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Browsing by department "Soveltavan biologian laitos"

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  • Suomalainen, Sari (2009)
    Green areas in cities provide social, ecological, cultural and economical values. Furthermore, the effects and importance of green areas on human well-being in the context of day to day life have been investigated in previous studies. The creation of green structures, and the quality and quantity of green areas are defined at different levels of urban planning in municipalities. The aim of this research was to determine which factors influence the green area planning process. The study compared the planning processes of Tampere in Finland and Stuttgart in Germany. It also analysed the prevailing trends of the cities and the participation of inhabitants. The study utilized qualitative study methods. The material included documents, reports and laws relating to the planning processes. The themed interviews were carried out in the city offices of Tampere and Stuttgart. The results indicated that landscape and green structure planning were compulsory parts of land-use planning processes in Stuttgart, required by laws, and are applicable nation-wide in Germany. The aims of a Landscape Plan and Green Structure Plan were legalized in a Preparatory Land Use Plan and in a Local Development Plan. In Finland, Tampere had good regulations concerning green area planning, but these were not applicable throughout the whole country. The aims of the green area plans could be legalized in Local Development Plans or in Federal Building Code, but there were not as many specified symbols expressing the content of green areas than in Stuttgart (Germany). A special difference was also the compensation method and habitat network planning that influenced the planning process at many levels in Stuttgart, identifying every green space as a part of a green structure. In addition to ecological values, also city parks and gardens were developed in exhibitions and competitions throughout Germany. The aim of Landscape planning is to combine natural elements and values as part of a landscape and a green structure of every city in Finland. It would also provide ecological development. With increasing knowledge about biodiversity and importance for human well-being, different kinds of green areas in the vicinity could also become more familiar and acceptable to citizens. Resulting from this study, future recommendations would be to develop landscape planning, to include more strategic green area planning based on Land Use Act and utilize interaction with citizens. Furthermore, an understanding and consideration of the ecological and physiological aspects of the environment and the using indicators to measure the fruition of the aims should be mandatory during the co-operational planning processes in order to reach the aims.
  • Boberg, Johanna (2009)
    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic phloem colonizing bacteria-like organisms. They can cause severe growth disorders in plants and thus weaken the productivity of crop plants or even kill them. Phytoplasmas have not caused any epidemics on crop plants in Finland and thus they have been little studied. The aim of this study was to find out if plants that have phytoplasma-like symptoms are actually infected by phytoplasmas. Plants with growth disorders were collected and their DNA was extracted. Phytoplasmal DNA was multiplied from the samples using PCR with phytoplasma-specific primers P1 and P7. The products were sequenced and compared with sequences available from databases. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to show the kinship between the phytoplasmas. In this thesis X-disease phytoplasmas were found from dandelion (Taraxacum spp. Weber), scentless mayweed (Tripleurospermun inodorum Schultz Bip.), creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense L.), alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Aster yellows phytoplasma was found from one red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Data on phytoplasmas has not been published in other Nordic countries. In Lithuania phytoplasmas have been detected in several plant species such as raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), apple (Malus sp. Mill.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and several other grasses that also grow in Finland. The climate change can increase the amount of vector insects in Finland, which will most likely help phytoplasmas spread more efficiently and cause diseases also on crop plants. The import of plants from other countries may enable the spread of new vector and phytoplasma species in Finland.
  • Keskitalo, Antti (2009)
    This study was carried out to evaluate environmental impacts of greenhouse tomato production in Finland. Due to the Nordic location of the country, weather conditions do not favor it and production is very energy intensive. Emissions per 1000 kg per produced tomato was selected as functional unit. Two different production methods were selected for the study. 1. Conventional production, what is based on utilization of natural light and for production break during a coldest and darkest part of a year (November-February). 2. Year-round production, which is based on an use of artificial lightning. For information of inputs and outputs, the entrepreneurs of six different greenhouse companies, which produced only tomatoes, were interviewed. Three of them were year-round producers and three of them conventional producers. Average yields were 59,0 and 28,2 kg/m2/y respectively. All the selected three conventional producers used bio-energy for heat production. Data from interviewed companies included emissions of all the inputs, e.g. use of fuels, electricity, fertilizers, transportation and packaging material. Data from Statistical Centre of Finland (TIKE) were also used. Processed data included 16 yearround producers and 165 conventional producers, which produced only tomatoes. Average yields were 52,5 and 33,1 kg/m2/y respectively. Data included only fuel and electricity use. However, a proportion of emissions of fuel and electricity use of total emissions was more than 99 % (Interviewed conventional producers). Impacts of Finnish greenhouse tomato production on Climate change, Tropospheric ozone, Eutrophication and Acidification were calculated. Due to the very intensive energy use, based mainly on burning fossil fuels like heavy fuel oil (66%) significant CO2-emissions are caused. CO2- equivalent emissions from interviewed year-round and conventional companies and from Yearround and conventional TIKE companies were 5115, 512, 6514, and 4614 kg CO2-eq per 1000 kg of tomato respectively. There were low emissions (512 kg CO2-eq per 1000 kg of tomato) from interviewed conventional companies. The low figure is due to the use of bio-energy to provide needed heat for production. Therefore use of bio-energy is a possibility to reduce significantly emissions of Finnish greenhouse tomato production.
