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Browsing by study line "Cognitive Science"

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  • Vaija, Panu (2023)
    Depressive disorders and especially Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have recently raised a lot of concerns. According to Bains & Abdijadid, (2022), in 2030 MDD will be the most common concern in terms of mental well-being and Kessler & Bromet (2013) pointed out that MDD “has one of the highest lifetime prevalence among psychiatric disorders”, and for this reason MDD results in a significant burden from an individual and societal perspective (Lépine & Briley, 2011). Anhedonia which is a core symptom of MDD (Gorwood 2008, Liang et al. 2022) can be defined as the “inability to enjoy experiences or activities that normally would be pleasurable” (APA Dictionary of Psychology, n.d.-c). Its effects on cognitive processes such as reward responsiveness has been the interest of various studies. Pizzagalli et al. (2008) demonstrated in their study that individuals suffering from MDD and experiencing anhedonic symptoms have a blunted reward responsiveness compared to some healthy subjects. This master thesis aimed to replicate Pizzagalli et al. (2008) study to reinvestigate anhedonia´s impact on reward responsiveness as well as anxiety´s role since individuals suffering from MDD also face anxiety or anxiety disorder (Xin et al. 2015).Two groups were formed, a clinical group (N=29) based on the DSM-IV criteria and a control group (N=20), and both groups were given the Face Game or the Probabilistic Reward Task (Pizzagalli et al. 2008) to measure reward responsiveness. Reward responsiveness was computed as “response bias” and the perceived difficulty of the task as “discriminability”. The results showed no significant difference in response bias scores between the depressed and healthy participants, and no significant correlations were found between depression scores, anhedonia scores, anxiety scores, and response bias scores. An effect of the experimental task’s blocks on response bias and discriminability scores was found, but no interaction effect (group * block) was found for the response bias and discriminability scores. Thus, we cannot argue in favor of the results obtained by Pizzagalli et al, (2008) that individuals suffering from MDD and especially experiencing anhedonic symptoms are more likely to have a blunted reward sensitivity compared to some healthy subjects. The statistically non-significant results were attributed to the small sample size, the complexity of the task and its design. Therefore, further investigations should focus on getting larger clinical and control groups and they also should redefine some aspects of the experimental task to make it more sensitive to any changes to reward responsiveness among individuals suffering from MDD and experiencing anhedonic symptoms.
  • Suoranta, Sanna (2022)
    This master's thesis investigates how the saliency of user interface components affect users when they choose between two options. Many services have moved online and they usually ask their users to accept web cookies that are either necessary for the functioning of the service or improve it. Users are enticed to operate to the advantage of the service provider by offering an attention-grabbing salient option for acceptance. For this thesis, software was developed, in which users were presented with three types of dialogues, with a difference in visibility between the two UI components. The user was offered two normal buttons to choose from, a normal button with a background-free button, or a normal button with a link. The experiment had 20 participants who were monitored using eye-tracking camera glasses, and the speed and accuracy of their tasks were measured using timestamps at the clicking of a button. The tasks were so easy that almost all participants were able to choose requested action even though the task was asked to be done as fast as possible. The layout of the buttons had no statistically significant effect on speed, but the text of the button had: the quickest was to select the button that contained the text OK. In the experiment, the marking of the areas of the direction of the gaze was not precise enough to determine where the user first looks. However, statistically significant the fastest was to complete the task where the most salient option was the correct option, regardless of whether the user looked at only this side or both sides of the dialogue, or those cases where the right answer was a positive option on the right side of the dialog. Surprisingly, without the ecologically valid framing created by the task, the mere visibility of the component was not a significant factor, but the text of the UI component was.
