uses optimal control theory to critically investigate the rationale of aggressive maximum tolerated dose (MTD) therapies that represent the standard of care for first line treatment. Unlike the previous models of drug resistance, which mainly concentrate on minimizing the tumor volume, herein the optimal control problem is reformulated to explicitly minimize the probability of evolutionary rescue, or equivalently, maximizing the extinction probability of the cancer cells. Furthermore, I investigate the effects of drug-induced resistance, where the rate of gaining new resistant cells increases with the dose due to increased genome-wide mutation rate and non-genetic adaptations (such as epigenetic regulation and phenotypic plasticity). This approach not only reflects the biological realism, but also allows to model the cost of control in a quantifiable manner instead of using some ambiguous and incomparable penalty parameter for the cost of treatment. The major finding presented in this thesis is that MTD-style therapies may actually increase the likelihood of an evolutionary rescue even when only modest drug-induced effects are present. This suggests that significant improvements to treatment outcomes may be accomplished at least in some cases by treatment optimization. The resistance promoting properties of different anti-cancer therapies should therefore be properly investigated in experimental and clinical settings.
  • Vänttinen, Ida (2020)
    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous plasma cell cancer that results from the excessive proliferation of mutated B cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of ineffective antibodies, monoclonal proteins, in the blood. Despite recent advances in research and novel therapeutics, MM remains incurable, mainly due to the mechanisms underlying disease progression and drug resistance. Therefore, novel biomarkers and therapeutics for the treatment of relapsed and refractory MM are urgently needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), short non-coding RNA molecules that play a key role in post-transcriptional gene regulation, have been found to be associated with different hallmarks of MM. Previous studies have indicated that abnormally functioning miRNA-mediated gene regulation followed by oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene silencing results in drastic alterations in cell proliferation, apoptosis, growth, and metabolism. These changes in cellular functions have been indicated to be associated with the pathogenesis, progression, and formation of drug resistance in MM. Therefore, the role and potential of miRNAs to act as biomarkers to predict MM progression and drug sensitivity should be further investigated to ultimately improve the survival rates of patients. The aim of this master’s thesis was to investigate the relationships between drug sensitivity, disease progression and miRNA regulation in MM patients. Bioinformatically predicted miRNAs identified to be associated with sensitivity to panobinostat, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, and MM progression were validated in MM patient samples by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). In addition, the specific gene targets of miRNAs involved in the regulation of drug responses and MM progression were predicted by identifying statistically significant, negatively correlated interactions between the miRNA and RNA sequencing data of 45 MM patients in pairwise comparative correlation analysis. Finally, the predicted miRNA targets genes were validated in MM patient samples using RT-qPCR. Based on the bioinformatic analyses and RT-qPCR validation, mir-424 expression was significantly increased in relapsed MM patients as compared to respective patient samples taken at diagnosis, suggesting a potential role of mir-424 in MM progression. Similarly, mir-4433b expression was significantly elevated in panobinostat-resistant patients compared to sensitive patients, suggesting a potential effect of mir-4433b on the regulation of panobinostat drug response in MM patients. In addition, the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the disease progression and drug sensitivity associated mir-92b, mir-363 and mir-221, would potentially regulate the expression of FGF2, MFF, and TMEM248, respectively, providing novel insights into the functional roles of miRNAs in MM pathways.
