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Browsing by department "Lärarutbildning"

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  • Taskinen, Kirsti (2020)
    This study examines early childhood education teachers’ experiences of the participation of 1–3-year-old children in the early childhood education and care plan (known as an ECEC plan) process. The process includes prepara-tion for the discussion of the child’s ECEC plan, discussion and the creation of the plan, and implementing and evaluating the plan. Section 23 of the new Act on Early Childhood Education and Care states that the child’s opinion must be heard at every stage of the ECEC plan process. Previous studies have indicated that the partici-pation of the child has not been implemented in accordance with targets. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how early childhood education teachers define child participation. Another point of interest for the study was to map the methods used by early childhood education teachers to support the child’s participation in the ECEC plan process. The study was carried out using semi-structured interviews, with seven early childhood education teachers chosen for the study. Interviews were carried out individually and data-oriented content analysis was used to analyse the material. According to early childhood education teachers, the participation of 1–3-year-old children in the ECEC plan process involved observing the child and discussing with the child to ascertain their interests, strengths and needs, recording the information in the child’s ECEC plan, team discussions and expanding on the child’s perspective, listening to the child’s parents and making use of their knowledge of their own child, and implementing the ECEC plan in everyday life, as well as the child’s opportunity to influence joint activities. The participation of 1–3-year-olds in the ECEC plan process has also given some teachers pause for thought. One challenge was ascertaining the perspective of a small child if the child was not yet able to speak. According to the results of the study, observing and interviewing the child using a new ECEC form to ascertain the child’s wishes and interests were significant for the participation of the child during the preparation phase. Child participation was also supported by daily discussions with parents, information about the child obtained from the initial discussion meeting held when the child began day-care, and team discussion on observations of the child. The new ECEC form and shared information about the child highlighted the child’s perspective in discussions. Participation was strengthened by child group activities, which were organised based on the targets outlined in the children’s ECEC plans, as well as on an assessment of pedagogical methods. Flexibility in the daily routine, activities initiated by the child, pictures and supportive signs, and voting were all methods of implementing child participation. Photographs, storycrafting, an educational portfolio, naming a star child of the week, and video recording made activities and significant experiences of the child visible. In order to increase child participation in the ECEC plan process, illustrated support for interviews with children and the presence of the child at ECEC plan discussions were proposed.
  • Palm, Noora (2020)
    Objectives. The purpose of the study is to study the experiences of 5–6-year-old kindergarteners from swimming school. The study is interested in what kind of experiences children have from swimming school, how they describe their own swimming skills and what significance play plays in swimming school. The theoretical background of the study is built on three main themes. Initially, pre-school children are treated as mobile, physical activity, motor development and learning, basic motor skills, exercise skills and motivation in children's exercise. The next big theme is swimming lessons and the concepts that are central to it. Finally, we turn to experience as a phenomenon. The study has a self-reflective approach. Methods. Twelve children aged 5 to 6 years participated in the study. The group of children was from a kindergarten in South Helsinki. The research material was obtained through participatory observation and an individual interview. I myself work as a teacher in a swimming school group. The analysis of the research interview material was performed by phenomenological and narrative analysis. Results and conclusions. Children’s experiences of swimming school varied according to their previous experiences in the water. They also felt, for example, that different things were nice and not nice things at a swimming school. Most of the children felt that they had learned to swim during swimming school. The children were motivated towards the swimming school. This was evident in their interest in training, and their motivation also emerged in the children's speeches. The importance of free play in the swimming school was highlighted in the children's interviews as well as during the swimming school period. Time must be left for free play, even if it is a guided swimming school. Free play was important for the children and learning also takes place during it. In general, good teaching and differentiation as well as individualization are emphasized in swimming lessons.
