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Browsing by discipline "Skoglig ekologi och resurshushållning"

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  • Jokinen, Minna (2017)
    Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) is an invasive alien species native to China and Korea. Asian longhorned beetle has been established on many European countries, United States and Canada. The pathway to the new environments is typically via solid wood packing material (SWPM) which is used especially to pack stoneware. The larva lives inside the trunk and chews tunnels. These tunnels may result in loss of turgor pressure and, by implication, to loss of leaves and finally to death of the tree. Eradication of this species is complicated due to a wide range of host species. The first introduced population in Finland was discovered in October 2015 in the municipality of Vantaa, near to Helsinki. Thus, we have a lack of knowledge in its habits in Finnish circumstances. The main objective of this thesis was to specify whether the Asian longhorned beetle is established also in Helsinki and which areas would be potential habitats for this species. Because no Finnish research about this pest has been published, also a literature survey about the species is provided. Areas, where stoneware originated to Asia is stored at the moment or was stored before, were considered as a potential habitats for the Asian longhorned beetle. The observations were conducted during the summer season 2016. The potential host trees were observed with binoculars. Inspections focused on searching round exitholes typical to the Asian longhorned beetle from the trunk and the main branches. Trees with suspicious holes were felled and investigated. No Asian longhorned beetles were found. However, there are several potential areas in Helsinki. In total, 35 potential areas were inspected. These areas were rich in broadleaved trees that belong to hosts of this pest. It can be assumed that Asian longhorned beetle would not have shortage in suitable host trees. The most common inspected tree species were silver birch, dawny birch, European aspen and goat willow. Ground inspection with binoculars is a common, but unreliable method. In summer time foliage layer may obscure the visibility to the trunk and the branches. On the other hand, trees with dead branches or a lack of foliage can be easily detected and thus special effort can be used to inspect these trees. It can be suggested that at least not very old or high density populations exist in Helsinki. The best way to avoid new introductions is to favor Finnish stoneware and avoid Asian wood packing material. The treatments of SWPM should be improved to prevent further spread of these pests. The omission of treatment should never happen. One option is to replace SWPM with more secure packing materials. Also the destruction of the packing material should be carried out properly and it should not be transported for example as a firewood to summer cottages. This study was carried out together with University of Helsinki and Public Works Department of the city of Helsinki. Cooperation was done also with the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira.
  • Ryhti, Kira (2016)
    Finnish energy production is producing around 1.5 million tons ashes annually. The aim is to utilize ashes instead of landfilling as well as to replace the use of exhaustible natural materials. Wood and peat ashes can be used, for example, in field and forest fertilization and land construction. In road construction and rehabilitation, ash can be used to replace expensive aggregates and achieve better load capacity features. This study was part of the Natural Resources Institute Finland’s (formerly the Finnish Forest Research Institute) project: "New technologies as assistance for the lower road network construction and maintenance". The purpose of this research was to investigate the leaching of heavy metals, nutrients and salts from ash treatments by collecting infiltrate waters with zero-tension lyzimeters, taking water samples from nearby ditch waters and clarify influencing factors. The plots were established in Jämsä on the old forest roads, which are rehabilitated with mixed wood and peat ash in the autumn 2011. The site consists of two forest roads, which had four types of ash treatments and control treatment. For each plot, six zero-tension lysimeters (0.1 m2) were installed every 20 meters, tree to the roads surface and tree to deeper levels. In addition to lysimeters, water samples were taken from nearby ditches. Water samples were collected during 2012 – 2014 once a month from May onwards for 6-8 months. The relations between the substances were tested for statistical correlations (Pearson) and the effects of treatments to leaching were tested with the Tukey HSD-test. Concentrations of 32 elements, ions and compounds were determined from lyzimeter and ditch water samples. Heavy metal concentrations were during the entire follow-up period mainly low. There were no elevated heavy metal concentrations in ditch waters either. The content of nutrients and salts in the water samples were higher from ash treatments than from control treatments. The content of nutrients and salts were also higher in ditch water samples compared to control ditch. Several soluble substances from the ashes had a statistically significant positive correlation (p <0.01) with each other. The results varied a lot progressively, between plots and between the lysimeters of the same plot. Significantly higher concentrations were measured from two lysimeters for number of elements compared to the other lysimeters in other plots (p <0.05). In most cases, the results were very mixed and there was no clear difference between the control and ash treatments. The study yielded valuable information about the leaching of substances from ash structures. A three-year follow-up period is short, for example, compared to the long-term forest fertilization experiments that can last for decades. The pH of the ash decreases in time and decrease in pH could increase solubility of heavy metals. The average concentrations of many elements in water samples from lysimeters and ditch waters were at the same level than in soil waters in forest. Although during the monitoring period, there were no increases in heavy metal concentrations in ditch waters, the accumulation of elements to nearby aquatic ecosystems is difficult to assess in the long-term if leaching behavior changes with time. Ash seems to be a promising material for road construction, as long as the ash quality is suitable to this particular purpose.