  • Hussein, Zahra (2018)
    Drug shortages have become a global issue and reasons for drug shortages are several and multifactorial. Definition of drug shortages is not unambiguous. However, in literature are numerous different suggestions to determine the phenomenon of drug shortages. This study provides more focused information on drug shortages and the reasons behind them. The study was performed in cooperation with Orion Corporation. The aim of this study was to explore the in-depth reasons behind medicine shortages from the perspective of one European pharmaceutical company with special focus on Finland, Germany, the United Kingdom and Sweden. Interviews of the company employees were used to achieve this aim and build a few case studies. Further the aim was to investigate in-depth reasons for drug shortages using data from case studies. Case studies were provided by Orion since this enabled use of unpublished information compare the case studies with relevant legal and regulatory measures in the European pharmaceutical framework which influence drug shortages. Reviewing available data from literature and from EUDRA GMDP database for drug shortages and investigate if the data is detailed enough to understand in-depth reasons for drug shortages. Based on the interview results the most common reasons behind drug shortages in Europe are mainly pharmaceutical market structure 38%. It contains many different factors, such as small stock size, local and foreign manufacturing issues, logistics and distribution issues, changes in demand and regulatory issues. However, the manufacturing (33%) or regulatory (29%) reasons are almost as numerous as pharmaceutical market structure issues. Pharmaceutical market structure issues include most common reasons which are categorized in supply-related and demand-related reasons. According to this study supply-related reasons are more common (73%) than demand-related reasons (27%). Some reasons behind drug shortages overlap and often cause a domino effect, whilst other are unique or stand alone, like reasons resulting from natural disasters. The results of this study seem generalizable because the EUDRA GDMP database shows same results and case studies illustrative same reasons behind drug shortages. This study provides more focused information on drug shortages and the reasons behind them from the perspective of pharmaceutical company and authorities.
  • Ahonen, Minna (2020)
    Tiedekunta/Osasto – Fakultet/Sektion – Faculty Humanistinen tiedekunta Tekijä – Författare – Author Minna Ahonen Työn nimi – Arbetets titel – Title Družstvosta týmiin – Kuinka urheilu-uutisointi ja sen kieli muuttuivat tšekinkielisessä urheilulehdessä vuodesta 1958 vuoteen 2008 Oppiaine – Läroämne – Subject Tšekin kieli Työn laji – Arbetets art – Level Pro gradu -tutkielma Aika – Datum – Month and year 11/2020 Sivumäärä – Sidoantal – Number of pages 75 Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract Tutkielmani tavoitteena on selvittää, kuinka urheilu-uutisointi ja sen kieli muuttuivat tšekinkielisessä urheilulehdessä 50 vuodessa. Aineistoni koostuu viidestä Československý sportin numerosta syksyltä 1958 ja viidestä Sportin numerosta keväältä 2008. Aluksi kerron hieman yleisistä kielenmuutoksista ja erityisesti vieraiden kielten vaikutuksesta. Käsittelen myös vähän tšekin kirjakielen kehitystä ja siinä ilmennyttä purismia. Kerron, millaista on lehtikieli ja millaista urheilukieli ja millaisia kuvia voi lehdessä huomata. Vertailen, millaisia muutoksia on tapahtunut lehtien sisällössä eli mistä urheilulajeista kirjoitetaan. Vertailen myös lehtien uutisointimuotoja eli tehdäänkö urheilutapahtumista raportteja tai tuloslistauksia, onko haastatteluja jne. Vertailen ulkomaan uutisten sisältöä ja uutisointimuotoja. Tarkastelen myös kuvien aiheita. Tutkimukseni on osittain kvantitatiivinen, sillä lasken suuntaa-antavasti uutisten määrän, ulkomaan uutisten määrän, kuvien määrän, jalkapallo- ja jääkiekkouutisten määrän. Tarkastelen otsikoita ja ingressejä siltä kannalta, johdattavatko ne jutun aiheeseen. Kielen