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Browsing by discipline "Kasvintuotannon biologia (agroekologia)"

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  • Hovi, Tiina (2013)
    Finnish agriculture has faced radical changes since the mid-20th century due to intensification of agricultural production. These changes have resulted into considerable wildlife habitat loss and degradation of biodiversity. Open ditches and their boundaries are one such habitat. They were widely replaces by subsurface drainage. This thesis aims to understand the role open ditches for agricultural biodiversity; what kinds of plants live the ditch habitat and can ditches enhance agrobiodiversity? To answer these questions we surveyed the vegetation of ditch slopes and ditch banks. Both vegetation composition and species richness were studied. The survey concerns only vegetation, but it is assumed that plant species diversity supports diversity of other groups of organisms. The data was collected in summers 2008 and 2009 in Lepsämä river catchment in Southern Finland in co-operation with MYTVAS (Significance of the Finnish agri-environment support scheme for biodiversity and landscape) -project. Ditch habitat characterization was done by studying the most common species and their indicative values in the data. Also NMS-ordination graph was created. Environmental variables were analyzed too. According to the literature review ditches can have significant role in maintaining agrobiodiversity, and their existence has probably reduced biodiversity loss. However, the vegetation analysis shows that the study area was species-poor and homogenous. Probable explanations are the habitat’s humidity and high levels of nutrients alongside the dominance of few strong weed species. In order to improve ditches as wildlife habitats their quality should be enhanced. For example fertilizer and herbicide drifts should be reduced and ditch banks could be widened. Also tending the ditch habitat by cutting or grazing are highly recommendable methods to enhance biodiversity.
  • Karja, Miia (2012)
    An interdisciplinary research project The conservation of the native breeds for the social welfare and rural entrepreneurship – the background for the economical, social and cultural activities was carried out in MTT Agrifood Research Finland during the years 2004-2006. The research was done in collaboration with MTT Agrifood Research Finland, TTS Work Efficiency Institute, persons having native breeds and experts in the field of native breeds. The research was one part of Biodiversity and Monitoring Programme MOSSE partially funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. One dimension of the research was to examine the socio-cultural meaning of native breeds in productisation. The aim was to find out the social and cultural meanings of native breeds among breeders, consumers and citizens and to define the essential meanings and their dimensions relating to native breeds. Answers for the research questions were searched for example by the theme interview done for eight breeders of Finncattle and Finnsheep. Resting on material of the theme interview I have researched in this Master´s thesis, what kind of policy measures would be the most functional ones so that breeders would keep native breeds also in the future and even have more of them. I have examined these policy measures by using farmer typology, considering challenges and opportunities arousing from keeping native breeds and the dimensions of utilizing native breeds. With the help of farmer typology were found out those policy measures, targets and need for policy measures important for each farmer type for example in the situation where a breeder wanted to start with upgrading of native breed products in his farm. Examining policy measures by using challenges and opportunities of keeping native breeds and by the dimensions of utilizing native breeds, did highlight the need not only for diversified policy measures but also for collaboration between administrative and social sectors and participation of breeders when planning policy measures for the conservation of native breeds. This arises from the diverse field of keeping native breeds: native breeds are utilized in traditional agricultural production and in a hobby oriented way when living in the countryside as well. Farmers, other entrepreneurs, private persons, school farms, prison farms and other breeders do have a key position in conservation work of native breeds. They in practice do take care of breeding of these animals and maintaining live gene banks. In addition to functional policy measures, we need management of diversity of indigenous breeds based on breeders´ views and actors committed to the work.