  • Pape-Mustonen, Terhi (2013)
    The goal of this research is to map different leadership experiences within Finnish logging companies which are constituent of a new organisation model for tree harvesting. In this model, entrepreneurs have extensive service contracts and often utilise networks of smaller labour units. Finnish harvesting companies have traditionally been small and therefore these new responsibilities can add stress. This work describes attitudes towards both leadership and leadership practices. The method used in this research is theme interviews. The interviewed entrepreneurs were participating in the Menestyvä alueyrittäjä- project. There were 15 interviewees. Interviews were recorded and the recordings added up to 25 hours. The interviews were analysed and practices and attitudes classified according to theories of leadership. The interviews revealed that the client has a big impact on the strategic choices made by these companies. The most time consuming leadership task is planning. The telephone is the most used communication device and this has not been affected by the adoption of newer IT devices. Both official and casual communication is conducted over the phone. District company leaders don’t think of themselves primarily as executives. They appreciate independence and concrete results in their work. The use of information technology is generally straightforward for them. The entrepreneurs believe that their employees particularly appreciate equality and respectful, trusting relationships. Supporting employees is seen as important and entrepreneurs want to use more time in personnel management. Most of the entrepreneurs don’t use harvesting machine data to determine their employees’ pay, although this could make supervision more efficient. More successful employees are generally better paid. According to the entrepreneurs, recruiting is difficult and good employees hard to find. The interviews in this work indicate that the most difficult aspects of leadership are personnel management and the utilisation of financial information.
  • Awan, Hafiz Umair Masood (2017)
    The biodegradation of wood by fungi in natural forest environment is of vital importance for carbon and nutrient replenishment. Additionally, the ecological functions, maintenance of biodiversity and fungal succession in forest ecosystems is partly dependent on the availability of utilizable organic substances. The fungal group of basidiomycetes are known to play important functional roles in these processes. There is however scarcity of information on how co-cultures of multiple fungi affect wood biomass decomposition as well as the consequent effect of interspecific interaction on niche colonization and substrate utilization. This study investigated and evaluated the role and efficiency of interspecific fungal interaction on biodegradation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. (H) Karst) and birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh) wood. Five fungal isolates were selected for the test in co-cultivation assay: Antrodia sinuosa P. Karst, Bjerkandera adusta (Willd.) P. Karst, Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulfen) P. Karst, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref, and Phlebiopsis gigantea Jülich (Basidiomycota). The results revealed that antagonistic and competitive fungal interaction does not largely appear to speed up wood decay process. However, the rare combination of Phlebiopsis, Antrodia and Gloeophyllum had significant positive effect on degradation of spruce wood whereas Heterobasidion, Phlebiopsis, and Gloeophyllum had synergistic effect on pine wood decay. It is therefore likely that in nature, wood decay by fungi is mostly facilitated by parallel niche colonization and by fungal succession.
  • Miller, Cary (2017)
    With a land tenure structure dating back to the Mexican Revolution of 1910, Mexico is second only to Papua New Guinea in proportion of forest land under community ownership. While many communities have successfully formed community forestry enterprises (CFEs) producing value-added goods and generating income and social benefits for community members, many more remain minimally involved with forest management or do not harvest timber. As such, this study sought to collect and analyze the opinions and experiences of groups and individuals involved in the forest sector, with the aim of providing a greater understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the Mexican forestry model, the most important factors facilitating or undermining the development of CFEs, and opportunities for the advancement of community forestry in the future. This study is based on semi-structured stakeholder interviews which were conducted in four states with members of both harvesting and non-harvesting communities, members of Mexico's National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR) and Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT), various experts with ties to the forest sector, and foresters serving the communities interviewed. The results indicate that communities face a number of significant developmental challenges. Community organization was found to be an essential internal factor, and successful CFEs have in common a strong internal cohesion and collective decision making capacity, while failure is often linked to indecision, internal divisions, or corruption. Will and ability to invest in the CFE are also crucial, and sources suggested that communities are often impeded by their lack of 'entrepreneurial mentality' when it comes to investment. For those that are interested in investing in the CFE, lack of available capital is often problematic. In part because of these challenges the Mexican forest sector relies largely on obsolete practices and technology, resulting in elevated costs of production relative to foreign competitors, and foreign competition has taken a toll on the industry in Mexico. In some areas declining industrial consumption has made it more difficult for communities to find buyers for forest products and may limit future production potential. The quality of technical services available to the communities is another factor that is both critical and inconsistent, and the important role of private foresters in aiding CFE development was emphasized by a number of sources. Government intervention has also had an important impact on the sector and CONAFOR has played a key role in its development in recent years. On the other hand, forestry is a heavily regulated activity and there appears to be a consensus that regulations could or should be simplified. It was also suggested that government agencies may not have the resources to process the paperwork they demand in a timely manner. Overall, community forestry in Mexico represents an important and environmentally sustainable source of rural livelihoods, and a great deal of potential remains for the expansion of the sector. While some challenges facing CFEs may not have clear solutions, there are some steps that could be taken to improve conditions in the future. Technological advance will be critical if Mexico is to compete on international markets, and there is work to be done both in terms of finance and in promoting 'business mentalities' and investment. Likewise, a thriving forest industry may require strong policy support from the federal government and efforts to ensure that technical services available to communities are adequate. Finally, it will be important to evaluate the regulatory balance between environmental protection and development of the sector moving forward, to create conditions that are both sustainable and conducive to growth.