  • Raiskio, Johanna (2020)
    The aim of this study was to examine the L2 learner identity of upper secondary school 1st year students. The starting point of the study was to get an overall picture of how students describe themselves as L2 learners and what meanings they give to their experiences related to language learning. In addition, the factors that guide students' language learning were investigated. The material was collected as students' essays on the topic “I as a foreign language learner”. In total, there were 41 essays in the research material. The content was analyzed by means of a narrative approach. The theoretical background is both a sociocultural view of learning and an ecological concept of language learning, which focuses on learners' identities and motives. According to the research results, students were able to honestly and openly analyze the features related to their own language learner identity and also to identify their own learning strategies and the factors that affect their study and learning. Motivation and maintaining motivation became the most important factors influencing learning and studying, as also previous studies have shown. Motivation was especially influenced by the grades and received feedback, finding the language learning situations and opportunities meaningful and interesting, the support and help available in problem situations, and the experience of being considered as an individual even in a large group. Self-efficacy beliefs were also important factors in learning. Most students also had clear insights into how their own learning could be improved and made more effective, but these ideas were not used in their own work. There could be a wide range of problems in studying in several areas of language learning, and students ’ability to use the right kind of strategies seemed deficient. Through the essays, it became clear that a negative image of oneself as a learner is created very easily and same person’s L2 learner identity can vary greatly between different languages. The study found that many students need strong and ongoing support and assistance in building their own language learner identity so that, for example, a possible cycle of negativity could be broken early. Equally, those who are successful in their studies need encouragement and guidance. It is good for the teacher to be aware of the different language learner identities of the students and also to try to influence these identities constructively.
  • Kotilainen, Aija (2020)
    Aims. The purpose of this thesis is to study subject teachers’ conceptions of the support in learning and school attendance given in Finnish upper secondary schools. Due to the amendment of the Basic Education Act the support is now three tiered and emphasizes early interventions, which requires subject teachers to have more special pedagogical knowhow than they used to. This study aims to analyse, how subject teachers see their own role implementing the support and how the subject teacher system and structures of the school affect to teachers’ possibilities to support their students. Methodology. The thesis is a qualitative case study and the analysing methods are discourse analysis and thematic analysis. The research material consists of six semi-structured interviews of subject teachers. Results and conclusions. The study groups are heterogeneous and too big in relation to students’ needs. Teachers have to prioritize, to whom they give the support. Opportunity for consultation and cooperation with the special needs teacher is highly appreciated when implementing the support. Subject teachers’ familiarity with the students is considered important. Subject teachers’ knowledge about the three tier support system is mediocre, yet they consider not to have time for further education. The teachers are interested in learning of the students. However, because of lack of competence and time subject teachers externalize the implementation of the support to the special needs teacher. Being a form teacher expands the subject teachers’ job description to documenting and coordinating the support. In schools the functioning practises that would strengthen subject teachers’ commitment in all three tiers of support needs to be established. By reorganizing the structures of teaching and cooperation, it is possible to improve the subject teachers’ possibility to provide the support that the students’ needs require. The subject teachers’ special educational competence should be increased. The subject teachers don’t have sufficient knowledge about the three tier support system and they consider documentation of the support unnecessary. They may nonetheless, be able to support the students successfully by using different kinds of pedagogical methods and various well-timed and individualised measures of support.
  • Pihlava, Aura (2019)
    Purpose and aim of the study. The aim of this study is to examine the different methods how teachers support mental health skills of primary school pupils. The aim is to research how primary school teachers can support mental health skills in their teaching and outside the classroom, for example during breaks. Mental health skills is a new concept mentioned in the educational curriculum of 2014, and includes different dimensions, which are for example self-esteem, social skills and emotional skills. Furthermore, mental health and mental health skills are topics that have been covered a lot recently in the media in the context of schooling. Examining the different methods to support mental health skills helps primary school teachers to recognize them and to benefit from them. Moreover, it can provide primary school teachers the opportunity to reflect on the subject more often. Methodology. This study is a qualitative research. The research data of this study was collected in half-structured interviews and by observing. Three primary school teachers, who all work as first grade teachers, were selected to be interviewed. The interviews were recorded and transcribed after which the results were analyzed using theme analysis. Results of the study and conclusions. The interviewed primary school teachers considered that the methods to support mental health skills on a daily basis consisted of four different dimensions: daily interaction between a teacher and a pupil, feedback, maintaining fairness and supporting peer relationships. The interviewed teachers strive to support mental health skills by including discussions and assignments on mental health topics in lectures and subjects such as art, biology and religion. The interviewed teachers found it helpful to use additional materials besides the material they use for the subjects in order to teach comprehensively about the topic. Supporting mental health skills during the first year of school is especially important in order for pupils to feel safe whlist studying and functioning at school. Moreover, it is important to practice and support mental health skills during the first year of school so that pupils can realize their own skills and improve them if needed when they are growing up.