  • Lohilahti, Jonne Antti Kristian (2022)
    Tavoitteet. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena on arvioida tunteiden havaitsemisen mahdollisuutta arkielämässä puettavien laitteiden ja koneoppimismallien avulla. Tunnetiloilla on tärkeä rooli päätöksenteossa, havaitsemisessa ja käyttäytymisessä, mikä tekee objektiivisesta tunnetilojen havaitsemisesta arvokkaan tavoitteen, sekä mahdollisten sovellusten että tunnetiloja koskevan ymmärryksen syventämisen kannalta. Tunnetiloihin usein liittyy mitattavissa olevia fysiologisia ja käyttäymisen muutoksia, mikä mahdollistaa koneoppimismallien kouluttamisen muutoksia aiheuttaneen tunnetilan havaitsemiseksi. Suurin osa tunteiden havaitsemiseen liittyvästä tutkimuksesta on toteutettu laboratorio-olosuhteissa käyttämällä tunteita herättäviä ärsykkeitä tai tehtäviä, mikä herättää kysymyksen siitä että yleistyvätkö näissä olosuhteissa saadut tulokset arkielämään. Vaikka puettavien laitteiden ja kännykkäkyselyiden kehittyminen on helpottanut aiheen tutkimista arkielämässä, tutkimusta tässä ympäristössä on vielä niukasti. Tässä tutkimuksessa itseraportoituja tunnetiloja ennustetaan koneoppimismallien avulla arkielämässä havaittavissa olevien tunnetilojen selvittämiseksi. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa käytetään mallintulkintamenetelmiä mallien hyödyntämien yhteyksien tunnistamiseksi. Metodit. Aineisto tätä tutkielmaa varten on peräisin tutkimuksesta joka suoritettiin osana Helsingin Yliopiston ja VTT:n Sisu at Work projektia, missä 82:ta tietotyöläistä neljästä suomalaisesta organisaatiosta tutkittiin kolmen viikon ajan. Osallistujilla oli jakson aikana käytettävissään mittalaitteet jotka mittasivat fotoplethysmografiaa (PPG), ihon sähkönjohtavuutta (EDA) ja kiihtyvyysanturi (ACC) signaaleita, lisäksi heille esitettiin kysymyksiä koetuista tunnetiloista kolmesti päivässä puhelinsovelluksen avulla. Signaalinkäsittelymenetelmiä sovellettiin signaaleissa esiintyvien liikeartefaktien ja muiden ongelmien korjaamiseksi. Sykettä (HR) ja sykevälinvaihtelua (HRV) kuvaavia piirteitä irroitettiin PPG signaalista, fysiologista aktivaatiota kuvaavia piirteitä EDA signaalista, sekä liikettä kuvaavia piirteitä ACC signaalista. Seuraavaksi koneoppimismalleja koulutettiin ennustamaan raportoituja tunnetiloja irroitetujen piirteiden avulla. Mallien suoriutumista vertailtiin suhteessa odotusarvoihin havaittavissa olevien tunnetilojen määrittämiseksi. Lisäksi permutaatiotärkeyttä sekä Shapley additive explanations (SHAP) arvoja hyödynnettiin malleille tärkeiden yhteyksien selvittämiseksi. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Mallit tunnetiloille virkeä, keskittynyt ja innostunut paransivat suoriutumistaan yli odotusarvon, joista mallit tunnetilalle virkeä paransivat suoriutumista tilastollisesti merkitsevästi. Permutaatiotärkeys korosti liike- ja HRV-piirteiden merkitystä, kun SHAP arvojen tarkastelu nosti esiin matalan liikkeen, matalan EDA:n, sekä korkean HRV:n merkityksen mallien ennusteille. Nämä tulokset ovat lupaavia korkean aktivaation positiivisten tunnetilojen havaitsemiselle arkielämässä, sekä nostavat esiin mahdollisia yhteyksiä jatkotutkimusta varten.