  • Gideon Neba, Shu (2013)
    This study quantified above-ground biomass affected by selective logging in the tropical rainforest of South East Cameroon and also investigated the suitability of the density of logging roads, the density of log yards as well as variables from MODIS 250 m data (Red, NIR, MIR, NDVI, EVI) in explaining above-ground biomass logged. Above-ground biomass logged was quantified using allometric equations. The surface area of logging roads and log yards were quantified and used in the determination of above-ground biomass affected by these infrastructures based on a national reference baseline value for the forest zone of Cameroon. A comparative analysis revealed that 50% of potentially exploitable commercial tree species were effectively harvested with a harvesting intensity of 0.78 trees ha-1 representing an average above-ground biomass of 3.51 Mg ha-1. The results also indicated that 5.65 Mg ha-1 of above-ground biomass was affected by logging infrastructure .i.e. 62% as compared to 38% of above-ground biomass that was logged. Correlation and regression analysis showed that the density of the logging roads explained 66% of the variation in above-ground biomass logged and 73% of the variation in above-ground biomass logged was explained by the density of the logging roads and NDVI from MODIS data. The density of log yards and the variables from MODIS data were generally weak in explaining the variation in above-ground biomass logged.
  • Arcaro, Anthony Matthew (2015)
    Canopy interactions and their effects on the chemical composition of throughfall were studied in three plots within two forests of Taita Hills, Kenya over a period of one year. The two forests studied are hilltop forest fragments at the elevated peak of Vuria and northern and southern Ngangao. The stands represent lower evergreen rainforest and upper montane rain/cloud forest ecosystems, which are becoming increasingly vulnerable to degradation by human population growth in the area and the effects of climate change. The forest plots have recently been placed under government protection and the data in this study has been collected as part of the TAITAWATER project of the Academy of Finland. The objective of this thesis is to quantify and chemically analyze rainfall and throughfall in order to compare the canopy interactions occurring in the three study plots. Hemispherical photographs of the canopy were also taken to assess leaf area index. Tree mapping and species identification were also carried out. In an attempt to evaluate the influence that indigenous forests in the region have on fresh water availability and quality the amount, pH, and electrical conductivity of collected rainfall or throughfall was recorded weekly. Additionally, water samples were taken and analyzed for their chemical content (Total N, NH4-, NO3-, S, Cl, Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Si, B) in a laboratory using ICP. In agreement with previous studies the data exhibits a few trends, which indicate that canopy interception and cloud drip result in higher throughfall amounts in cloud forests, particularly during drier parts of the year when heavy rain events are scarce. Canopy interactions can also alter the chemical composition of precipitation as it passes through the canopy towards the forest floor. The canopy interactions in Taita Hills enriched throughfall with nearly all solutes leading to significant increases in EC while maintaining lower pH. The canopy with a higher presence of bryophyte and lichen species showed a greater propensity to influence the nutrient fluxes of total nitrogen and phosphorus despite containing less biomass.
  • Haikarainen, Iikka (2016)
    Metaani (CH4) on yksi tärkeimmästä kasvihuonekaasusta. Sen ilmastoa lämmittävä vaikutus on 100 vuoden lämmi-tyspotentiaalina 28-kertainen hiilidioksidiin verrattuna. Lisäksi metaanin määrä ilmakehässä on yli kaksinkertaistunut esiteollisen ajan alun jälkeen ja sen lähteiden tuntemisessa on puutteita. Ilmakehän metaanista suurimman osan on arveltu olevan peräisin anaerobisissa olosuhteissa tapahtuvasta metanogeneesistä. Boreaaliset metsät on mielletty CH4-nieluiksi maan hapellisessa kerroksessa tapahtuvan metaaninsitoutumisen vuoksi. Myös puut toimivat CH4-lähteinä joko helpottamalla maassa anaerobisesti syntyneen metaanin pääsyä ilmakehään tai tuottamalla sitä itse. Vaikka ensimmäiset havainnot puiden CH4-päästöistä tehtiin jo lähes 20 vuotta sitten, on vasta viimeaikainen tutkimus osoittanut että puiden CH4-päästöt voivat vaikuttaa huomattavasti metsien CH4-taseeseen. Suurimpien arvioiden mu-kaan puiden vapauttaman metaanin osuus on jopa 10–40 % globaalista CH4-budjetista. Puiden CH4-päästöjen tutki-mus on tähän asti suuntautunut enimmäkseen trooppiselle ja temperaattiselle kasvillisuusvyöhykkeelle, mutta tutki-mus boreaalisella kasvillisuusvyöhykkeellä on jäänyt vähäiseksi. Tämän pro gradu -työn tavoitteena on arvioida boreaalisella havumetsävyöhykkeellä tavanomaisesti esiintyvien kah-den puulajin, hieskoivun (Betula pubescens) ja kuusen (Picea abies), CH4-vuota ja sen vaihtelua kasvukauden alussa. Työn aineistona on käytetty 28.4.