  • Virta, Jonna (2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe, how the special education reform has changed the work of resource special education teachers. During the years 2009 and 2010 the special education system changed in Finland. In 2009 the annual State contribution to special education students was suspended in order to decrease the amount of special education students in Finnish schools. In 2010 the Basic Education Act was changed and the three tier educational support system was introduced to comprehensive schools. The new support system aimed at early identification and right timed support as well as to increasing inclusive pedagogy by providing the support needed in local schools. To fulfill this, Finnish schools started to invest in multi professional collaboration, co-teaching and collaboration between home and school. Previous research has indicated that multi professional collaboration, collaboration between home and school and identifying the support needs early on were already working in 2012. There were however a clear lack in co-teaching and in flexible grouping, in part time special education resources and how it was targeted. It has also been shown that special education teacher´s work has started to involve too many tasks. In this study the special education teachers describe, how their work has changed since the special education reform took place in Finland. Teachers also tell how they would develop their work profile. Five experienced special education teachers teaching in elementary school around Helsinki region took part in this study. The material consisted of theme interviews and it was analyzed by content analysis. It was found out that inclusive local school, early identification and collaboration has increased the duties, but has not decreased teaching time. Positive changes were clearer division of work, deeper collaboration between the personnel and teachers, better knowledge of pupil´s level of learning. Teachers also told that inclusive pedagogy has removed the stigma of special education. The negative changes were the work load of paper work, meetings and consultation has grown. The local school policy has had an influence on academic performance, which has become poorer and more pupil need more specific support manage school. The special education teachers would increase their resources and would decrease their duty to teach by two hours per week.
  • Pistokoski, Ahti (2020)
    Objectives. The aim of the thesis is to unravel the challenges primary school teachers face in physical education of visually impaired children. My goal is also to explore how primary school teachers would develop the physical education of visually impaired children. Earlier studies have shown that a visually impaired child joining sports class can cause uncertainty and sense of inadequacy among teachers. Due to the prevailing ideal of inclusion, children with visual impairment mainly attend school as a part of general education. Therefore it is important to reasearch the experiences of teachers, and thereby strive to develop the exercise opportunities of visually impaired children in general education. Methods. The method used in this thesis was a case study. The material consisted of five in-terviews with teachers that had taught physical education in primary school. Among the five interviewees there were three primary school, one special education and one physical educa-tion teacher. The interviews were partially structured and conducted in the spring of 2020. The analysis was based on qualitative methods, where emphasis is on content and thematic analysis. Results and conclusions. Several challenges became apparent from the interviews. The challenges were divided into three themes: workload of teachers, organization of high-quality teaching and barriers due to the impairment. The teachers’ views of the targets of development were again divided into four themes: teacher training, separation of classes, attitude of the teacher and planning of the lessons. The interviewees felt that teacher training does not prepare teachers to organize physical education for children with visual impairment. The teachers emphasized the value of additional training. The results show that there are still many barriers in physical education, but with sufficient support measures it is possible to overcome them and provide equal opportunities for all children in general PE.