  • Berg, Anton (2022)
    This master's thesis seeks to conceptually replicate psychologist Michael Kosinski's study, published in 2021 in Nature Scientific Reports, in which he trained a cross-validated logistic regression model to predict political orientations from facial images. Kosinski reported that his model achieved an accuracy of 72\%, which is significantly higher than the 55\% accuracy measured in humans for the same task. Kosinski's research attracted a huge amount of attention and also accusations of pseudoscience. Where Kosinski trained his model with facial features containing information for example about head position and emotions, in this thesis I use a deep learning convolutional neural network for the same task. Also, I train my model with Finnish data, consisting of photos of the faces of Finnish left- and right-wing candidates gathered from the 2021 municipal elections. I research whether a convolutional neural network can learn to predict from candidates' faces whether a member of a Finnish party belongs to either the right-wing Coalition Party (Coalition) or the left-wing Left Alliance (Left Alliance) with better than 55\% accuracy, and what is the possible role of color information on the classification accuracy of the model. On this basis, I also consider the wider ethical issues surrounding these types of models and the technological advances they bring. There has been a recent ethical debate on the widespread use of facial recognition technology in relation to issues such as human autonomy, privacy, and civil liberties. In the context of previous scientific findings, there has also been debate about the potential ability of facial recognition technologies to reveal information about our most personal traits, such as sexual orientation, personality, and emotional states. Thus, facial recognition technologies are also closely related to privacy issues. In his original article, Michael Kosinski did not underestimate the many problematic ethical issues that the use of facial recognition technology can raise. He did, however, underline the role of science in trying to determine the function, capability, and accuracy of these technologies. Only through research can we gain insights into these technologies, which can then potentially be used to inform societal decision-making. This research approach is also the aim of this Master's thesis.
  • McGannon, Steven Nathan (2022)
    This thesis examines the notion of representational content in philosopher Frances Egan’s deflationary account of mental representation (DAMR) for cognitive neuroscience. In particular, this thesis explores to what extent DAMR’s pragmatic account of representational content answers to the content determinacy constraint. The content determinacy constraint is a constraint on an account of mental representation which holds that an account must provide the basis for attributing determinate content to the posited computational states. For example, the constraint requires that an account must specify the conditions under which a given representational content — such a fly — is attributed to a given representational vehicle — such as some particular structures in a frog’s brain. A variety of naturalistic “tracking theories” — broadly, theories which attempt to answer to such a constraint in terms of a privileged naturalistic relation holding between some object and the inner mental state in question — are often held to have thus far failed to satisfactorily meet this constraint. Egan’s deflationary account promises to address this constraint in a way which departs from naturalistic tracking theories (and from several other theories as well). It promises to do this by proffering a notion of representational content which says that such content is fundamentally pragmatic, and that this ultimately allows the account to avoid the problems typically associated with tracking theories. I will examine how DAMR purports to meet the content determinacy constraint via its pragmatic account of content. To this end, I will raise a content indeterminacy concern for one of the pragmatic functions of content DAMR maintains. I will examine several potential lines of response to this indeterminacy concern, some of which I will evaluate as more or less successful. The first chapter introduces the central research aims, methods, and an ethical research statement. The second chapter consists in the theoretical backdrop against which DAMR is situated, in particular, with regard to how the notions of “representation” and “computation” have been employed in cognitive science historically. The third chapter consists in a detailed explication of the components of DAMR, including a careful differentiation between its realist and computational elements and its pragmatic elements. This is followed by an explication of how DAMR purports to meet the content determinacy constraint. The fourth chapter consists in a theoretical concern which suggests some pragmatic elements of DAMR might be vulnerable to a content indeterminacy concern; and, a variety of potential responses to the indeterminacy concern raised. The fifth chapter consists in setting out the central conclusion of the thesis and suggesting four potential areas for future investigation. The central conclusion of this thesis is that DAMR faces a “limited” content indeterminacy concern for at least one of its pragmatic elements. However, I highlight that there are several ambiguities which require resolution prior to consideration if the concern raised extends to other elements of the account. I propose that the results of this thesis demonstrate the need for further clarification with regard to the way in which DAMR is committed to the content determinacy constraint. Ultimately, the concerns raised along with the ambiguities noted should serve to facilitate further philosophical evaluation of DAMR.