–11.6.2015 Hyytiälässä kahdella eri koealalla havaittuja puiden ja metsänpohjan CH4-voita, jotka on mitattu hieskoivujen ja kuusien rungoista ja oksista käyttäen suljettua kammiomittausmenetelmää. Koealoina olivat soistunut alue (metsäkortekorpi), jolta valittiin 4 koepuuta (2 hieskoivua, 2 kuusta) ja kivennäismaa-alue (kuivahko kangas), jolta valittiin yksi koepuu (hieskoivu). Tutkimuksissa havaittiin, että sekä hieskoivut että kuuset toimivat CH4-lähteinä rungoista ja oksista, vaikka ne myös ajoittain sitoivat metaania. Havaitut CH4-vuot olivat suuruusluokaltaan hyvin vaihtelevia. Suurimmat CH4-päästöt ha-vaittiin soistuneella kasvupaikalla kasvavien hieskoivujen rungoista, joissa runkopinta-ala kohtaiset päästöt vähenivät eksponentiaalisesti puun pituusprofiilissa tyvestä latvaa, ja rungon tyveltä mitatut suurimmat päästöt myös kasvoivat kevään edetessä. Soistuneella koealalla puiden runkojen CH4-vuo korreloi maalämpötilojen kanssa sekä positiivisesti (hieskoivut) että negatiivisesti (kuuset). Sadekertymän havaittiin korreloivan negatiivisesti koivujen runkojen vuon kanssa. Muilla taustamuuttujilla (esim. ilman lämpötila, säteily, mahlan virtausnopeus) ei ollut havaittavaa yhteyttä puiden CH4-vuohon. Korrelaatioita ei myöskään havaittu kivennäismaakohteella olleen hieskoivun keskiarvoisten CH4-voiden ja taustamuuttujien välillä. Puiden CH4-vuosta tehtiin yleistys metsikkötasolle, mikä osoitti kuusien päästö-jen (6,15 g ha−1 vrk−1) olevan suurempia kuin hieskoivujen päästöt (5,82 g ha−1 vrk−1) johtuen kuusien oksiin sitoutu-neesta suuremmasta biomassan määrästä verrattuna hieskoivuihin. Tästä syystä kuuset voivat olla merkittävämpiä metaanin vapauttajia kuin hieskoivut. Työn tulokset vahvistavat aiempien tutkimusten havainnot puiden CH4-päästöistä ja osoittavat että myös boreaalisen kasvillisuusvyöhykkeen puilla voi olla merkittävä rooli globaalissa CH4-budjetissa, jossa puiden CH4-vuota ei ole tähän asti lainkaan huomioitu. Hieskoivujen ja kuusien erilainen vaste kasvukauden alkuun, maalämpötilaan ja sateisuuteen viittaa puulajien välisiin eroihin CH4-vuota säätelevissä tekijöissä tai metaanin kuljetukseen liittyvässä fysiologiassa.
  • Hu, Haiyang (2014)
    Forest biomass is considered as one of the most important alternative energy sources across the globe. Growing attention has been given to the studies concerning biomass and related bioenergy and biofuel, and their potential for future development. This study takes higher education as unique aspect, focusing on the awareness of Chinese university students of Forest Based Bioenergy (FBB) development and how education background / awareness may influence the FBB development in China. Since FBB is relatively a new concept in China, its development and further utilization are believed to largely relay on the matters of education, social trend and awareness. Students in higher education are considered as a special group: they may be educated related to FBB and will become the future consumers and even decision-makers. This make awareness, attitude and opinions about FBB from the students` point of view significant. A literature review was made for the background study and quantitative research, plus surveys and interviews were conducted as data collection methods. Objectives of the thesis are to study the awareness of and attitudes towards FBB among Chinese university students and if those opinions were influenced by their studies. Results indicate that education strongly affects students´ attitudes. FBB development is seen as a positive signal and students are likely to support FBB development. FBB is believed as a new trend of renewable energy development. However, FBB in China will not see a rapid booming in the near future and it has only limited impact towards the traditional fossil fuel domination, but due to its characteristics, governmental recognition and growing awareness, it certainly shall be seen as strong supporter of China´s sustainable development. It also has to be holistically utilized considering environmental, social and economic aspects, to reach its full potential and to support China´s target of sustainable energy development.
  • Stewart, Erik (2016)
    Heterobasidion annosum s.l. is a devastating forest pathogen species complex which causes extensive damage to timber products in northern Europe. This study examined resistance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in two field sites in Finland to annosum root rot (Heterobasidion parviporum) utilizing non-clonal stocks of P. abies. The northern field site in Rovaniemi does not have a historical presence of the pathogen, whereas the southern field site in Lapinjärvi has extensive historical presence of the pathogen. The goals of the study were to assess potential difference in susceptibility between the sites, as well as to examine the differences in susceptibility between tissue types and organs in the trees examined. The study inoculated treatment trees with H. parviporum, as well as mock inoculations without the pathogen for control trees. Six inoculations of one treatment type were placed into each of thirty randomly selected trees at both field sites. Three inoculations were done in the stem, and three in the roots, for a total of 360 inoculations. After being left in situ for three months, the trees were harvested, and resulting lesions in the phloem and xylem tissues in both the roots and stem were measured to determine the extent of visible lesion extensions from the inoculation point. Data collected from the experiment was analyzed in the context of three mixed effects models, with the assumption that larger lesions indicated lower resistance to the pathogen. The measurements considered as response variables for the models were the total length of the lesion, total width of the lesion, and total area of the lesion. Results indicated minor overall differences in the lesion sizes between site in the lesion width and lesion area models. Significant differences were found between tissue types in the lesion width, and lesion area models. Additionally, interactions between treatment and organ, as well as treatment and tissue were significant across all models. Several other interactions were significant across some, but not all models The results indicate that further research into the potential effects of historical or geographic isolation on the resistance of P. abies to H. parviporum should include strict genetic controls with crossing of genotypes across sites, and should also consider the differences due to abiotic factors which may influence resistance in field trials.