osalta tutkin, millaisia muutoksia sanastoon on tullut, onko tullut vierassanoja vai esiintyykö purismia. Varsinkin tässä sanasto-osuudessa tutkimani aineisto tulee jalkapallo- ja jääkiekkojutuista. Vertailen tavallisimpia näiden lajien sanojen esiintymistä ja lasken niiden määriä summittaisesti. Tarkastelen lausetyyppien (väite-, kysymyslause, huudahdus) määrässä tapahtuneita muutoksia. Tarkkailen myös välimerkkien käyttöä. Itse kirjoittaminen on muuttunut vähän vuosien mittaan. Lauseista suurin osa on edelleen väitelauseita, mutta kysymyslauseiden ja huudahdusten määrä on kasvanut. Välimerkkien käyttö oli oivallista. Uutisten kieli on säilynyt asiallisena ja otsikoiden rauhallisina. Vaikka monet otsikot päättyvät huutomerkkiin, ne eivät tunnu huutavan. Ehkäpä sanastolla on siihen vaikutusta. Ingressejä esiintyy molemmissa lehdissä. Osa niistä on vain tulosluettelo, osa johdattaa juttuun. Haastatteluja ei ole Československý sportissa ainuttakaan, mutta Sport tekee niitä paljon. Mainoksia löytyy Československý sportista kolme, mutta ne ovat aika huomaamattomia. Sportissa oli paljon mainoksia, esimerkiksi vedonlyöntikertoimia voi olla kolme sivua. Československý sportissa lajikirjo on yllättävän suuri. Siellä palstatilaa saavat koripallo ja uinti sekä šakki, laskuvarjourheilu ja ratsastus. Sportissa kirjoitettiin ampuma- ja alppihiihdosta sekä tenniksestä. Československý sportissa jalkapallo ja jääkiekko saavat 2-2½ sivua (sivuja on neljä) ja Sportissa 10-14 (sivuja 20). Sekä Československý sportissa että Sportissa ulkomaan uutisten määrä on vähän alle kolmannes kaikista uutisista. Ulkomaisesta jalkapallosta ja jääkiekosta Československý sportissa on noin 40 uutista ja Sportissa noin 90. Jalkapallon ja jääkiekon otteluraportteja löytyy Československý sportista yli 60 ja Sportissa alle 30. Kuvia on Československý sportissa noin 70 ja osa niistä on piirroksia. Sportissa kuvia on yli 200. Niistä iso osa on toimintakuvia ja muotokuvia. Purismia ei esiinny kummassakaan lehdessä. Sanastossa näkyy englannin vaikutuksen kasvu. Sportin tavallisin joukkuetta tarkoittava sana on tým (< team) ja maalia tarkoittava gól (<goal). Československý sportissa maali on branka ja joukkue usein mužstvo. Aika paljon Sportissa vierassanojen rinnalla kulkee näitä, joita jo Československý sportissa käytetään. Osa vierasperäisistä sanoista on säilyttänyt alkuperäisen kirjoitusasunsa, esimerkiksi derby ja power play. Osa on saanut tšekkiläisen kirjoitusasun, vaikkapa favorit (<favourite) ja lajn (<line). Mikään Sportista löydetyistä vierassanoista ei ole täysin syrjäyttänyt Československý sportissa käytettyä tšekinkielistä vastinetta. Avainsanat – Nyckelord – Keywords Tšekki, urheilu, tšekin kieli, sanomalehdet, vierassanat Säilytyspaikka – Förvaringställe – Where deposited Keskustakampuksen kirjasto Muita tietoja – Övriga uppgifter – Additional information
  • Hirvonen, Ilkka (2017)
    Dry eye disease is one of the most common eye diseases and it deteriorates the life quality of a large number of patients. The etiopathological causes behind the dry eye disease are divided in two major classes, aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eye (EDE). Naturally, the reasons behind dry eye symptoms of a certain patient may be a combination of both classes. Knowing the underlying cause behind the symptoms is crucial in finding the correct treatment. Properties of the human tear film have been studied to a great extent. One of the research methods that has been used is computer simulations, especially during the last decades as increases in computing power have made even rather sophisticated models accessible. This literature review first describes the dry eye syndrome as a medical condition and then discusses the pros and cons of computer simulations. Then, key findings from the literature are presented in three categories: macro-scale tear fluid simulations, models of the rupturing process of the thin precorneal tear film, and molecular simulations of the tear film lipid layer. A brief example of a simulation is also presented.