  • Klemola, Anni (2020)
    Goal: Inclusion is an increasingly popular and current theme within educational sciences. In earlier studies, inclusion as a term has evolved from a relatively narrow definition consisting primarily of pupils with special needs towards a wider spectrum taking all members of a school community into account. According to various theories and official documents used as sources for this thesis, inclusion additionally looks at a person from a primarily intersectional perspective. In this study, the primary goal is to look into how inclusion is percepted from the standpoint of teachers, investigate how inclusion takes its place in school on a daily basis and find out what teachers would need to be able to implement inclusion as part of their daily teaching methods. Another goal of this research is to compare the perception teachers have of inclusion to the inclusion that is presented in theories and official documents that are commonly used guidelines for inclusion implementation. Method: The methodology chosen for this qualitative research is phenomenology. Semi-structured interviews were used as the method and the interviews were supported with a predesigned interview guide. The structure of the interviews was built around the most significant themes in this research. A total of eight (8) Swedish-speaking comprehensive school teachers were interviewed. All of these interviewees were officially qualified teachers, and they were employed either in the region of Uusimaa or Pohjanmaa. The interviewees had different professional and academic backgrounds. Some of them had been active in the profession for up to 20 years, while others had less than five years of work experience. Some of these teachers had studied more special pedagogy that what is usually included in teacher studies. The research material was analyzed through a theme content analysis forming a result that was then divided into separate categories. Results: The perceptions on inclusion varied quite substantially, with some giving it quite a narrow definition and others percepted in as being a broader concept such defined by Ainscow & Booth (1998) in their book. Work experience and educational history had an impact on how the teachers defined inclusion in their schools. All participants considered inclusion as an important theme in the school world. Good co-operation and a culture of acceptance and participation were seen as important aspects to ensure successful inclusion. A lack of resources, the sense of diversity amongst pupils and their own skillset in inclusion were aspects that they felt hindered inclusion. The unified culture amongst Swedish-speaking Finns was also brought up as an example of a theme that can turn into a barrier for inclusion. In addition, some other specific features Finnish school culture were seen as problematic. Based on the research, it can be stated that the acceptance and commitment to diversity is crucial for the successful implementation of inclusion. Updating the skillset of teachers, building a stronger cooperation between various stakeholders and pushing for a cultural change in the school world are concrete examples of ways to strengthen the development of inclusion. This can be established based on both the research, but also on the theories and official documents used the build the theoretical background of this thesis.
  • Lindqvist, Jessica (2020)
    Homework is a part of the day-to-day activities in most schools. The use and benefits of homework is undergoing debate. Existing research in the field is limited and sometimes conflicting. The Finnish curriculum does not require homework to be used in teaching. Thus, it is the teacher who decides if, how and what kind of homework the pupils shall be assigned. Mathematics is a subject where homework is commonly used. It is therefore relevant to study how teachers think about homework within this particular subject and how the homework in use relates to the (social)constructivist view on learning that the current curriculum is largely based on. The aim of this study was to examine what kind of homework in mathematics primary school teachers assign and how they argue either in favor of or against homework in mathematics education. Focus was on effects that develop mathematics performance. In addition, the teachers’ views on the importance of parental involvement relating to homework in mathematics was studied. A questionnaire was sent to primary school teachers in three Swedish-speaking schools in the metropolitan area of Finland. The questionnaire included both multiple-choice and open-ended questions. 19 teachers responded. Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis was performed. A deductive methodological approach was applied. The study showed that the teachers view learning in a social-constructive manner. The type of homework assigned does not, however, reflect this. Focus is on repetitive mechanical assignments to be performed individually. For instance, assignments including problem-solving are in limited use, although many believe that such assignments, along with repetitive ones, support learning in mathematics. Homework that these teachers assign does not to any large extent require being done outside of school. This leads to the relevant question whether homework is used due to the insufficiency of time in school. Most of the teachers argued for the use of homework in mathematics by reference to the importance of repetition. A majority viewed parental involvement as important. Despite the fact that the curriculum stresses equality, only three respondents reflected upon the risk that parental involvement might lead to inequality. Homework club at school was most commonly viewed as the remedy against the absence of support at home. Most teachers showed an unproblematic attitude towards the use of homework in mathematics education.
