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Browsing by department "Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI)"

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  • Gideon Neba, Shu (2013)
    This study quantified above-ground biomass affected by selective logging in the tropical rainforest of South East Cameroon and also investigated the suitability of the density of logging roads, the density of log yards as well as variables from MODIS 250 m data (Red, NIR, MIR, NDVI, EVI) in explaining above-ground biomass logged. Above-ground biomass logged was quantified using allometric equations. The surface area of logging roads and log yards were quantified and used in the determination of above-ground biomass affected by these infrastructures based on a national reference baseline value for the forest zone of Cameroon. A comparative analysis revealed that 50% of potentially exploitable commercial tree species were effectively harvested with a harvesting intensity of 0.78 trees ha-1 representing an average above-ground biomass of 3.51 Mg ha-1. The results also indicated that 5.65 Mg ha-1 of above-ground biomass was affected by logging infrastructure .i.e. 62% as compared to 38% of above-ground biomass that was logged. Correlation and regression analysis showed that the density of the logging roads explained 66% of the variation in above-ground biomass logged and 73% of the variation in above-ground biomass logged was explained by the density of the logging roads and NDVI from MODIS data. The density of log yards and the variables from MODIS data were generally weak in explaining the variation in above-ground biomass logged.
  • Shange, Bosaze Rufinga (2013)
    This research focused on sustainable community forest management and policy implications for the biosphere reserve of Luki in the DR- Congo. The purpose of this research was to find out opportunities and options to develop sustainable community forest management at the biosphere reserve of Luki. The research was conducted in the biosphere reserve of Luki located in the southwest of DR- Congo. The human activities threat the biosphere reserve of Luki to be under significant pressure of unsustainable management. The research revealed a number of options and opportunities to establish sustainable community forest management and policies needed to sustain forest ecosystem in the biosphere of Luki. The research uses a qualitative research methods, both primary and secondary data were collected during field work in 2010 through interviews and other various participatory methods. The interviewee includes different local forestry authorities and local community. The results of the research showed that, sustainable community forest management cannot be established in an environment where no effective policy instruments or law enforcement being in place. The results show that, due to political conditions in DR- Congo, the government has not been able to put certain measure to resolve tenure rights. This has remained a difficult issue and challenge that the government has not been able to find an immediate solution. The research recommends the need to develop a sustainable community forest management at the biosphere reserve of Luki. The government needs to clarify the forest code by clearly stating what government wants to do with its vast forest resources, especially in regard to the forest dependent people. A policy framework should be put in place as soon as possible in order for forest institutions to be able to function. The management strategy should be an inclusive process in order to promote equity and multiple use of forest resource at local community level.
  • Kiianmaa, Sampsa (2005)
    Establishment of Pinus kesiya Roy. ex Gord. plantations in Thailand began in the 1960s by the Royal Forest Department. The aim was to reforest abandoned swidden areas and grasslands in order to reduce erosion and to produce timber and fuel wood. Today there are about 150, 000 ha of P. kesiya plantations in northern Thailand. Most of these plantations cannot be harvested due to a national logging ban. Previous studies have suggested that Pinus kesiya plantations posses a capability as a foster environment for native broadleaved tree species, but little is known about the extent of regeneration in these plantations. The general aim of the study was to clarify the extent of forest regeneration and interactions behind it in Pinus kesiya plantations of the Ping River basin, northern Thailand. Based on the results of this study and previous literature, forest management proposals were produced for the area studied. In four different pine plantation areas, a total of seven plantations were assessed using systematic data collection with clustered circular sample plots. Vegetation and environmental data were statistically analysed, so as to recognise the key factors affecting regeneration. Regeneration had occurred in all plantations studied. Regeneration of broadleaved trees was negatively affected by forest fire and canopy coverage. A high basal area of mature broadleaved trees affected the regeneration process positively. Forest fire disturbance had a strong effect also on plantation structure and species composition. Because of an unclear future forest management setting as regards forest laws in Thailand, a management system that enables various future utilisation possibilities and emphasises local participation is recommended for P. kesiya watershed platations of northern Thailand.