  • Ahtola, Martti (2015)
    The goal of the thesis was to optimize a dry powder layering process that would produce a swelling polymer layer that could work as a base layer for another layer. The GPCG 1 (Glatt) fluidized bed granulator was equipped with a rotor. Such hydrophilic polymers were used for coating that would not be sensible timewise for wet coating methods because of long process time. For design of experiments Definitive Screening was chosen because it works in situations where time is limited and there is high number of parameters. There were six parameters, four related to the equipment settings and two related to the formulation, that were tested on three levels. The results were used to get optimized parameters using a model in MODDE software. The quality of the coating was analyzed by measuring the friability (strain test with fluidized bed granulator), particle size (dynamic image analyzer), density (helium pycnometer and mercurity porosimeter), erosion (size exclusion chromatography), loss on drying (halogen moisture analyzer) and coating efficiency (weighing and loss on drying). Coating was also analyzed also with scanning electron microscopy. The process was robust with regards to sphericity of the coated pellets. In SEM pictures none of the coatings showed complete film formation. Friability method did not show significant differences between batches. Coating efficiency was high for all batches. Correlations between product characteristics were analyzed and some correlations were observed between including correlations between LOD/CE and densities. No correlation between the densities measured with two different methods were seen. Some of the settings in the DOE were too extreme and produced batches that were very difficult to analyze. Two more batches were produced with adjusted settings. This affected somewhat the ability to develop a reliable model. Model development were also affected by insufficient results from erosion tests and because coating efficiency results with water was used. Some stability problems were noticed during design of experiments and chosen equipment limited the scale of settings. Coating material adhered to the surface of the pellets and process could be adjusted by changing the parameters of the DOE. Some correlations were noticed between formulation, equipment settings and coating properties.
  • Heliö, Krista (2020)
    Dilatoiva kardiomyopatia (DCM) on sydänlihassairaus, jolle on tyypillistä vasemman kammion laajeneminen ja supistuvuuden heikkeneminen, kun selittävänä tekijänä ei ole vakavaa sepelvaltimotautia tai poikkeavaa vasemman kammion kuormitusta. Titiini- ja lamiini A/C-geenit (TTN, LMNA) ovat merkittävimmät tautigeenit familiaalisen DCM:n taustalla. Aiemmin DSP:n variantit on yhdistetty arrytmogeeniseen oikean kammion kardiomyopatiaan (ARVC) ja vasta viime aikoina DCM:ään. Tutkimuksessa kuvataan DSP c.6310delA, p.(Thr2104Glnfs*12)-varianttiin liittyviä sydänilmentymiä. Tämä DSP-variantti havaittiin kymmenellä suomalaisella eri suvuista olevalla indeksihenkilöllä käyttämällä uuden sukupolven sekvensointia (NGS, next-generation sequencing). Indeksien sukulaisilta varmistettiin DSP-variantin esiintyminen käyttämällä Sanger-sekvensointia. Tutkittavien kliinisiä tietoja kerättiin vanhoista sairauskertomusteksteistä ja lisäksi osalle heistä tehtiin kliininen sydäntilanteen arviointi. Havaitsimme DSP c.6310delA, p.(Thr2104Glnfs*12) variantin 17 henkilöllä, joista 11 (65 %) täytti DCM:n diagnostiset kriteerit. Tämä patogeeninen variantti ilmenee vasemman kammion laajentumisena ja systolisen toiminnan häiriönä sekä vakavina kammioperäisinä rytmihäiriöinä. Kahdella potilaalla esiintyi sydämen magneettitutkimuksessa sydänlihaksen turvotusta ja jälkitehostumaa, jotka voivat viitata inflammatoriseen prosessiin sydänlihaksessa. Erityisesti niillä DSP-variantin kantajilla, joilla oli diagnosoitu DCM, esiintyi myös kammioperäisiä rytmihäiriöitä. Tämä löydös tukee uutta arrytmogeenisen kardiomyopatian käsitettä sekä DSP-varianttien merkitystä DCM:n taustalla. Tämän trunkoivan DSP-variantin penetranssi oli matala indeksien sukulaisilla ennen 40 vuoden ikää. Jatkossa tarvitaan vielä lisätutkimuksia selventämään patogeenisten DSP-varianttien ja sydänlihaksen inflammaation välistä mahdollista yhteyttä. (192 sanaa)
  • Pekurinen, Jere (2015)
    The aim of this study was to test the associations between job satisfaction and job strain, defined according to Karasek's Job Demands-Control Model, as well as type D personality traits. Previous studies have mainly focused on job characteristics and other external circumstances when studying wellbeing at work. The relationship between occupational wellbeing and individual factors such as personality traits has received less attention. Based on previous studies five hypotheses were set: 1) type D personality is associated with lower job satisfaction, 2) type D personality is associated with higher job strain, 3) job strain is negatively associated with job satisfaction, 4) job control moderates the association between job demands and job satisfaction, and 5) the association between type D personality and job satisfaction is mediated by job strain. The data consisted of 1117 participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. All participants were full-time employed Finns aged 30 to 45. Type D personality was measured with a modified questionnaire based on DS14 (Denollet, 2005), job control was measured using items from the Job Content Questionnaire (Karasek, 1985) and job demands was measured using items from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo et al, 1990). Job satisfaction was measured with a single-item scale. The hypotheses were tested using linear regression analyses. The effects of gender and education level were controlled for. Employees with type D personality were found to experience lower job satisfaction and higher job strain when compared to non-type D counterparts. Of the two type D traits, only negative affectivity was a statistically significant predictor of job satisfaction. Job strain was associated with lower job satisfaction. The association between negative affectivity and job satisfaction was partly mediated by job strain. Based on these results it seems that type D personality, especially negative affectivity and job strain may be risk factors for lower occupational well-being.
  • Vihma, Kalle (2015)
    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of type D personality and its components with effort-reward imbalance based work stress and its components. Previously it has been found that both type D personality and effort-reward based work stress are associated with poorer health status and also to be a risk factor for numerous negative health outcomes. The association of Type D personality with effort-reward imbalance hasn't been previously studied. Based on the previous research, we set the following three hypotheses : 1) Higher effort-reward imbalance is associated with type D personality 2) Higher effort and lower rewards are associated with type D personality 3) Higher negative affectivity and higher social inhibition are associated with higher effort-reward imbalance. There were 1285 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, who were working full time when the study was conducted and didn't have missing values in the study variables. Work stress was measured with a questionnaire based on effort-reward imbalance model (ERI, Siegrist, 1996). Type D personality was measured with a questionnaire based on DS14-measure (Denollet, 2005). Age of the participants varied between 30-45 years. The hypotheses were tested with logistic and linear regression analyses controlling for age, gender, education and occupational status. In the study type D personality was associated with higher effort-reward imbalance, higher efforts lower rewards. Of the components of type D personality negative affectivity predicted higher work stress but social inhibition was not related to perceptions work stress. The results imply that type D personality is a risk factor for high work stress.
  • Besic, Sameer (2022)
    Combining studying and goal-oriented sports is challenging. This master's thesis looks at the path of successful high-level athletes to the top and how they have experienced the combining of two careers. The aim is to look at the experience’s athletes have of combining sports careers and studies at different levels of education and what they have found challenging and what has been, on the other hand, successful. On average, sports careers at the top level are short, and after the end of their careers, many athletes find employment in jobs corresponding to their studies. The best way we can understand athletes' experiences is if we are also aware of how to develop into a top athlete. The data of the study consists of seven interviews. Seven Finnish athletes who have had successful sports careers and who also have had varied study experiences were interviewed for the purpose of the study. The study data was collected in autumn 2021 through a thematic interview. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed. A phenomenographic approach was used in the analysis of the data. Based on the research results, athletes had similar experiences combining study and sports in comprehensive school. Combining these did not require any special effort. However, the sports-oriented classes in comprehensive school provided an opportunity for morning training. In high school, different experiences were experienced. It was possible to combine sports and studies in a regular high school, but it required initiative and support from the school side. In sports schools, it was easier to combine the two careers, and the school provided significant support to promote both athlete careers. In higher education studies, combining sports and studies was considered challenging. In particular, courses requiring attendance slowed down the completion of studies. However, the interviewees agreed that studying and graduating is possible during a sports career. Studying was seen as a counterbalance to the sport. Sports academies aim to simplify the combination of sports and studies. However, not all athletes knew how to take advantage of the services provided by sports academies because most of them were unaware of their existence. In the future, the activities of sports academies should be developed so that it is even more efficient and accessible to athletes.