  • Birge, Traci (2004)
    Productivity and quality of two grazed coastal seashore meadows in Eastern Uusimaa were examined between May and July, 2002. A total of 18 1m2 sample sites divided into four separate cutting regimes were cut by hand to simulate grazing in the meadow. cutting regimes of various intensities were used to simulate the short term effects of different grazing pressures on the quality and productivity of the vascular plant forage in the meadows. Samples were dried, weighed and analysed for digestibility and composition. Digestibility analysis was carried out using in vitro digestibility analysis. A CNS- 1000 Elemental Analyzer was used to measure carbon, nitrogen and sulphur content of selected samples. The results showed that cumulative above ground phytomass productivity (AGPP) was dependent upon both biotope and cutting regime in the large (40 ha) Bosgård meadow, and that interaction betweeen these two factors was significant. The results of the smaller (<2 ha) Majvik meadow were highly variable between replicates. This variation overshadowed possible effects of biotope and cutting regime and their interaction. Quality was dependent upon both biotope and cutting regime. D-value decreased over time.
  • Deng, Xianbao (2007)
    Virusinduced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors based on tobacco rattle virus (TRV) are now widely used for characterizing the function of plant genes. However, previous TRV vectors using RNA2 to carry the targeted gene sequence had difficulties to induce gene silencing on some plant species (Gerbera hybrida etc.) due to the obstacle of RNA2 movement. To achieve efficient gene silencing in those species, it is necessary to develop new TRV vectors, in which the targeted gene will be included in TRV RNA1 and the 16K gene will be replaced. Based on TRV RNA1, two new VIGS vectors M1 and M2 were developed through deletion part of 16K gene. Another mutant 16Kstop was also constructed to carry an early terminator in the 4th codon of 16K gene. The infectivity and gene silencing efficiency of the new constructs were assessed through a series of infection experiments. It was found that the infectivity of M1 and M2 was lower than wild TRV RNA1. M1 and M2 could induce PDS gene silencing on Nicotiana benthamiana, but their gene silencing efficiency was limited as compared with previous TRV VIGS vectors in which the PDS gene fragment was contained in RNA2. We also found that the 16K gene sequence, rather than the 16K protein, was required for efficient virus movement and accumulation.
  • Aragon Obando, Erwin Manuel (2009)
    Genetic composition of Theobroma cacao L., including 60 Nicaraguan farmers accessions, was investigated using nine microsatellite (SSR) markers. Fourteen breeders accessions from Experimental Center “El Recreo”, INTA, Nicaragua, two Criollos accession from CATIE, Costa Rica, and two accessions from Ecuador were included as reference material. The average PIC value (0.78) indicated a high power of discrimination for the nine loci used. A total of 155 alleles were detected at the nine loci. The number of alleles per marker ranged from 10 to 22 with a means of 17.22 alleles per locus. A heterozygosity deficiency (HExp < HObs) was registered for all microsatellite loci. The average expected heterozygosity was=0.68 among Nicaraguan farmers accessions. The Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a low level of differentiation among populations. The genetic distances determined for the groups of farmers accessions RAAS and Pacifico Sur are closely similar, while a great genetic distance was observed between RAAN and RAAS groups. The cluster analysis presented a strong genetic relation between the Criollo 13 from CATIE and farmers accession MAT0404. The principal component analysis showed that 7 farmers accession from Nicaragua are genetically related with the accessions Criollo 13 and Yucatan from the international accessions. The present study suggested a good possibility to select farmers accessions to be included in breeding programs, especially those accessions related to know Criollo accessions.
  • Koskela, Elli (2009)
    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is the most important berry crop cultivated in Finland. Due to the species' economic importance, there is a national breeding programme aimed at extending the cropping season from the current one month to up to three months. This could be achieved by growing cultivars which would initiate flowers throughout the summer months, without the requirement of a period of short days as is the case with currently grown cultivars. The cultivated strawberry is an octoploid and therefore has complex patterns of inheritance. It is desirable to study the genetic mechanisms of flowering in the closely related but diploid species F. vesca (L). In the diploid Fragaria, a mutation in a single locus, namely the SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS (Sfl), changes the flowering phenotype from seasonal to perpetual flowering. There is also an array of genetic tools available for F. vesca, which facilitate genetic studies at molecular level. Experiments described here aimed at elucidating the identity of the gene which confers perpetual flowering in F. vesca by exploring the flowering characteristics and genotypes of five F2 populations (crosses between seasonal × perpetual flowering cultivars). The study took advantage of a genetic map for diploid Fragaria, publicly available EST and genomic Fragaria sequences and a recently developed BAC library. Sequence information was used for designing gene–specific primers for a host of flowering–related candidate genes, which were subsequently mapped on the diploid Fragaria genetic map. BAC library was screened with molecular markers supposedly located close to the Sfl, with the aim of positionally cloning the Sfl. Segregation of flowering phenotypes in the five F2 populations showed, that the Sfl indeed controls flowering in all the tested cultivars. A genetic map was constructed of the chromosome with the Sfl, and a positional cloning attempt was initiated with the closest flanking markers. 45 gene–specific primers pairs were designed for 21 flowering–related genes, and eight genes were successfully mapped on the diploid Fragaria map. One of the mapped genes, namely PRR7, located very close to the Sfl, and is a potential candidate for the gene that has evaded identification so far.