  • Sipinen, Elina (2020)
    In this study it was investigated, how arithmetic fluency and reading skills are associated with mathematical problem solving skills. 168 sixth graders from four cities participated in the study. Significant association was found only between arithmetic fluency and mathematical problem solving skills as indicated by SEM regression model. Children were divided into three achievement groups by their arithmetic fluency test performance, and differences between these achievement groups were analyzed. In group comparison it was found out that mathematical learning difficulty group and at risk for mathematical learning difficulty group differed from children with average or above performance, but not from each other in mathematical problem solving skills. These results indicate that difficulties in mathematical problem solving skills might result from difficulties in arithmetic fluency. This study extends previous findings that mathematical word problems are difficult for children with mathematical learning difficulties, and this applies to mathematical problem solving tasks as well.
  • Front, Sanna-Kaisa (2019)
    Everyday racism is a term used about racism in common social situations, which results in racial oppression. Previous studies have found that everyday racism is difficult to detect, and that people may unconsciously produce racism and thus maintain a hierarchical race system. Everyday racism can be categorized into (a) antilocution, (b) naming, (c) offensive gestures, expressions and gazes, (d) avoidance, (e) discrimination and isolation, and (f) physical attack (Puuronen, 2011). Institutional racism is also a part of everyday racism. Different institutional processes maintain the inequality of minority group members, which reflects on everyday racism and vice versa. This Master's thesis is a qualitative and quantitative study. Its purpose is to find out what kind of everyday racism was present in kindergartens during the term of 2017-2018 and how it has been intervened. The study was divided into three parts; everyday racism faced by workers or trainees and families who have an immigrant background and intervention on racism. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the different forms of everyday racism in the work community and the culture of early childhood education. Thirty-two Finnish teachers of early childhood education participated in the study. The material was collected through an electronic questionnaire. Theoretical content analysis was used as the analysis method. The analysis utilized the everyday racism classification created by Puuronen (2011) to create categories from the data. The majority of the respondents, 84% had reported everyday racism in kindergartens. The most common forms of everyday racism were antilocution, naming, and avoidance. Institutional racism occurs unequal practices, which resulted in the exclusion of migrant-background families and workers outside the kindergarten community. Lack of time, limited resources and a stressed working community sustained racist practice. 28% of Finnish teachers in early childhood education had interfered in employee’s racist acts. The interventions included note taking, correcting misconceptions, holding meetings, and talking to the kindergarten’s supevisors.
  • Aspholm, Laura (2020)
    Man has lived in space for 20 years. The importance of housing and living in space to man has been viewed as physiological and psychological changes, such as from the perspectives of nutrition, stress tolerance, or muscle endurance, but not from the perspective of everyday life. While astronauts are on expedition their main job is scientific research. However, the station is inhabited and lived for long periods of time, eating, hygiene and spending time with colleagues. The purpose of this study is to look at living and everyday life at the station from the perspective of home economics. The study has looked at videos produced on the ISS International Space Station, which can be found on YouTube’s video service. The selection criteria for the videos were that they highlight housing, everyday life and household activities. The material has been analysed by thematising and classifying the situations that have occurred in the videos according to living, everyday practices and household activities. The material was examined from the perspective of how housing is organized and how everyday life and household functions come into play in a non-home environment. According to the study, living in the station and in use of the premises, features and functions can be perceived that are related to home environments. Astronauts live in very small spaces, so versatility is necessary. Defining the ISS space station as a household is challenging, but with certain criteria this can be done, as everyday routines and household activities can be identified in that form of housing and living. Astronauts have a very regular everyday life with rhythms. In the morning, they wash up and eat breakfast. This is followed by the start of the working day with changing tasks or scientific experiments. The content of the working day also includes daily fitness. Astronauts have at least three meals a day and they are communal situations. In the evening, the crew has free time. They can contact the family, read a book, or just look at the globe spinning below from the window. Doing everyday activities with microgravity makes them a new kind of challenge and, on the other hand, fun to perform.