  • Liu, Che (2016)
    Snowmelt timing has been proven critical to the phenology in subarctic and alpine ecosystems. Nevertheless, its impacts on the phenology of dwarf-shrub-dominated vegetation on high-latitudinal Fennoscandian fells are not yet sufficiently studied. This project focusses on the divergences in phenological timings and reproductive success caused by naturally different snowmelt timings in this area. The study site was on fell Saana in northwest Finland. The data was collected from a site covering three snowmelt timings located in two aspects (fully factorial, 4 replicates) from 20th of May to 4th of September, 2015, totalling 108 days. The phenological events (e.g. leaf unfolding, anthesis, and leaf colouring) of 12 species of three growth forms (dwarf shrub, forb, and graminoid) were recorded. The statistical analyses show that different snowmelt timings result in significant differences in the time points (expressed in day of year, DOY) of peak flowering and shoot elongation, as well as the green-leaved durations (days); however, flowering duration is rather constant across snowmelt timings. Significant differences are also found in the reproductive success of several species. The results suggest that in subarctic-alpine vegetation, an earlier snowmelt timing 1) elongates the duration of vegetative growth, 2) advances the timing of peak flowering while the flowering duration remains unchanged, and 3) potentially impedes reproductive success in some species, but generally the pattern is heterogeneous. Thus, snowmelt timing is causing divergences among the phenological traits and potentially within the reproductive success of dwarf shrub species in this area. In the long term, these phenomena may impact the local biodiversity and biochemical cycles, which may be a long-term effect of the shifting snowmelt timing due to global change.
  • Ojansivu, Tiina (2014)
    Natural disturbances are important for regeneration and biodiversity of forests. Restoration imitates natural disturbances in order to return ecosystems towards its natural state. Knowledge is lacking about the efficiency of restoration, as well as early tree successions. The objects of this study were to investigate the effects of fire and coarse woody debris (CWD) increment on early tree succession and tree species diversity along forest – gap gradient 10 years after restorative partial cuttings in southern Finland. Seedling densities and heights, microhabitat distributions and tree species diversity were compared between four restoration treatments; unburned treatments with 5 and 60 m3 CWD ha-1, and burned treatments with 5 and 60 m3 CWD ha-1. Total seedling densities were tested with two-way analysis of variance. Species diversity was analyzed by species richness and Shannon index, which were tested with two-way analysis of variance. In general, the burned treatments included higher seedling densities and higher seedlings. The different amounts of dead wood revealed differences in deciduous tree species. The density of birch was higher in the treatments with 60 m3 CWD ha-1 and the heights of birch and other deciduous tree species were higher in burned treatment with 60 m3 CWD ha-1. Pine and birch were abundant in the burned treatments. The densities of spruce were very high in the unburned treatment with 5 m3 CWD ha-1, but fairly low in the other treatments. The seedling densities and heights were the lowest in the forest. Seedling densities did not vary significantly between the edge and gap segment. Microhabitat distributions of the coniferous seedlings differed between the unburned and burned treatments, but no clear differences were observed between the low (5 m3 ha-1) and high amount (60 m3 ha-1) of CWD. Microhabitat distributions of seedlings between forest, edge and gap did not differ noticeably, except with spruce in the burned treatments between the edge and gap. Tree species diversity of regeneration was slightly higher in the burned than in the unburned treatments. Different amounts of CWD did not affect the tree species diversity. The tree species diversity was significantly lower in the forest than in the treatment area, but it did not differ between the edge and gap. The results indicate that early tree succession is likely to be more abundant after burning than without. Fire as a restoration tool can be suggested for the regeneration of pine and birch. Dead wood appears to be insignificant for early tree succession. The limited size of restoration areas does not impede the tree succession, since the densities and heights of seedlings were generally the highest near the forest edge. Fire might increase tree species diversity.
  • Hirvonen, Elina (2016)
    The main aim of this thesis was to study the ecosystem services provided by large-scale industrial eucalypt plantations of UPM in Paysandú region, Uruguay. In the landscape, natural pastures and forests are combined with rows of planted trees. The second aim was to study how various stakeholder groups use ecosystem services from the plantation landscape, and to what extent the rights and expectations related to their use vary among these groups. The third aim was to study the best ways to combine the production of ecosystem services with large-scale industrial tree plantations in the study area. The data used in this study consisted of 55 semi-structured interviews, which were recorded in Uruguay during summer of 2015. Among the persons interviewed, 15 people were classified as key-informants with a broad view on plantation industry in the study area. They were from educational institutions, companies, ministries and from non-governmental organizations. Based on results of the key-informants interviews, a total of 40 persons were selected for stakeholder interviews. They represented four groups; 1) cattle ranchers, 2) honey producers, 3) tree growers and 4) general public from the surrounding communities. With stakeholder interviews, the aim was to collect quantitative data with structured questionnaires. The key-informants and stakeholders were asked about the same issues, but the key-informant interviews had open questions for collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. The results of this study show that industrial tree plantation landscapes provide a plenitude of ecosystem services. However, the perceived changes in the landscape during the past ten years were in some cases more negative than positive. According to the key-informants, the most important ecosystem services provided included industrial wood, animal shelter, fodder and foods. This indicates that local livelihoods can be combined with industrial plantations and the stakeholders benefit from them in many ways. The cattle ranchers obtained mainly animal shelter and fodder. For them, also the regulation of natural hazards was important. The honey producers valued foods, pollination and biodiversity services. The tree growers valued industrial wood and, similarly as the cattle ranchers, animal shelter and fodder. For the general community, educational information was the most important service. Food, honey and mushrooms, and fuel wood were also highly valued ecosystem services. Industrial tree plantations create a wealth of ecosystem services, often with low or no cost. UPM Uruguay considers local stakeholders and their livelihoods in many ways. According to the company, the best ways to integrate industrial tree plantations and ecosystem services are already used in many parts, although there was no data disclosed about all of them. However, it seems that UPM is well aware of the local conditions. In the future, there is a need to study the monetary value and benefit sharing of ecosystem services e.g. through payments of ecosystem services schemes.