  • Jiménez Caldera, Oswalt Rafael (2009)
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important crops in Nicaraguan agriculture. Bean production is carried out on small scale farms, where farmers generally lack key inputs. Seeds have been identified as the most critical input in bean production. For this reason, national seed program will be a priority during next ten years. Among the four main seed quality components, genetic component has been the least studied. The occurrence of offtype seeds and plants in the cultivar ‘INTA ROJO’ during seed production has hindered the seed certification process and questioned the genetic quality of the cultivars produced in Nicaragua. The present study aimed to compare the genetic composition of different seed categories in the cultivar ‘INTA ROJO’, and to confirm the genetic identity of offtype seeds and plants found in this cultivar. The genotype frequencies of fourty individuals were analyzed using ten microsatellite markers in the following seed categories: Breeder’s seed, foundation seed, registered seed and certified seed. The genotype frequencies were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, where breeder’s seed was assigned as a reference population. Additionally, twenty offtype seeds and plants, among them the offtype seeds known as “frijol viterra” and “frijol rojo oscuro”, were contrasted with breeder’s seed through pairwise comparisons of genetic distances. The results suggest that changes in genotype frequencies take place during seed production and they are ascribed to the selection pressures caused by environmental differences among production regions and inadequate varietal depuration procedures during seed production. In addition, the offtypes denominated “frijol rojo oscuro” were identified as an unknown cultivar probably derived from natural segregations, mutations and out-crossing among bean seed lots, and in less degree from accidental seed mixtures. In contrast, “frijol viterra” was confirmed to be the same cultivar ‘INTA ROJO’. Its differences in seed weights were associated rather to environmental effects than to genotypic ones. The seed technology implications of these findings and further perspectives are discussed.
  • Temmes, Outi (2008)
    It is known that there are many unique and old plant varieties in the green areas of Helsinki. Especially city gardener Bengt Schalin has been known for his love towards flowering shrubs and trees. During his time (1946-57) many plantations of new and interesting varieties took place. The city of Helsinki has nowadays realised the value of those old plants and has taken part to KESKAS-research at 1980’s. Later during Helsinki KESKAS-project seven crab apples (Malus) were selected for propagation. The purpose of this research was to find hardy and beautiful old crab apple trees among the population found in the parks of Helsinki, and also to find out what species, clones or varieties they represent on the grounds of their morphological marks. The seven tree varieties previously chosen for propagation also needed precise descriptions to avoid name confusions in the market. They were also compared to the rest of the crab apple population to see if they really are unique. Observations were made in summer 2006 and during flowering time 30 trees all over Helsinki were selected for a closer study. 13 characteristics were observed from the flowers, 12 from the leaves and 10 from the fruits. In addition to measured traits a broad collection of photographs was taken to help later comparisons. Descriptions of all research trees were made on the grounds of observations. 24 trees had red flowers, one had red buds which opened to almost white flowers and five had white flowers. Semidouble or double flowers could be found from five trees, and one of them had white flowers. The trees were also grouped on the grounds of their flowers size, fruit size and the remaining of calyx. Hierarchical cluster analysis was also used to help grouping. A couple of the research trees could be categorised as the same species, clones or varieties. Grouping was backed up with the help of ?2-test and comparing the standard deviations of the groups. Species or variety name suggestions for 14 trees were found and two trees were assumed to have the same species in their genotype. However reliable naming could not be done because the descriptions found in the literature were so inaccurate.
  • Marley, Laura (2009)
    The black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) is an inscrutable mushroom. It is widely believed that the physico-chemical properties of a soil are of great importance for it. Its cultivation in the Auvergne region in France is fraught with impediments. Gérard Chevalier (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) postulates that soils with higher than 40% clay content would be inauspicious, unless moderated by a compensating effect from increased rock fragments content. The work undertaken should substantiate this hypothesis, and furthermore take inventory of the mycorrhizal status of the 25 truffle orchards, some of which are thirty years old. The results show that 50% of the plantations still house Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizae. Statistical analysis of the collected information vis-à-vis soil analyses and interpretations of soil profiles in relation to production, shows that a high clay content diminishes the chances of success. The results attained are not sufficient to assert the compensatory effect of soil stoniness. This study moreover highlights the significant roles of total carbonate, active carbonate, phosphorus and potassium contents. These results should be considered with caution, since the small size sample consists of “instances” with heterogeneous characteristics, and the soil analysis methodology does not take into account various environmental factors, whose impact could well be significant (for example light conditions in the orchards). Despite these limitations, this study conveys a dual adage, both scientific and technical. For researchers, it brings some additional insights. For those who wish to produce Tuber melanosporum, it confirms an existing potential in Auvergne. By and large, it illuminates the murky manifest countenance of the black truffle.