  • Pettersson, Catarina (2019)
    Aim. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a neuropsychiatric disorder in medicine. In the field of sociology on the other hand the diagnosis is questioned through medicalization critique and seen as medicalization of human behaviour. Still, the everyday life of families that are effected by ADHD is not defined by such theoretical models or simplifications. The aim of this study was to describe, analyze and interpret the narratives of everyday life of diagnosed children and the mothers to find out, what explanatory models they cling to in their stories, how they describe meaningful experiences and what deeper meanings are hidden in the stories told. This study describes the everyday life in families with ADHD, and the struggles and strengths they experience, as narrated by themselves. This helps increase the knowledge of teachers of how to support and undrestand their students and their needs better, by not only looking at the indivual, but also understanding the meanig of the context of the whole family for the well-being of the child. Methodology. The study was carried out as a narrative case-study. Three families (child and mother) were interviewed, where the children, ages 6, 10 and 16, had been diagnosed with or were suspected of having ADHD. The interviews were conducted separately for each individual. Also medical certificates and documents from the school were used to complement the interviews and for background information. The material was analyzed by utilizing the actant model, where actants (action and deep meanings) were localized in the stories of the individuals and the families. Results and conclusions. The study found, that the families strongly depended on medical explanations in explaining etiology, struggles and symptoms and in attaining support from the school. Everyday life was described as tough, filled with worry, but still loving and wonderful. The results depict how demanding life can be in a family where the child has been diagnosed with ADHD, and the great need for the family to be heard. Symptoms, conflicts and worry for the child are a weight to the family and a risk for it’s well-being. Therefore knowledge of the multifaceted phenomenon and the understanding of teachers is a major factor in giving students appropriate support.
  • Laukkanen, Marilla (2019)
    Objectives. The objective of this study is to determine the opportunities and challenges regarding customer-inspired teaching entities in handicrafts in comprehensive school, in which the students design and make crafts for someone other than himself or herself. These customer-inspired teaching entities are a timely research topic, as in our individualism centered culture it is more important than ever to teach children and youth to consider the opinions and feelings of others. These teaching entities are strongly linked to user-inspired design, which is increasingly used in the development of products and services. The research questions are: 1. How have customer-inspired teaching entities been implemented in handicrafts in comprehensive school? 2. What challenges do customer-inspired teaching entities face? 3. Why are customer-inspired teaching entities used? Methods. This study was carried out as a survey utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods. The research material was collected from comprehensive school handicraft teachers using an electronic questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. 45 handicraft teachers completed the survey. The closed questions were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS. The answers to the open questions were analyzed using different sorts of content analyses. Results and conclusions. It seems that there are usually no more than three customer-inspired teaching entities in a school year, and they account for under 20 % of all handicraft’s teaching entities. Students had made handicrafts mostly to their family members or other relatives and acquaintances or the school itself. Customer’s participation to the design process of the product varied, but participation to the assessment was less common. Sometimes students had designed and made products as a group, but this was rather rare. The biggest challenges were motivating the students, their low skill levels and lack of time. Customer-inspired teaching entities were seen particularly fit for teaching collaboration, interaction and design skills, as well as for teaching empathy and to take others into account. Most respondents held it important to utilize customer-inspired teaching entities in handicrafts in comprehensive school.
  • Hannula, Sandra (2019)
    Research shows that motivation is an important part of mathematics learning. Without motivation to learn math, learning outcomes would be significantly worse. The purpose of the study is to find out what the motivation factors are during the mathematics lessons for grades five and six. Since previous studies also show that the teacher has a central role in creating and maintaining the motivation for mathematics, the teacher's significance for the motivation is also examined in this study. In the survey, 28 pupils from grade five and 24 pupils from grade six participated. In total, 52 pupils from three different schools in Itä-uusimaa participated. The material was collected during the spring of 2019. The survey is mainly quantitative where the material was collected through a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two open questions, which were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. According to the results, the students were motivated during the mathematics lessons, they perceived mathematics as important and useful. The biggest motivating factor was the teacher's activity, where the students mentioned that a good mathematics teacher is kind, happy and helpful and has good subject and educational skills. A student with high internal goal orientation experiences the mathematics lessons as meaningful. High internal goal orientation was also associated with high values of one's own mathematical skills. The differences between the sexes and the grades were small.
