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Browsing by discipline "Skogsresursvetenskap och -teknologi (skogsvärdering)"

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  • Hujala, Teppo (2003)
    The use of remote sensing imagery as auxiliary data in forest inventory is based on the correlation between features extracted from the images and the ground truth. The bidirectional reflectance and radial displacement cause variation in image features located in different segments of the image but forest characteristics remaining the same. The variation has so far been diminished by different radiometric corrections. In this study the use of sun azimuth based converted image co-ordinates was examined to supplement auxiliary data extracted from digitised aerial photographs. The method was considered as an alternative for radiometric corrections. Additionally, the usefulness of multi-image interpretation of digitised aerial photographs in regression estimation of forest characteristics was studied. The state owned study area located in Leivonmäki, Central Finland and the study material consisted of five digitised and ortho-rectified colour-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs and field measurements of 388 plots, out of which 194 were relascope (Bitterlich) plots and 194 were concentric circular plots. Both the image data and the field measurements were from the year 1999. When examining the effect of the location of the image point on pixel values and texture features of Finnish forest plots in digitised CIR photographs the clearest differences were found between front-and back-lighted image halves. Inside the image half the differences between different blocks were clearly bigger on the front-lighted half than on the back-lighted half. The strength of the phenomenon varied by forest category. The differences between pixel values extracted from different image blocks were greatest in developed and mature stands and smallest in young stands. The differences between texture features were greatest in developing stands and smallest in young and mature stands. The logarithm of timber volume per hectare and the angular transformation of the proportion of broadleaved trees of the total volume were used as dependent variables in regression models. Five different converted image co-ordinates based trend surfaces were used in models in order to diminish the effect of the bidirectional reflectance. The reference model of total volume, in which the location of the image point had been ignored, resulted in RMSE of 1,268 calculated from test material. The best of the trend surfaces was the complete third order surface, which resulted in RMSE of 1,107. The reference model of the proportion of broadleaved trees resulted in RMSE of 0,4292 and the second order trend surface was the best, resulting in RMSE of 0,4270. The trend surface method is applicable, but it has to be applied by forest category and by variable. The usefulness of multi-image interpretation of digitised aerial photographs was studied by building comparable regression models using either the front-lighted image features, back-lighted image features or both. The two-image model turned out to be slightly better than the one-image models in total volume estimation. The best one-image model resulted in RMSE of 1,098 and the two-image model resulted in RMSE of 1,090. The homologous features did not improve the models of the proportion of broadleaved trees. The overall result gives motivation for further research of multi-image interpretation. The focus may be improving regression estimation and feature selection or examination of stratification used in two-phase sampling inventory techniques.
  • Wathén, Mikael Johannes (2007)
    Department of Forest Resource Management in the University of Helsinki has in years 2004?2007 carried out so-called SIMO -project to develop a new generation planning system for forest management. Project parties are organisations doing most of Finnish forest planning in government, industry and private owned forests. Aim of this study was to find out the needs and requirements for new forest planning system and to clarify how parties see targets and processes in today's forest planning. Representatives responsible for forest planning in each organisation were interviewed one by one. According to study the stand-based system for managing and treating forests continues in the future. Because of variable data acquisition methods with different accuracy and sources, and development of single tree interpretation, more and more forest data is collected without field work. The benefits of using more specific forest data also calls for use of information units smaller than tree stand. In Finland the traditional way to arrange forest planning computation is divided in two elements. After updating the forest data to present situation every stand unit's growth is simulated with different alternative treatment schedule. After simulation, optimisation selects for every stand one treatment schedule so that the management program satisfies the owner's goals in the best possible way. This arrangement will be maintained in the future system. The parties' requirements to add multi-criteria problem solving, group decision support methods as well as heuristic and spatial optimisation into system make the programming work more challenging. Generally the new system is expected to be adjustable and transparent. Strict documentation and free source code helps to bring these expectations into effect. Variable growing models and treatment schedules with different source information, accuracy, methods and the speed of processing are supposed to work easily in system. Also possibilities to calibrate models regionally and to set local parameters changing in time are required. In future the forest planning system will be integrated in comprehensive data management systems together with geographic, economic and work supervision information. This requires a modular method of implementing the system and the use of a simple data transmission interface between modules and together with other systems. No major differences in parties' view of the systems requirements were noticed in this study. Rather the interviews completed the full picture from slightly different angles. In organisation the forest management is considered quite inflexible and it only draws the strategic lines. It does not yet have a role in operative activity, although the need and benefits of team level forest planning are admitted. Demands and opportunities of variable forest data, new planning goals and development of information technology are known. Party organisations want to keep on track with development. One example is the engagement in extensive SIMO-project which connects the whole field of forest planning in Finland.