  • Nykyri, Johanna (2008)
    Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a bacterium that is a causative agent of blackleg and soft rot of potatoes at temperate climate zone. The genome of P. atrosepticum was sequenced at 2004. Sequence revealed six vgrG genes, and five of them are predicted to encode for proteins having uncharacterized function. VgrG proteins are found to be secreted by a novel secretion system called type VI secretion. They are also suggested to be a part of the type VI secretion translocon. VgrG proteins are presumed to be cytotoxic to the hosts of pathogenic bacteria. A mutation in a vgrG gene attenuates virulence of a few human and animal pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to find out the affect of vgrG genes to the virulence of P. atrosepticum. In this study, transcription of vgrG genes of P. atrosepticum was measured by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. P. atrosepticum was grown in a virulence gene inducing conditions. Most active vgrG genes were deleted by Red recombinase using method. Each mutant strain carried deletion in one of the active vgrG genes. Virulence of the mutant strains was assessed on potato tubers, according to their ability to rot tissue. Three vgrG genes were induced in bacteria when they grew in the host tissue. vgrG genes were most active in samples, which were taken from stems 96 hours after inoculation. One mutant strain was slightly more virulent (P = 0,0077). Two strains were slightly less virulent, but results were not statistically significant (P > 0,05). According to the profile of transcription, vgrG genes might be novel virulence genes. However, virulence essays did not support that possibility. In fact, one of the mutations increased the virulence of P. atrosepticum. It is possible that other vgrG genes cover the function of the deleted gene. There is no clear evidence that vgrG genes or the type VI secretion are novel virulence determinants of P. atrosepticum. Perhaps they have some other function in the active stage of the infection. Example, they might protect P. atrosepticum from competitive microbes in the rotten potato tissue.
  • Laaksoharju, Taina (2008)
    This masters thesis examines ten year old student’s relationship to plants and growing them. Second aim for this study was to evaluate classroom garden project “Fruit bomb” if it is suitable for education for sustainability. Comparisons were made between boys and girls and between urban (n=42 Helsinki) and rural children ( n=34 Paltamo, Kainuu) focusing their child-plant relationship. Comparison group from Paltamo took part only to the pre inquiry. The study took place during the spring 2006. The research was done by using qualitative methods. First, children were observed during the teaching. Second, a questionnaire was held before and after the plant growing project. Finally both children and teachers took part in themed interviews. The data was analyzed by using triangulation method which means the use of different analyses methods in the same study. The data was analyzed statistically with SPSS programmed cross tabulation Chi-Square ?2 tests (comparisons between boys/girls, rural/urban, before/after education). The program was also analysed inductively in order to understand children’s perceptions about plants in their lives. The plant growing project “Fruit bomb” itself was evaluated basing on children’s feedback and by using two theoretical models. One of the models used is known as the sustainable development triangle: ecological, economical and social-cultural dimension. The different parts of the educational project were classified to these dimensions. The other model used was J. Palmer´s tree model, the best known environmental education model. Educational activities were evaluated based on how well they correspond to the demands of the models. The results show some clear differences in the child-plant relationship between girls and boys and between rural and urban children. For girls, the beauty and joy of plants is important whereas the boys appreciate plants as a source of life. To grow plants from seeds was pleasurable but unfamiliar. However children became inspired and started their own growing experiments. Girls were more interested in plants than boys. Rural children seemed to have more activities with vegetation during their spare time, and they also recognised more tree species than urban kids. The rural children considered people to be part of the nature whereas 24 % of the urban children disagreed. The results show that growing plants in the classroom can be used as an introduction to the themes of sustainable education but acting for the environment (as in Palmer´s tree model) comes true only if the children’s immediate surroundings are included. Nurturing child-plant relationship in school may nevertheless be important for the child´s normal growth and for the formation of environmental friendly values.
  • Kivelä, Jukka (2007)
    A considerable part of nutrients in the food chain ends up being slaughter by-products. By-products amount to one third of materials processed in slaughterhouses and they are the raw material for meat and bone meal (MBM). For many decades meat and bone meal was fed to domestic animals. Meat and bone meal has also been used as raw material for various processes in technical, chemical and food industry. It is still used in making soap and oleo chemicals. The BSE-crises has been the most severe risk for the safety in the European food system since the Second World War. Subsequent to BSE-crises the usage of MBM as animal feed, as well as the processing in many industrial branches, was legally prohibited in EU area in the end of 2001. MBM contains appreciable amounts of nutrients and it had been used as fertilizer hundreds of years. Therefore, and due to the fact that EU had in 2002 permitted use of MBM as fertilizer, the interest of farmers and researchers did already exist. In year 2002 the working group of the Finnish Ministry of agriculture and forestry issued a report, where the use of MBM as fertilizer was emphasized. The Finnish MBM contains 8-9% nitrogen, 5-6% phosphorus and 12-13% calcium as well as about 50% organic substances. MBM contains also microelements and its C/N ratio is rather low, about 3, 5. The low C/N ratio indicates that nutrients of MBM are quite quickly useable for plants. MBM as a fertilizer can also mineralize nutrients from storages in the soil. MBM contains relatively much of phosphorus. The P is bounded with calcium. Therefore only a part of it is immediately usable. Approximately 26% of phosphorus is extractable by the acetic acid. Because the entire phosphorus quantity is bounded with calcium, it has been shown that the fertilizing effect of MBM phosphorus lasts for 3-5 years. For that reason MBM could be a high-quality fertilizer for organic farming. Circulation of nutrients and organic materials are the basic of agroecology systems. The field experiments have given evidence of the fertility effect of MBM. In favourable conditions MBM has given a nitrogen effect, which is about 70-80% of the comparable chemical fertilizers. In Swedish tests MBM showed good N efficiency and has been used as fertilizer for many years in organic farming. In Germany MBM is used as phosphorus fertilizer for conventional sugar beet farming. The Agrifood Research Center's Kannus station in Finland conducted a field experiment in 2000 to 2003. MBM and conventional industrial fertilizer (Kemira's Y3® 20N-3P-9K) were compared. Both fertilizers were used at levels of 60, 90 and 120 kg total nitrogen per hectare. Oats was sown in the third week of April every year. Herbicides were applied as conventionally. The soil was silty loam and had a quite low fertility, pH being 5,4. After 3 years of fertilizing, there was a year without fertilization: in this fourth year it was shown, how large after-effect the three years of fertilization would bring. Fertilization effect of MBM was 96 % of the chemical fertilizers under three years in this field experiment. Fertilization effect in year when there was no fertilization, was 24 % higher after MBM than after chemical fertilizers. This experiment showed that MBM is good fertilizer at least for organic farming, where that high amount of phosphorus is not a big problem. It is concluded that fertilizer use of MBM should be developed further and encouraged in Finnish farming.