  • Ribeiro Moreira de Assumpção, Christine (2017)
    Biochar is a product from the pyrolysis of plant derived-biomass and it is intended to be applied to soil given its potential of carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvement. Some studies also suggest that increasing application rate of biochar has a positive feedback on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and on soil microbial biomass. However, these effects are not well known for boreal forests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different biochar application rates: 0 t ha-1, 5 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 on BNF, on microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (MBC and MBN), and on moss biomass. The field experiment was established in Juupajoki, Southern Finland in young Scots pine stands. The stands were amended with biochar one year before the measurements took place. BNF was determined using acetylene reduction assay (ARA), and microbial biomass was estimated using chloroform fumigation-direct extraction (CFDE). The microbial biomass samples were incubated at the temperatures: 10 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C. Biochar amendment raised soil pH, whereas no differences were verified for BNF, MBC, MBN, nor for moss biomass. There was, however, variation in the response of N fixation to incubation temperature, and variation in the response of MBC and MBN to the time of measurement. Observed changes in pH are often likely to justify variations in the rates of BNF and MB, however in this study they were not shown to be of significance. It is possible, however that biochar will have a positive effect on soil vegetation as it is incorporated into the soil in the long-term. Although this study focuses on BNF and MB, the findings may well have a bearing on the use of biochar as a tool for C sequestration, since amendment with biochar was demonstrated as neither beneficial nor harmful to the soil biota.
  • Junttila, Samuli (2014)
    The effect of forest health and structure to the relative surface temperature captured by airborne thermal imagery was investigated in Norway Spruce-dominated stands in Southern Finland. Canopy surface temperature has long been recognized useful in monitoring vegetation water status. Recent studies have shown also its potential in monitoring vegetation health. Airborne thermal imagery, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and field measurements were acquired from the area of interest (AOI). The relative surface temperature correlated most negatively with the logarithm of stem volume, Lorey’s height and logarithm of basal area at resolution of 254m2 (9-m radius). In other words, taller and older stands had colder surface temperatures. In addition, LiDAR metrics, such as height percentiles and canopy cover percentage, were compared with surface temperature. Standard deviation of canopy height model, height features (H90, CHM_max) and canopy cover percentage were most strongly negatively correlated with the surface temperature. On average, higher surface temperatures were detected in defoliated canopies indicating that thermal images may provide some additional information for classifying forests health status. However, the surface temperature of defoliated plots varied considerably. It was also found that surface temperature differences between canopy and ground responses were higher in defoliated plots. Based on the results, forest health and structure affect to the surface temperature captured by airborne thermal imagery and these effects should be taken into account when developing forest health mapping applications using thermal imagery.
  • Heikkinen, Tiina Katariina (2016)
    Due to anoxic conditions and slow decomposition, pristine peatlands are usually considered as sinks of carbon dioxide but sources of methane. After drainage for forestry purposes, carbon dioxide emissions usually start to increase and methane emissions decrease. Nowadays about 830 000 hectares of forestry drained peatlands in Finland are considered as low productive and non-suitable for commercial forestry as they are too nutrientpoor or too wet. Restoration has been seen one way to after-use these areas but its effects on greenhouse gas fluxes, especially on very nutrient-poor bogs, is mainly unknown. The aim of this thesis was to find out the effect of restoration on methane fluxes from low productive nutrient poor raised bogs. Methane fluxes were measured from 14 sites (7 restored, 6 drained, 1 pristine) near Sipoo, Tammela and Parkano during the summers of 2014 and 2015. Also water table level and peat temperature from 5 and 30 cm depth were measured. Vegetation of the gas measurement plots was surveyed using the Braun-Blanquet method in Sipoo and Tammela sites. Restoration (ditch blocking and/or tree removal) was done 4‒22 years before measurements. Restored sites were wetter than drained sites but drier than pristine sites. Peat temperature was higher in the ditches of restored sites and the coverage of cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum) increased a little. Both drained and restored sites were methane sources during the growing season. The annual flux of restored sites (4.02 ± 1.21 g m-2 yr-1) was little bit higher than drained sites (2.86 ± 1.57 g m -2 yr-1). The highest flux was measured from pristine sites (8.38 g m-2 yr-1). Methane fluxes from the ditches increased most and they were close to the fluxes from hollows of pristine site. The age of restored site did not affect the methane fluxes although the highest fluxes were measured from the youngest site. The results were not, however, statistically significant due the huge variation within and between the sites. The fluxes of restored sites were closer to the fluxes of pristine peatlands found from literature compared to drained sites, which means that restoration was successful and there was not a big problem for climatic point of view.