  • Cowlishaw, Mark Cary (2020)
    Upregulation of specific helpful proteins represents a possible method for preventing or treating human diseases. Endogenous upregulation (knockup) is the increase of a gene's expression only in cells in which it is already expressed, thus avoiding physiologically abnormal spatiotemporal patterning. A gene's three prime untranslated region (3′UTR) affects protein expression through stability regulation of RNA already transcribed, which suggests 3′UTR modification as a viable route for endogenous upregulation. Mammalian model organisms can be generated in order to test the effects of different 3′UTR modifications, but at great cost of time, effort, and money. If able to predict in advance with an in vitro assay whether an in vivo modification would cause a desirable or undesirable change, these costs could be substantially reduced. In this thesis project, an in vitro assay was used to compare the protein expression influence of twenty neurodegeneration-relevant mouse genes' 3′UTRs to that of a flip-excision cassette (flex-cassette) previously used for in vivo conditional knockup. The assay used was the Promega Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay, in which plasmids expressing Renilla and Firefly luciferase as reporter and internal control are co-transfected into in vitro cells, then each luciferase's expression measured with its respective substrate and a luminometer. Transfections were carried out in three-well replicates and on multiple days. The aims of the project were the evaluation of the assay's ability to predict in vivo results, the suggestion of 3′UTRs which could be upregulated in vivo by the conditional knockup flex-cassette, and the identification of any trends in 3′UTR-based protein expression influence according to gene function. A number of gene 3′UTRs were identified which were either candidates for flex-cassette upregulation or candidates for use in the flex-cassette to upregulate other genes. However, the flex-cassette's in vitro results were only partially consistent with its previous in vivo results. Specifically, the lox sites in the flex-cassette was observed to lower expression level to a degree not observed in vivo. Additionally, in the course of the project a number of possible workflow improvements were identified, for which suggestions have been made in the text. As such, this in vitro approach requires further study in order to determine suitability for prediction of in vivo 3′UTR behaviour.
  • Ruokonen, Maija (2021)
    The appearance ideals of today are very narrow and put excessive pressure on individuals to look a certain way. The ideals are seen as so unrealistic that most people cannot reach them. This has led to an increase in body dysmorphia to a degree where it nowadays is normal to be unsatisfied with one’s body. A negative body image can have several serious consequences, such as mental health problems, eating disorders and social and economic problems. Earlier studies have shown that problems with body image also affect children: the majority of children seem to be unsatisfied with their bodies, and many try to lose weight through unhealthy methods, such as skipping meals. Therefore, there is a big need in supporting children’s body image and researchers have highlighted schools as adequate places for this work. The aim of this study is to examine primary school teachers’ comprehensions about children’s body image, as well as their comprehensions about their possibilities to support their students’ body image in school. Six teachers, who at the time of the study were working in grades 1-6 in the primary school in Finland, participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews were used, and data was analyzed by using thematic analysis that took place in the qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. The teachers in this study considered body image as a highly important topic. The teachers seemed to understand what influences children’s body image and they could observe children’s body image in different situations, such as during school lunch and through paying attention to children’s behavior. They also had a strong will of supporting their students’ body image, but at the same time the teachers felt that the lack of knowledge, resources and guidelines made them feel uncomfortable with working with body image. The teachers disagreed on whether supporting children’s body image really was part of their work responsibilities, but despite of this, there was a consensus of the importance that teachers need to be good role models for their students and that teachers should work for a school where every child feels worthy and safe. Based on the results of this study, it can be said that body image needs to be more emphasized in future school curriculums and that teachers need more knowledge in body image and more tools to feel comfortable with teaching this topic. The results of this study can benefit further studies in body image and studies regarding the school’s role in the work with supporting children’s body image.