  • Karvonen, Juha (2008)
    Experiments with outdoor viticulture were started in Southeast and Southwest Finland in the 1930s. Our rather short growing season and lack of suitable varieties have hindered professional extensive outdoor viticulture. The grapevine varieties bred for northern conditions and the forecasted prolongation of our growing season will likely lead to viticulture in Southern Finland within the next few decades. Soil temperature has an important influence on the survival and growth of the grapevine. Soil temperature is affected by air temperature, cultivation site, soil cultivation, vegetation, soil type and wintertime snow cover. The aim of my Master`s thesis was to measure soil temperatures of grapevine sites and, based on the reults, to estimate the optimal planting depth of a grapevine in Southern Finland. The effect of changes in air and soil temperatures on grapevine growth and development in Tuusula, Vehmersalmi and some Central European localities was also followed. Measurements revealed that soil temperature was at its lowest in March, when in Tuusula at a depth of 20 cm it decreased to -0.7ºC and at a depth of 60 cm to 2.0ºC. Compared with soil temperatures measured by the Finnish Meteorological Institute in other localities, the temperatures at a depth of 20 cm in Maaninka fell to -0.8ºC, in Juva to -0.3ºC and in Jokioinen to -1.6ºC and at a depth of 50 cm in Maaninka to 0.0ºC and in Jokioinen to -0.3ºC. In Tuusula, the annual average soil temperatures at a depth of 20 cm was 6.0ºC and at a depth of 60 cm 7.9ºC. In regression analysis, strong correlations (r2 = 0,497 - 0,684) were obtained between air temperatures measured at grapevine sites at a heigth of 150 cm, ground surface temperatures and soil temperatures measured at a depth of 20-60 cm. In the winter months of December, January, March and April, when the snow cover remained thin, the correlation between snow cover and soil temperatures was weak. The soil temperature during the coldest winter month at a depth of 20 cm fell to slightly below 0.0ºC, at a depth of 40 cm it remained at about 0ºC and at a depth of 60 cm it remained at 2ºC. Based on this, the depth of 40-60 cm can be regarded as the optimal planting depth for grapevines in Southern and Eastern Finland. At this depth, the freezing risk for roots in winter is minor, and in spring solar radiation quickly raises the soil temperature. In 2002-2007, the grapevine growing season had begun in Tuusula as a weeping at the earliest on April 24th. The buds began to swell and break earliest on May 1st. The flowering began earliest on June 16th and lasted for about two weeks. The earliest harvest began on September 14th. From the start of flowering to the start of harvest, the time elapsed was 75-92 days. Growth slackened as the soil temperatures fell and ceased altogether in September. In Central Europe, the weeping of the grapevines starts because of higher air and soil temperatures a couple of months earlier than in Southern Finland, but the flowering begins no more than one month and the harvest only 2-3 weeks earlier. The quicker growth and development in the north can be explained by the quicker warming of the air and soil, the longer days and the abundant supply of light in early summer.
  • Kousa, Matti (2008)
    Meadow fescue is a perennial forage grass and it belongs to the Poaceae-family. Fescues are cultivated for feed for domestic animals such as cattle or horses. Usually meadow fescue is cultivated in a mixed sward and therefore it is the second most cultivated forage grass after timothy in Finland. Meadow fescue has a good ability to recover after cutting. It also tolerates lower stubble height, more frequent cutting and more intense grazing than timothy. However, the quality of forage is not as good as the quality of timothy. Meadow fescue is also sensitive to drought. In 2005, there were 612 000 ha of perennial grasslands in Finland. In Finland, the seed production area of meadow fescue was 1 510 hectares in 2006. The average seed yield in 1983-2006 was 460 kg of certified seed per hectare. It has been observed that seed yields of meadow fescue have decreased in Finland during the past 10-15 years. Similar observations were made also in Norway. It is hypothesized that the decrease in seed yield is due to forage orientated plant breeding. This might have resulted in good quality, highly productive forage grasses on the cost of traits most effective in seed formation. Low seed yields of the fescues are more than likely to depress farmers’ interest in production of fescue seeds which may lead to shortage of locally produced seed. Locally produced seed improves the winter survival and canopy formation of forage grasses and thus it is the basis of successful forage production. The field experiment was carried out at the University of Helsinki, Viikki Experimental Farm to compare differences in seed formation traits between the old cultivar, Kalevi and the new cultivar, Fure. Total dry matter accumulation, forage quality, number of flowers per panicle and accumulation of dry matter in spikelets were determined during the summer 2006. Seed yield was harvested and number of tillers, panicles and seeds were counted. Also the dry matter of straw, leaves, panicles and seeds were determined as well as seed yield, seed weight and germination percentage. Leaf dry weight of the new cultivar, Fure, was higher than leaf weight of the old cultivar, Kalevi. However, the panicle weight of Kalevi was higher than that of Fure. Even though Kalevi produced more tillers than Fure, in Fure a larger proportion of tillers remained at the vegetative stage. Kalevi also produced more panicles than Fure though the panicles of Fure had more florets and seeds. In both cultivars 20 % of florets were aborted. Thousand seed weight of Kalevi was higher than that of Fure. There was not significant difference in seed yield which indicated that meadow fescue cultivars studied had ability to compensate changes in traits affecting the seed yield similarly to small grain cereals. Based on stepwise regression analysis increase in the tiller number of Kalevi tends to result in lower seed yield as well as increase in the seed number per panicle of Fure. Increase in plant dry matter at the stem elongation phase tends to decrease the seed yield of Fure unlike in Kalevi whose seed yield tended to increase in this case. The forage quality of meadow fescue cultivars studied differed only in the longevity of D-value (digestibility), which remained high for a longer period in Kalevi than in Fure.