  • Fróis, Nadira (2010)
    Regeneration ecology, diversity of native woody species and its potential for landscape restoration was studied in the remnant natural forest at the College of Forestry and Natural Resources at Wondo Genet, Ethiopia. The type of forest is Afromontane rainforest , with many valuable tree species like Aningeria adolfi-friederici, and it is an important provider of ecological, social and economical services for the population that lives in this area. The study contains two parts, natural regeneration studies (at the natural forest) and interviews with farmers in the nearby village of the remnant patch. The objective of the first part was to investigate the floristic composition, densitiy and regeneration profiles of native woody species in the forest, paying special attention to woody species that are considered the most relevant (socio-economic). The second part provided information on woody species preferred by the farmers and on multiple uses of the adjacent natural forest, it also provided information and analysed perceptions on forest degradation. Systematic plot sampling was used in the forest inventory. Twenty square plots of 20 x 20 m were assessed, with 38 identified woody species (the total number of species was 45), representing 26 families. Of these species 61% were trees, 13% shrubs, 11% lianas and 16% species that could have both life forms. An analysis of natural regeneration of five important tree species in the natural forest showed that Aningeria adolfi-friederici had the best regeneration results. An analysis of population structure (as determined by height classes) of two commercially important woody species in the forest, Aningeria adolfi-friederici and Podocarpus falcatus, showed a marked difference: Aningeria had a typical “reversed J” frequency distribution, while Podocarpus showed very low values in all height classes. Multi dimensional scaling (MDS) was used to map the sample plots according to their similarity in species composition, using the Sørensen quantitative index, coupled with indicator species analysis .Three groups were identified with respective indicator species: Group 1 – Adhatoda schimperiana, Group 2 – Olea hochstetteri , Group 3 – Acacia senegal and Aningeria adolfi-friederici. Thirty questionnaire interviews were conducted with farmers in the village of Gotu Onoma that use the nearby remant forest patch. Their tree preferences were exotic species such as Eucalyptus globulus for construction and fuelwood and Grevillea robusta for shade and fertility. Considering forest land degradation farmers were aware of the problem and suggested that the governmental institutions address the problem by planting more Eucalyptus globulus. The natural forest seemed to have moderate levels of disturbance and it was still floristically diverse. However, the low rate of natural regeneration of Podocarpus falcatus suggested that this species is threatened and must be a priority in conservation actions. Plantations and agroforestry seem to be possible solutions for rehabilitation of the surrounding degraded lands, thereby decreasing the existent pressure in the remnant natural forest.
  • Alam, Syed Ashraful (2006)
    The study focuses on the potential roles of the brick making industries in Sudan in deforestation and greenhouse gas emission due to the consumption of biofuels. The results were based on the observation of 25 brick making industries from three administrative regions in Sudan namely, Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. The methodological approach followed the procedures outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For predicting a serious deforestation scenario, it was also assumed that all of wood use for this particular purpose is from unsustainable sources. The study revealed that the total annual quantity of fuelwood consumed by the surveyed brick making industries (25) was 2,381 t dm. Accordingly, the observed total potential deforested wood was 10,624 m3, in which the total deforested round wood was 3,664 m3 and deforested branches was 6,961 m3. The study observed that a total of 2,990 t biomass fuels (fuelwood and dung cake) consumed annually by the surveyed brick making industries for brick burning. Consequently, estimated total annual emissions of greenhouse gases were 4,832 t CO2, 21 t CH4, 184 t CO, 0.15 t N20, 5 t NOX and 3.5 t NO while the total carbon released in the atmosphere was 1,318 t. Altogether, the total annual greenhouse gases emissions from biomass fuels burning was 5,046 t; of which 4,104 t from fuelwood and 943 t from dung cake burning. According to the results, due to the consumption of fuelwood in the brick making industries (3,450 units) of Sudan, the amount of wood lost from the total growing stock of wood in forests and trees in Sudan annually would be 1,466,000 m3 encompassing 505,000 m3 round wood and 961,000 m3 branches annually. By considering all categories of biofuels (fuelwood and dung cake), it was estimated that, the total emissions from all the brick making industries of Sudan would be 663,000 t CO2, 2,900 t CH4, 25,300 t CO, 20 t N2O, 720 t NOX and 470 t NO per annum, while the total carbon released in the atmosphere would be 181,000 t annually.
  • Jaeschke, Eric (2014)
    The pocosins of the North Carolina Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) region play a vital role in controlling hydrologic patterns and determine wetland development and ecosystem structure and function. However, these low-lying, shallow water table forested watersheds have received little research attention due to the relative scarcity of long-term monitoring data, watershed delineation challenges and scarcity of unmanaged sites. Without holding anthropogenic activities constant, specific hydrological processes such as runoff generation, are difficult to describe because of drainage network influence on soil water storage. The principal goal of this study was to develop and test a water balance framework for investigating runoff characteristics and the active watershed area contributing to runoff of a managed pocosin watershed in the ACP. Using a water balance approach, the first objective was to calculate monthly and annual water balances with particular emphasis on deriving, mathematically, the area contributing to runoff. The second objective was to explore the concept of variable contributing area by converting discharge measured at the outlet to runoff using a watershed area. The watershed area needed to produce runoff values that result in closure of the water balance equation represents the variable runoff contributing area. The calculation was done for different temporal periods: monthly, seasonal, and annual and runoff contributing area values compared to the topographically defined watershed area. The results of the study indicated that water balance components were generally in good agreement and closure tended to occur at longer time scales, decreasing for shorter periods. Lack of system closure at shorter temporal scales suggested that the contributing area to runoff varied and differed from the topographically defined watershed area. Active contributing area clearly varies temporally but on average is estimated to be approximately 600 hectares. Regression predicted watershed size was smaller than expected which could have been due to the difference between measured and predicted streamflow. The extent at which the active contributing area fluctuates depends on the compounding uncertainty of water balance components.