  • Nordling, Paulina (2013)
    Sibbo storskog är ett enhetligt skogs- och jordbruksområde som täcker delar av Sibbo kommun samt Vanda och Helsingfors städer. Den privatägda marken på området används i huvudsak för aktivt jord- och skogsbruk. År 2011 inrättades Sibbo storskogs nationalpark på statsägd mark i Sibbo storskog. Nationalparken är splittrad till formen och dess läge skapar förutsättningar för stort rekreationstryck. Detta befaras leda till negativ inverkan på privatskogsbruket. Tidigare forskning om nationalparkers inverkan på omgivningen har främst fokuserat på lokalbefolkningen och närområdet som helhet. Målsättningen med denna undersökning var att ta reda på vilken inverkan Sibbo storskogs nationalpark har för specifikt de privata skogsägarna och deras verksamhet, samt hur konflikter mellan användning och skötsel av nationalparken och privatskogsbruket i Sibbo storskog kan förebyggas. Materialet samlades in med en enkät riktad till privata skogsägare i Sibbo storskog och med intervjuer med privata skogsägare i Sibbo storskog och vid Noux nationalpark. Syftet med intervjuerna i Noux var att få ett jämförande material från ett område vars läge och rekreationstryck är jämförbart med det i Sibbo storskog, men där nationalparken har existerat under en längre tid. Resultaten visar att inverkan från nationalparken förknippad med områdets användning för rekreation redan förekommit i Sibbo storskog. Hotbilder för framtiden var utöver dessa främst relaterade till utvidgning av nationalparken och planläggning av mark-användningen som ansågs försämra förutsättningarna för utövandet av normalt skogsbruk. Ca 40 % av skogsägarna ansåg att nationalparken kommer att påverka negativt på de egna skogsarbetena i framtiden. Genom att göra nationalparken enhetligare med markbyten inom Sibbo storskog eller med frivilliga skyddsavtal och försäljning av mark kan konflikter förebyggas. Ca 30 % av skogsägarna var under vissa förutsättningar intresserade av markbyten med staten. Ett förnuftigt styrande av rekreationen och information till nationalparkens besökare är andra metoder med vilka problem med områdets användning för rekreation kan förebyggas. En viktig del av konflikthanteringen utgörs av deltagande, information och kommunikation. Samarbetet mellan Forststyrelsen och privata skogsägare har kommit i gång. En stor del av konflikterna som hotar privatskogsbruket gäller dock markanvändningen utanför nationalparkens gränser och därför bör också samarbete med kommun och stad uppmuntras till.
  • Jumppanen, Heimo (2014)
    Recreational use of forests promotes both health and well-being thus reducing health care costs, which in turn gains the whole national economy. When moving around in the forests the recreational users value the attractive landscapes and the facilities for outdoor activities provided by the forests. A great deal of the recreational use takes place in commercial forests, which means that in forest management planning there is a need to take into account the interests of different stakeholders. According to previous preference studies recreational users in Finland in general prefer open forest stands with old trees and dislike large clearcut areas, logging residues and tracks made by the logging machinery. Also the forest owners in Finland have been showing a growing interest towards uneven-aged (continuous cover) forestry and matters concerning forest landscape and recreational use of forests. In order to produce forests suitable for recreational use by means of forest management planning there is a need for better information on how and to what extent the recreational users notice the structural features of a forest stand (e.g. density, tree species etc.) when judging on the scenic beauty of the stand or it’s suitability for their leisure activities. This was the aim of this study as well as to find out how well the methods used in this study work in finding the answers to these questions. The study was done as a survey in Ruunaa hiking area where the respondents were asked to fill a questionnaire where they were met unlike in previous preference studies, where the interviews have been done in predefined places. According to the results the judgement of how attractive a forest stand is is affected not only by the structural features of that forest stand. This has also been the conclusion of many previous studies. In case of Ruunaa the lake scenes and the sounds of the rapids form an essential part of the landscape and this affected the valuations. Structural features were seen only in the landscape close to the beholder. When the respondents compared the interview site to a commercial forest of same age, they found that the commercial forests were suitable for various leisure activities as well as the interview site, thoug Ruunaa was considered to be better for activities related with nature (e.g. birdwatching or botanical interests). One of the original aims of the study was also to find out how the respondents related to the small scale gap felling experiments in Ruunaa. No respondents were met at these felling sites, but some of the respondents told they had seen them and that they didn’t seem to have anything against the gap fellings.
  • Kammonen, Laura (2015)