  • Tujula, Anna (2009)
    Suomen tärkein viljelty marja on mansikka, jonka tuotannon eräänä ongelmana on satokauden lyhyys. Eräänä ratkaisuna tähän saattaisivat olla jatkuvasatoiset mansikkalajikkeet, joita ei Suomessa ole laajassa viljelyssä lähinnä sopivien lajikkeiden puutteen vuoksi. Mansikalla vegetatiivinen ja generatiivinen kasvu kilpailevat osittain keskenään. Jatkuvasatoisilla mansikkalajikkeilla generatiivista kehitystä ja sadon muodostumista edistää pitkä päivänpituus. Satopotentiaalia voidaan lisätä myös kemiallisilla kasvun- sääteillä. Proheksadioni-kalsium (ProCa) toimii gibberelliini-inhibiittorina edistäen juurakon haaroittumista ja siten kukkimista sekä ehkäisten rönsyjen muodostumista. Satopotentiaalia lisää myös lyhyt päivänpituus edistämällä kasvin koon kasvua. Tehdyssä tutkimuksessa testattiin kolmen jatkuvasatoisen mansikkalajikkeen (Elan, Malling Pearl ja Tango) reagointia sekä lyhyeen (12 h) että pitkään päivään (18 h) ja ProCa:an (0 ja 200 ppm). Käsittelyt suoritettiin taimikasvatuksen aikana, minkä jälkeen kasvit siirrettiin hyötöön muovitunneliin. Kasvien vegetatiivista ja generatiivista kehitystä havainnoitiin sekä taimikasvatuksen että hyödön aikana useiden vasteiden, kuten lehtien, rönsyjen, juurakon haarojen, kukintojen ja marjojen määrien, avulla. Käsittelyillä oli vaikutusta sekä vegetatiiviseen että generatiiviseen kehitykseen, mutta erot koejäsenten välillä tasoittuivat melko nopeasti. Pitkä päivä nosti Elanin ja Malling Pearl:n kukkien määrää, mutta vain ProCa:lla käsitellyillä koejäsenillä. Tangolla kukkia sen sijaan kehittyi vain lyhyenpäivän koejäseniin, se käyttäytyi meidän oloissamme siis täysin lyhyenpäivänlajikkeen tavoin. Myös ProCa lisäsi kukintojen määrää, mutta lajikkeiden välillä esiintyi vaihtelua vaikutuksen voimakkuudessa. Sekä pitkä päivä että ProCa nostivat Elanin ja Malling Pearl:n satotasoa varsinkin alkukesästä, eli sadontuotto aikaistui. ProCa nosti myös Tangolla sekä aikaisen että kokonaissadon määrää. Tutkimus osoitti mahdollisuuden mansikan sadon aikaistamiseen ja sen määrän nostoon jatkuvasatoisten lajikkeiden avulla, jos niiden potentiaalia pystyttäisiin täysin hyödyntämään. Lisätutkimusta tarvitaan kuitenkin edelleen sopivien lajikkeiden ja viljelytekniikoiden kehittämiseksi.Strawberry is the most important cultivated berry in Finland but one of the problems of cultivation is shortness of the harvesting period. Everbearing strawberry cultivars could provide an alternative to extend the period. However, these are not yet broadly cultivated in Finland mainly due to the lack of suitable cultivars. The vegetative and generative growth of strawberry partly compete with each other. Generative growth and yield formation in everbearing strawberries is enhanced by long day length. Yield potential can also be increased by using chemical growth regulators, like prohexadione-calcium (ProCa). This inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis enhances crown branching and flowering, and prevents runner formation. Yield potential can also be thought to increase by short day length through increasing plant size. In this study, the effect of short (12 h) and long (18 h) day length as well as ProCa (0 and 200 ppm) on the growth of three everbearing strawberry cultivars (Elan, Malling Pearl and Tango) were tested. The treatments were carried out during plant propagation after which the plants were moved to a plastic tunnel for forcing. Vegetative and generative development of the plants were observed during both plant propagation and forcing by measuring several variables, such as number of leaves, runners, crown branches, flowers and berries. The treatments affected both vegetative and generative development. Long day increased the number of flowers on Elan and Malling Pearl, but only on ProCa treated plants. Flowering of Tango on the other hand was only induced in the short day length. Thus, in our conditions, it behaved as a short day cultivar. ProCa also increased the number of flowers, but there were some differences between the cultivars in the strength of the effect. Both long day length and ProCa increased the yield of Elan and Malling Pearl especially in the early summer, thus advancing the start of fruiting. ProCa also increased both early and total yield of Tango. This study showed the possibility of advancing and increasing strawberry yield through everbearing cultivars if their potential could be fully utilised. Further research is however necessary in order to develop suitable cultivars and cultivation methods for our growing conditions.
