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Browsing by Author "Fu, Shu Yi Vicky"

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  • Fu, Shu Yi Vicky (2022)
    Biomacromolecules are large particles found in biological fluids. The upregulations and downregulation of some biomacromolecules, such as extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been linked to cancer and infectious diseases. The study of these biological particles can help us in understanding the progression of those conditions better. Furthermore, studying naturally occurring biological molecules, e.g., immunoglobulin G (IgG), DNA, nucleic acids and glycoproteins can help us to gain more insight to important biological processes in the human body. The first part of this thesis is a literature review of monolithic columns in the separation of large biological molecules in liquid chromatographic and capillary electrochromatographic applications. Columns, including novel monolithic stationary phases, also known as monoliths, have been developed to counter some of the problems associated with the traditionally used packed beds in separation science. Monoliths have a unique structure of interconnecting porous channels, which allows faster separation with better resolution, reproducibility and mass transfer characteristics compared to packed beds. Organic-based polymer monoliths are the most widely used monolithic materials in biological applications, but the use of inorganic-based silica monoliths and hybrid monoliths have grown in the last couple of decades. Monolithic columns are versatile and they can be utilized in several chromatographic techniques, such as reversed-phase chromatography, affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, capillary electrochromatography and mixed-mode chromatography. Due to the growing interest, miniaturized monoliths e.g. in microfluidic devices, small capillaries and microarrays have been exploited to allow faster separation using sample volumes even as low as a few femtolitres. For higher sample throughput, monoliths in the format of 96-well plates, tips, sheets and disks have been introduced, especially for sample pre-treatment purposes. In the experimental part, affinity monolithic chromatography was employed for the isolation of lipoproteins and EVs in both exomere and exosome size range. The main function of EVs is transporting signal molecules from cell-to-cell to maintain homeostasis of the body. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicrons are lipoproteins that transport different lipids in the human blood stream. The study of these particles is important because lipoproteins and especially LDL have been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The experimental part of this thesis is focused on studying the feasibility of Convective Interaction Media (CIM) monoliths in disk (1.3 µm pores, 0.34 ml) and 96-well plate (2.1 µm pores, 0.1 ml) formats in purifying nanosized biomacromolecules from human plasma. The preparation of the affinity monoliths and the isolation of particles in the disk format was conducted following existing protocols and methods, which were modified for the monolithic 96-well plate. Six different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), anti-CD9, anti-CD34, anti-CD61, anti-CD63, anti-CD81 and anti-CD82 were immobilized on the monolithic supports to target EVs. Anti-apoB100 mAb was used in targeting apolipoprotein B100 present on the surface of apoB100-containing lipoproteins. The isolation in the disk format was done using an on-line immunoaffinity chromatography – asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation method connected to ultraviolet, dynamic light scattering and diode array detectors. To compare the two different formats with different pore sizes in lipoprotein and EV isolation, the immobilization protocol and isolation conditions were optimized for the monolithic well plate. The isolation on the monolithic 96-well plate was done within 20 minutes, and the operation consumed three times less sample and buffer than in the disk format. Both monolithic formats were suitable for LDL isolation and the disks could also be used in EV isolation and separation. However, due to the larger pore size, EVs were found to be unstable in the monolithic wells.