    Vieraslajien on todettu olevan uhka erityisesti ympäristölle, mutta niillä on myös merkittäviä yhteiskunnallisia, sosiaalisia ja taloudellisia vaikutuksia. Vieraslajien haitallisten vaikutusten ja torjuntatöihin käytettävien resurssien on ennustettu kasvavan tulevaisuudessa huomattavasti. Tämän vuoksi Euroopan unionissa tarvitaan unionin laajuista säätelyä ja toimintaa haitallisia vieraslajeja koskien. Tässä työssä arvioidaan, kuinka EU:n vieraslajiasetus tulee vaikuttamaan Suomeen yhteiskunnallisesti ja ympäristöllisesti. Arviot on tehty asiantuntijahaastatteluiden perusteella. EU:n vieraslajiasetuksen myötä EU-jäsenmaat alkavat seurata EU:n vieraslajiluettelon lajien levinneisyyttä, estää niiden leviämistä ja hävittää niitä. On odotettavissa, että luetteloon ei tule Suomessa merkittäviä lajeja, mikä merkitsisi vähäisiä vaikutuksia Suomessa nykyiselle ympäristölle tai yhteiskunnallisille toiminnoille ja toimijoille. Luettelon sisällöstä riippuen vaikutukset voivat kuitenkin olla myös erittäin merkittävät, tai ne voivat lisääntyä tulevaisuudessa esimerkiksi uusien invaasioiden myötä. EU:n vieraslajiasetuksen voimaantuloa seuraavina vuosina sen toimeenpano vaatii toimivaltaisilta viranomaisilta lisääntyvää työpanosta liittyen lajien seurantoihin ja selvityksiin. Tämän lisäksi saattaa tulla torjuntaan ja hävittämiseen liittyviä velvoitteita, jotka ovat riippuvaisia siitä, kuinka moni EU:n vieraslajiluettelon lajeista koskettaa Suomea. Toimivaltaisia viranomaisia lukuun ottamatta on todennäköistä, että asetuksella ei ole merkittäviä suoria vaikutuksia seuraavien vuosien aikana Suomessa. Vaikutukset integroituvat muihin tehtäviin ja toimintoihin. On todennäköistä, että joidenkin kasvien kasvatus ja myynti joudutaan lopettamaan, mutta vaikutus on tuottajille, myyjille ja kuluttajille kokonaisuutena pieni ja väliaikainen. Korvaavia lajeja otetaan käyttöön tarvittaessa. Kansalaiset osallistuvat enemmän vieraslajien vapaaehtoiseen torjuntaan ja hävittämiseen. Tiedotus vieraslajiasiasta lisääntyy monella tavoin, sekä virallisten kanavien että esimerkiksi elinkeinoelämän ja järjestöjen kautta. Jos EU:n vieraslajiluettelossa on Suomessa merkittäviä lajeja, vaikutuksia kohdistuu viranomaisten ohella esimerkiksi yrittäjille tai maanomistajille. Kustannuksia voi syntyä muun muassa hävittämisestä ja poikkeuslupakäsittelyistä. Hyödyt taas ovat esimerkiksi ympäristöllisiä ja taloudellisia. Suurin hyöty tulee ennaltaehkäistyjen ja torjuttujen haittojen kautta. Ympäristö (esimerkiksi elinympäristöt ja lajit) on merkittävin hyötyjä asetuksesta: haittojen ennaltaehkäisyllä torjutaan erityisesti monimuotoisuuden heikentymistä. Torjunnan avulla myös ekosysteemipalvelut säilyvät, ja kansalaiset hyötyvät torjutuista haitoista esimerkiksi elinkeinoelämän ja terveyden suhteen. Välillisesti hyödytään siitä, että muissa maissa tehdyt toimenpiteet vähentävät meihin kohdistuvia vieraslajiriskejä. Lisäksi tietoisuus ongelmasta ja valistus Suomessa ja ulkomailla vähentävät leviämisriskejä sekä lisäävät torjuntaa ja hävittämistä. Ajallisesti suurimmat varmat vaikutukset tulevat viiden vuoden sisällä EU:n vieraslajiasetuksen voimaantulosta. Nämä koostuvat valtion organisaatioiden valvonta- ja seurantatoimenpiteistä. Myös kokonaisuutena pieniä ja väliaikaisia haittoja voi kohdistua elinkeinoelämälle, erityisesti puutarha-alalle. Tämän lisäksi voi tulla vähäisiä hävittämis- ja torjuntatoimia. Suurimmat vaikutukset sekä ympäristöllisesti että yhteiskunnallisesti voidaan nähdä torjuttujen haittavaikutusten kautta. Yleensä etukäteen tehty torjunta on halvempaa ja helpompaa, minkä lisäksi lajeja ei välttämättä edes pystytä poistamaan enää leviämisen jälkeen. Näiden syiden vuoksi ennaltaehkäisty on erittäin tärkeää.
  • González Latorre, Eduardo (2015)
    Field work is needed to obtain reliable estimates when forest inventories are carried out. Field measurements traditionally have been the main source of information for inventories. But nowadays, also remotely sensed data collected using active or passive sensors mounted on satellite and aerial platforms are used to help in the estimation of forest parameters. Although the use of remotely sensed data is of great help in forest inventories, field data still plays a very important role as reference data, for results calibration and accuracy assessments. Considering that time and budget required for field work are generally some of the main concerns in forest inventory planning, the development of faster, cheaper, simpler, more accurate or more reliable field inventory methods and tools is a topic of great interest. TrestimaTM is a forest inventory system based in the interpretation of images taken with a mobilephone. Its accuracy and efficiency in estimating forest parameters was studied using sample plots in Russian. A total of 156 field plots were measured. The forest parameters measured were: the plot basal area and sample trees’ diameters and heights. The data collected with Trestima was meant to replicate a typical relascope sample plot inventory (variable radius plot inventory). Measurements obtained using traditional tools were used as reference data. The data collected for the inventory included plots at forest stands with different structures: from young to mature stands; and mixed stands to stands dominated by different species (most often Norway Spruce, Picea abies, (L.) H. Karst). The plots’ basal areas ranged from 7 to 62 m2/ha, the tree diameters from 3 to 60 cm and the tree heights from 3 to 35 m. The time used to measure the plots with the Trestima and the reference methods were collected. The data for each forest variable and the time invested in taking the measurements were organized as paired samples and compared using the statistic estimators of bias and RMSE, as the paired Student's t-test. Compared to the reference measurements, Trestima underestimated the basal area with a bias of 1.2 m2/ha (3.7%), but the differences were not statistically significant. In mixed stands, Trestima overestimated spruce basal area (bias of 13.9%), but for spruce dominated stands underestimated it (bias of 4.9%). Trestima overestimated tree diameters with a root mean squared error (RMSE) from 5.5 to 7.9%, depending on the tree species. but underestimated tree heights with an average RMSE of 3.7m (17.5%). The Trestima sample plot measurements were done faster than with traditional tools. Trestima measurements were in average 1.6 minutes (14.8%) faster. The Trestima system provided results comparable to the reference method for all the measured forest parameters. The worse results were obtained for the measurement of the tree heights. The interpretation of the results for the basal area, indicated that the system could benefit from taking into consideration stand structure, especially for species specific estimations. Trestima provided faster measurements of the forest parameters. One important advantage, is that Trestima produces automatically geographically referenced data, which can be used during later analysis, for example, interpretation of remotely sensed data or forest planning.