  • Lavonen, Tanja (2008)
    Weeds cause hard surfaces and pavements in cities to break down more quickly than they naturally would. Weed control on hard surfaces is mainly based on herbicides, of which glyphosate is the most effective and also most widely used. However, the use of glyphosate on paved areas has been restricted in some countries because of the risk of leaching in to groundwater and watercourse. Alternative methods for weed control on urban areas include mechanical, physical and biological methods and natural product herbicides. Many of the physical methods are based on thermal effect, and the most suitable on hard surfaces are flaming, hot water and hot steam. Vinegar is an alternative herbicide that is commonly in use. Oils have been used as adjuvants in herbicides, but many plant originated oils have phytotoxic effects of their own. Herbicides based on vegetable oils are available in several countries. Steaming and vinegar were tested on hard surface weed control during three growing seasons 2005-2007. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether steaming and vinegar have an effect on the number of weeds on hard surfaces, and how many applications are required to provide adequate control. The aim of the greenhouse experiment was to compare the effects of 12 % vinegar and different concentrations of pine oil and birch oil distillate on two weed species in two different developmental stages. The aim of the third experiment was to test pine oil, birch oil distillate and vinegar for weed control in practice on the bases of ornamental trees. The experiment was carried out during summer 2007. Vinegar and steaming controlled vegetation on hard surfaces, and the best result was obtained by three applications during one growing season. In this experiment vinegar provided better control than steaming. The greenhouse experiment proved the largest concentrations of pine oil and birch oil distillate to control weeds as well as or even better than vinegar. In the field experiment birch oil distillate and pine oil were slightly more effective than vinegar. Reducing the use of herbicides in cities is an important task, and successful weed control requires careful planning. Herbicides should be used only when other means are insufficient.
  • Ojanperä, Taru (2008)
    The causal agents of Potato scab, S. scapies, S. turbidiscapies and S. aureofaciens spoil the quality of tubers, slow down the formation of potato seedlings, increase the number of small sized tubers and therefore can have a significant impact on the potato harvest. Sometimes the technical methods applied in the potato farming are not effective enough and there are no chemical means available to prevent potato scab. In this work the properties of selected Finnish Actinomyces-isolates were studied from the point of view of biological control. Both potato scab forming and stains that do not cause visible signs of potato scab in tubers were selected for the study. The purpose was to study the ability of the stains to inhibit the growth of potato scab bacteria in different pH-conditions. In addition the ability of Streptomyces-strains to inhibit the growth of silver scurf, stem cancer and black scurf was studied. The competitive balance between different Actinomyces and fungal strains was tested on plates. Greenhouse tests were used to study the root infesting of Actinomyces strains. Streptomyces strains inhibited each others growth. This inhibition was not linked to scab. All strains tested prevented the growth of silver scurf and ps pathogens but strains S.griseoviridis ja 16IV turned out being especially effective in preventing. All strains grew in pH-conditions 5.5-8.0. An unknown Streptomyces strain 16IV did not grow well in pH 5.5 and S. turbidiscapies which is known to persist in acidic conditions grew well also in pH 8.0. All tested strains colonized potato root. The study showed that some of the isolates had potential for future studies in biological control. More research is needed to study the root colonization and the antagonism properties of selected strains in root conditions. The causal agents of Potato scab, S. scapies, S. turbidiscapies and S. aureofaciens spoil the quality of tubers, slow down the formation of potato seedlings, increase the number of small sized tubers and therefore can have a significant impact on the potato harvest. Sometimes the technical methods applied in the potato farming are not effective enough and there are no chemical means available to prevent potato scab. In this work the properties of selected Finnish Actinomyces-isolates were studied from the point of view of biological control. Both potato scab forming and stains that do not cause visible signs of potato scab in tubers were selected for the study. The purpose was to study the ability of the stains to inhibit the growth of potato scab bacteria in different pH-conditions. In addition the ability of Streptomyces-strains to inhibit the growth of silver scurf, stem cancer and black scurf was studied. The competitive balance between different Actinomyces and fungal strains was tested on plates. Greenhouse tests were used to study the root infesting of Actinomyces strains. Streptomyces strains inhibited each others growth. This inhibition was not linked to scab. All strains tested prevented the growth of silver scurf and ps pathogens but strains S.griseoviridis ja 16IV turned out being especially effective in preventing. All strains grew in pH-conditions 5.5-8.0. An unknown Streptomyces strain 16IV did not grow well in pH 5.5 and S. turbidiscapies which is known to persist in acidic conditions grew well also in pH 8.0. All tested strains colonized potato root. The study showed that some of the isolates had potential for future studies in biological control. More research is needed to study the root colonization and the antagonism properties of selected strains in root conditions.