  • Holkko, Henna (2017)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan moderneja suomenruotsalaisia lastenkirjoja sukupuolinäkökulmasta. Tavoitteena on selvittää, miten lastenkirjojen nais- ja miespuolisia henkilöhahmoja kuvataan koskien ulkonäköä, käyttäytymistä, ominaisuuksia sekä ammatteja ja harrastuksia. Henkilöhahmojen kuvauksia verrataan stereotyyppisiin käsityksiin naisista ja miehistä. Tavoitteena on tutkia, vahvistavatko vai rikkovatko henkilöhahmojen kuvaukset stereotyyppisiä sukupuolikäsityksiä. Tutkielman aineistona on neljä vuosina 2010−2014 julkaistua suomenruotsalaista lastenkirjaa: Ellens annorlunda fest (2010), Singer (2012), Johanssons och dyngbaggarna (2014) ja Yokos nattbok (2014). Tutkielma on pääosin kvalitatiivinen, mutta lisäksi siinä lasketaan, kuinka monta mies- ja naispuolista henkilöhahmoa kirjoissa esiintyy. Tällä tavoin selvitetään, onko jompikumpi sukupuoli vahvemmin edustettuna kirjoissa kuin toinen. Tulokset osoittavat, että kirjojen nais- ja miespuolisilla henkilöhahmoilla esiintyy sekä stereotyyppisiä että ei-stereotyyppisiä piirteitä. Monet kirjoissa esiintyvät miehet ja pojat näyttävät tunteitaan ja käyttäytyvät empaattisesti muita ihmisiä kohtaan, mikä rikkoo stereotyyppistä käsitystä miehestä. Suurinta osaa kirjojen naispuolisista hahmoista voidaan puolestaan kuvata sanoilla empaattinen, emotionaalinen, pelokas ja epävarma, jotka vastaavat stereotyyppisiä naisellisia ominaisuuksia. Kirjoissa esiintyy kuitenkin myös muutamia itsenäisiä, aktiivisia ja vahvoja tyttöjä ja naisia, jotka rikkovat stereotyyppisiä sukupuolikäsityksiä. Aikaisemmissa tutkimuksissa on käynyt ilmi, että miespuoliset hahmot ovat tyypillisesti vahvemmin edustettuina lastenkirjallisuudessa kuin naispuoliset hahmot. Tämä tulos ei kuitenkaan päde tässä tutkielmassa, sillä analysoiduissa lastenkirjoissa keskeisinä henkilöinä oli enemmän tyttöjä kuin poikia. Lisäksi kaikissa kirjoissa päähenkilönä oli tyttö tai tyttöjä. Tutkielman tulosten perusteella voidaan sanoa, että tarkastelluissa lastenkirjoissa esiintyy joitakin hahmoja, jotka voivat toimia hyvinä esikuvina lapsille, sillä hahmojen kuvaukset ovat ainakin osittain ei-stereotyyppisiä. Kirjoista löytyy kuitenkin myös piirteitä, jotka välittävät stereotyyppisiä sukupuolimalleja, koskien esimerkiksi vanhempien rooleja, sillä näissä lastenkirjoissa päävastuu kotitaloustöistä ja lastenhoidosta on perheiden äideillä. Lastenkirjojen tarkastelu sukupuolinäkökulmasta on tärkeää, jotta voidaan välttää sellaisia kirjoja, jotka välittävät ainoastaan stereotypioiden mukaisia sukupuolimalleja. Stereotyyppisten sukupuolikäsitysten sijaan lapsille tulee tarjota monipuolisia malleja siitä, millaisia naiset, miehet, tytöt ja pojat saavat olla.