  • Häkkinen, Milla Susanna (2019)
    The purpose of the study is to highlight the processes of autism spectrum disorder’s social construction and to construe reality in behalf of more equal and free society. This thesis targets the theoretical framework of social constructionism to specific social contexts that illustrate autism spectrum disorder through real life experience. Material used in this thesis is published by the Finnish Association for Autism as a part of their 100 autisms campaign. Material is interpreted as a political statement by the Finnish Association for Autism that aims to advance positive knowledge of autism spectrum disorder. Analysis of this study is conducted with discourse analysis using Erving Goffman’s sociological perspective to interaction and theory on facework. The theoretical framework of social constructionism showed the social construction of autism spectrum disorder through language based meanings that gave the phenomenon its construed essence. As an element of social interaction autism spectrum disorder was to explain and help, but also something that brought both challenge and joy to other participants of interaction. Autism spectrum disorder was found to be an unnecessary element in certain circumstances.
  • Harkko, Sari (2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Goals. The process of apparel making comprises different levels of thinking: sketching of an idea is abstract thinking that takes its two-dimensional shape in a design. Cutting out the plane material requires also two-dimensional patterns. The final step is producing a three-dimensional garment. Transforming an idea into a ready product requires, at each stage of the process, spatial visualization aptitude. The focus of this study is to research variation at two- and three-dimensional levels in apparel making process, and to add information on the role of spatial visualization in the working process. The purpose of this study is to find out what kind of decisions the pupil makes in sketching and making an item of clothing. It is also interesting to find out how the pupil’s spatial visualization aptitude is revealed in designing and making an item of clothing. Methods. This multi-method case study was performed in a craft class on the seventh grade (age 13-14) in the comprehensive school. The pupil’s spatial vizualization aptitude was measured with the traditional cubic test and with an apparel spatial visualization test that was specially modified for this study. In addition, each pupil was required to assess her performance in designing and sewing her own item of clothing. The multi-method study consisted of three stages: charting of working stages of each pupil, a two-part spatial visualization test, and self-assessment of each pupil. The results were analyzed by statistical methods and also by qualitative methods. Results and conclusions. The traditional cubic test proved to be more difficult for the pupils than the apparel pattern and design test. The test results supported the study hypothesis, i.e. the success in the traditional cubic test correlated positively with the success in the pattern and design test. Although the pupils had no previous experience in apparel making they were able to choose the correct patterns with no significant variation. The tests proved to be worked out applicable to the target group, and they fulfilled the main objective of the study by yielding information on varying forms of spatial visualization in a heterogenic craft group of seventh-form pupils. Although the small material (n16) is not statistically significant the result of the study can be considered to be indicative.
  • Carpentier, Carola (2020)
    Purpose. Around 3-15% of all pupils have dyslexia. According to the core curriculum, student assessment should be conducted in a comprehensive way, considering students’ individual difficulties. However, assessment instructions might be considered vague. Earlier studies have also shown that teachers may perceive assessment as complicated, particularly when it comes to students with special needs. The purpose of the study is to describe, analyze and interpret how secondary school teachers experience assessment and grading of pupils with dyslexia. The purpose is also to explore how pupils are enabled to show their knowledge in an adequate way. Furthermore, teachers’ perceptions of assessment fairness with regard to pupils with dyslexia are discussed. Methods. The research was conducted as a qualitative study with a phenomenographic research approach. The material consists of eight semi-structured, individual interviews with teachers working in two Swedish-speaking secondary schools i Finland. The collected material was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results and conclusions. Teachers expressed a genuine will to support pupils with dyslexia and they stated that they could assess pupils in a flexible way. Cooperation with special education teachers was perceived as important. The versatility of the core curriculum was regarded as an advantage for students with dyslexia. The most used accommodations were oral responses, extended time and test writing in a small group. Double assessment, prioritized content and adapted tests were also used, but teachers had different approaches. A student’s positive lesson activity could lead to a better grade. Language teachers struggled with the assessment of misspelled words. IT software was not widely used. The teachers stated that they did their best to take students’ difficulties into consideration when giving them grades, and they normally also thought their assessment was fair. The study shows that teachers do their very best to assess students with dyslexia, but there are differences in procedures between teachers, which might lead to unequal assessment.
