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Browsing by discipline "Kehityspsykologia"

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  • Elo, Katja (2017)
    Goals. Earlier studies have shown that prenatal environment and/or nutrition may program diseases later in life. Over the past few years much interest has emerged on the association between prenatal vitamin D and child's later development. However, there is no earlier research on the connection between prenatal vitamin D and child's sensory processing. Sensory processing problems are common in autism spectrum disorder and previous studies have shown the possible association between prenatal vitamin D and autism spectrum disorder. The goal of this study is to examine whether prenatal vitamin D level is associated with child's sensory processing at the age of one year. Methods. This research is part of a Helsinki University Children's Vitamin D Intervention Trial Study (ViDI). This study includes mothers (n=831), whose vitamin D concentration has been measured in their early and/or late points of pregnancy and who have also filled in Sensory Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) measuring child's sensory features at one-year follow-up. Prenatal vitamin D concentration was split into quadrants and treated as a dichotomous variable. The lowest quadrant reflected "a low vitamin D concentration"-group and rest of the values were named as "a high vitamin D concentration"-group. Prenatal vitamin D level was also analyzed as a continuous variable. The factor analysis was conducted with SEQ. A factor analysis showed that three factor solution fitted the data. These factors, which describe child's sensory features, were named as sensory over-responsivity, sensory under-responsivity and sensory seeking. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between prenatal vitamin D concentration and child's sensory features. Conclusions and results. A higher vitamin D level in the late-pregnancy was associated with higher sensory seeking score at one year of age when examined as a continuous variable. When controlling confounding variables (i.e., child's gender, child's date of birth, mother's maternal smoking habits, mother's age, education, marital status and BMI before pregnancy) the association remained significant. There was no statistically significant association between vitamin D level and sensory over-responsivity or sensory under-responsivity scores. Prenatal vitamin D level in early-pregnancy was not associated with child's sensory features, measured either as a continuous or as dichotomous variable. These results are in line with the earlier studies that vitamin D levels in pregnancy might be associated with fetus brain development and that is how prenatal vitamin D concentration might affect fetal programming during the sensitive periods of gestation.
  • Hakala, Suvi (2018)
    Objectives: Specific language impairment (SLI) is an impairment of oral language, which places demands on parent-child interaction, putting children at-risk for adverse developmental outcomes. Little is known about how different types of language impairment affect parent-child interaction. This study aims to examine how language impairment influences child, parent and dyadic behaviours between dyads with children who have expressive- and receptive-SLI. Methods: The sample included 85 children aged 36-81 months participating in the Helsinki Longitudinal SLI study. The sample consisted of 53 children with expressive-SLI (F80.1), and 32 children with receptive-SLI (F80.2). Parent-child interaction was evaluated using Erickson’s sensitivity scales during drawing, puzzle-making, and free play. Groups were compared using analysis of covariance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and conclusions: Children with expressive-SLI were found to be more persistent, enthusiastic, compliant and have a more positive experience of the interaction overall, when compared to children with receptive-SLI. SLI did not have a statistically significant effect on any of the parent and dyadic variables. Group means suggest that some parents may provide less emotional support and instruction to children with receptive-SLI. This could support earlier findings, which suggest that parents of language-impaired children adjust their behaviour to that of their children. Less active participation and poorer experience of the expression of children with receptive-SLI suggests that they need more support facilitate participation.