  • Pehkonen, Eero (2006)
    Vadelman (Rubus idaeus L.) viljelyala on kasvanut Suomessa voimakkaasti viimeisten viiden vuoden aikana. Vuonna 2005 vadelmaa viljeltiin 473 hehtaarilla. Vadelman satoindeksi on alhainen. Sen pääverso on pitkä, mikä hankaloittaa hoitotoimenpiteitä. Kasvin satoisimmat silmut ovat pääverson kärjessä, joten latvontaa ei kannata tehdä. Suomessakin haluttaisiin kehittää vadelman kasvihuonetuotantoa satokauden pidentämiseksi. Kasvihuonetuotannossa vegetatiivisen kasvun säätäminen on vielä tärkeämpää kuin avomaan viljelyssä. Proheksadioni-kalsium (ProCa) on gibberelliinisynteesi-inhibiittori, jonka on havaittu lyhentävän nivelvälejä sekä lisäävän versojen ja lehtien hiilihydraattipitoisuutta mm. omenalla (Malus domestica Borkh.). Tämän Helsingin yliopiston soveltavan biologian laitoksella toteutetun tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten ProCa vaikuttaa kahden kesävadelmalajikkeen ensimmäisen vuoden versojen vegetatiiviseen kasvuun ja edelleen sadontuottokykyyn. Tässä pro gradu -työssä tutkittiin ProCa:n vaikutusta kahden kesävadelmalajikkeen vegetatiiviseen kasvuun, satopotentiaaliin sekä versojen ja silmujen hiilihydraattipitoisuuksiin kesällä 2005 ja talvella 2006. Koetaimina oli 120 Tulameen-lajikkeen ja 150 Glen Ample -lajikkeen tainta. Taimet käsiteltiin kesäkuussa ja käsittely uusittiin osalle taimista neljän viikon kuluttua ensimmäisestä käsittelystä. Koekäsittelyitä oli neljä: ProCa 100 ppm, ProCa 200 ppm, ProCa 100 ppm + ProCa 100 ppm ja ProCa 200 ppm + ProCa 200 ppm. Kontrollikäsittelyitä oli kaksi: vesi sekä vesi + vesi. Kesän aikana havainnoitiin pääverson pituuskasvua ja nivelien määrää. Kesän kasvatuskauden päätyttyä Glen Ample -lajikkeen silmujen ja versojen liukoiset hiilihydraatit ja tärkkelys määritettiin entsymaattisesti. Kylmävarastoinnin jälkeen (71 vrk) tammikuussa 2006 taimet siirrettiin hyötöön kasvihuoneeseen. Hyödön aikana havainnoitiin silmujen puhkeamista ja kukintaa. Hyödön päättyessä hanka- ja pääversojen kuivapaino sekä hankaversojen pituus mitattiin. Kesän 2005 aikana ProCa lyhensi uusien nivelvälien pituuksia väliaikaisesti 1 4 viikon kuluttua käsittelystä. Nivelien lukumäärässä ei tapahtunut suuria muutoksia. Tulameen-lajikkeella kasvu kiihtyi käsittelyn vaikutuksen loputtua. Nivelvälien lyhentymisen takia pääverson kokonaispituus jäi kontrolliin verrattuna 35 % lyhyemmäksi Glen Ample -lajikkeella (ProCa 200 + ProCa 200) ja 14 % lyhyemmäksi Tulameen-lajikkeella samalla käsittelyllä. Myös käsittely ProCa 200 vähensi pääverson pituutta 6 % kontrolliin verrattuna Tulameen-lajikkeella. ProCa-käsittely lisäsi versojen ja silmujen hiilihydraattipitoisuuksia, mutta tuloksissa oli paljon hajontaa. Glen Ample -lajikkeella kaksinkertaiset käsittelyt vähensivät puhjenneiden silmujen osuutta 8 15 päivän kuluttua hyödön aloittamisesta 24 29 %, mutta käsittelyiden väliset erot tasoittuivat hyödön loppuun mennessä. Lisäksi kaksinkertaiset ProCa-käsittelyt vähensivät kukkien määrää 29 44 % 33 65 päivää hyödön alusta, mutta erot tasoittuivat hyödön loppuun mennessä. Käsittelyt eivät vaikuttaneet Tulameen-lajikkeen silmujen puhkeamiseen ja kukintaan. Satopotentiaalissa ei ollut eroa ProCa-käsittelyiden välillä kummallakaan lajikkeella. Glen Ample -lajikkeella hankaversojen kokonaismäärä väheni 27 32 % kasveilla, joita oli käsitelty kaksi kertaa ProCa:lla. Hankaversot olivat kuitenkin vastaavasti 29 43 % pidempiä. Tulameen-lajikkeella ProCa 100 -käsittely vähensi hankaversojen määrää 15 %, mutta hankaversojen pituuteen käsittelyillä ei ollut vaikutusta. Käsittelyillä ei ollut vaikutusta hankaversojen nivelvälien pituuteen kummallakaan lajikkeella. Tutkimuksen perusteella kesällä annetulla ProCa-käsittelyllä voidaan lyhentää pääverson pituutta, mutta satopotentiaaliin käsittelyllä ei ole vaikutusta. Käsittelyajankohta on kriittinen, koska kukkasilmujen kehitys näyttäisi häiriintyvän, jos ruiskutus tehdään loppukesällä.