  • Lindén, Maria (2020)
    The stiffened cap has a paper frame, which is usually covered with silk fabric. The cap includes a ribbon bow and a lace trim. Caps with such a lace trim are called styckemössa in Swedish and tykkimyssy in Finnish. The aim of the study was to evaluate the of stiffened caps at the Brage costumes museum and to deepen the knowledge of the manufacture and use of caps by peasant women in the 18th and 19th centuries. The aim was to gain additional knowledge about the caps specifically in the Finland-Swedish costume culture, as well as new information on materials and the manufacture of stiffened caps in general and specifically about metal embroidered caps. In what way does the Brage collection of stiffened caps contribute to the overall picture of the Finland-Swedish peasant women's headdress? In connoisseurship analysis, the rich source material of the museum and previous knowledge were combined with practical experiments and laboratory examinations. There were 97 caps left in the collection, as well as a silk piece with gold and sequin embroidery. A significance analysis was executed based on the catalogued data and photographs. The metal embroidered fabric piece was examined by microscope and a metal analysis was conducted. The construction of the caps was examined from a craft perspective, as well as how they could be manufactured with current materials and knowledge. The cap collection opened an interesting path into the life and attire of peasant women, and above all into the importance of the stiffened cap. The collection offers a good overall picture of the development of the Finland-Swedish stiffened cap from large and heart-shaped to small with a straight front. An interesting find was nine caps from eastern Uusimaa with almost identical shape but fashioned using different fabrics. A specialty of the collection is the four caps of printed linen and the metal embroidered silk piece. The manufacture of a stiffened cap is a time-consuming craft that requires skill in everything from the manufacture of the paper frame, the embroidery and finally the mounting. The micrographs and the analysis of the metal embroidered fabric provided detailed information that was utilized in the manufacture a new cap for the Munsala traditional costume.
  • Arvola, Noora (2020)
    Dialogicality is an actual topic in pedagogical studies. Both in theoretical and ordinary speech, the term is often used as a synonym of discussion and interaction. The use of the concept, however, only seldom reveals the equivocal nature of the phenomenon. In pedagogical discourses, it is often difficult to discern the background conceptions or theories determining in each case the concept of dialogue. The aim of the present study is to address this challenge and help to clarify the situation by examining the various ways in which dialogicality has been understood in pedagogical studies in Finland in the 21st century. The research material consisted of 24 international research publications written in English. The material was first studied in relation to the notions and definitions of dialogicality put forward in them, and these were then analysed in the light of Hans-Georg Gadamer’s hermeneutical philosophy. The research questions to be answered were: 1. How is dialogicality defined in the pedagogical research in Finland during the las two decades 2. What do these conceptions reveal of the understanding of dialogicality, when related to Gadamer’s phenomenological-hermeneutical understanding of its nature? The research combines two different approaches: the material was organized with the method of systematic literature review and it was analysed through philosophical research. The study’s vantage point, and the theoretical framework directing its questioning, was constituted by the phenomenological-hermeneutical thought of Hans-Georg Gadamer. According to the results of the study, there are four central theoretical frameworks defining the research of dialogicality in the pedagogical research in Finland in the 21st century. Apparently, the studies are to a certain extent compatible with each other in their thematic content and in their descriptions of interconnected phenomena, but their ways of understanding the nature of dialogicality prove to be incommensurate. When analysed with the help of Gadamer’s hermeneutics, the research also shows itself as internally divided: the decisive differences are, firstly, whether dialogicality is understood as communication of knowledge, and secondly, whether dialogue is understood instrumentally as a method. With the help of Gadamer’s hermeneutical though, the study attempts to clarify the phenomenon of dialogue and to sharpen the required conceptual grasp and so to elaborate pedagogical research of dialogicality.