  • Elovaara, Kaisa (2023)
    Understanding who develops a positive attitude towards science is an important topic to study as the relevance of science and understanding of science have become more and more important in contemporary societies. This thesis examines cognitive correlates of science attitudes. Science attitudes are defined as attitudes the general public has towards scientific research and the scientific community. Additionally, science attitudes were characterised as consisting of three dimensions: science identity, trust in science and the importance of science. Cognitive correlates of science attitudes are studied because it is a scarcely studied topic. The theoretical framework for cognition is an adaptation of Stanovich’s tripartite theory of the mind, which is a specification of dual process models. The theory concerns rational thought and action and proposes three kinds of cognition: reflective, algorithmic, and autonomous. The cognitive factors examined are characterised according to the framework: reflective cognition is represented by analytical thinking, epistemic curiosity and probability heuristics and algorithmic cognition is represented by fluid intelligence. In addition to these, creative thinking is examined, and it is represented by divergent thinking and insight. Sociodemographic determinants were also considered. The data is survey data, which was collected with a non-probabilistic volunteer sampling method. After excluding the non-valid participants, the sample size was 153 observations (F=108, M= 34, other =16). The age range was 19-74 years (mean = 48.6, median = 53). Due to missingness, a data imputation was performed. The study applied linear regression analysis. The results of the study indicate that the different dimensions of science attitudes have different cognitive correlates. Analytical thinking was positively associated with science identity whereas epistemic curiosity, performance in probability heuristics as well as fluid intelligence were positively associated with importance of science. Trust in science did not have any cognitive correlates. Additionally, having a lower level of education was related to having a more negative attitude towards science. Science attitudes seem to be multidimensional constructs that have cognitive and sociodemographic determinants. The topic requires more research in order to clarify the relationships of the determinants of science attitudes. In addition, more attention should be paid on the definition of “science” in science attitudes as it may affect comparability of the results.
  • Ylätalo, Hanna (2022)
    Objective. Empathy is essential for successful collaboration. Empathic mechanisms partly rely on receiving sensory socioemotional information during social interactions, such as facial expressions. Today, computer-mediated communication (CMC) covers a large part of daily social environments. However, socioemotional information during CMC is restricted, which directly impacts social processes and therefore, different empathic skills may become beneficial in CMC environments compared to face-to-face interactions. The impacts of CMC on social processes are insufficiently understood and studies provide mixed results. Physiological synchrony is a useful tool to study underlying aspects of social interactions. In psychophysiology, physiological states can be evaluated according to physiological responses, such as changes in electrodermal activity (EDA), which is a measure of sympathic nervous system activity. EDA synchrony is connected to empathy and collaboration in several studies. The purpose of this study is to reveal connections between empathic skills, collaborative task performance and EDA synchrony in CMC environment. Methods. EDA signals of twenty-nine pairs were recorded during collaborative task performance in VR environment. Participants were unfamiliar with each other and could not see each other during performance. Before the experiment, they conducted two empathy tests: Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME). The performance was measured and connected with empathic abilities using statistical methods. EDA synchrony indices were calculated for each pair, and were statistically connected with empathy and task performance. Results and Conclusions. The results surprisingly showed that IRI subscale ’personal distress’ predicts collaborative task performance in VR environment. Personal distress reflects emotional sensitivity and is conneceted to social avoidance and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. This result indicates that different social skills become beneficial in CMC environment, where participants cannot see each other, as in face- to-face collaboration. In addition, RME, which reflect skills in complex emotion recognition, was connected to performance on a trend level, which is supported by previous findings. EDA synchrony occured, but was not connected with either empathic skills or collaboration.
  • Harju, Minna (2023)
    Objectives. This study delves into the cognitive load of multi-objective decision-making (MODM) tasks. It employs a multi-dimensional measurement approach using brain oscillations, eye activity, and self-reports to examine the increase in cognitive load. The study wants to answer how an increasing number of objectives affect the development of cognitive load in the two-alternative choice task. The framework consists of cognitive load and working memory capacity limitations literature and considers decision-making in consumer products. Methods. The participants’ (N=50) task was to choose which one they preferred from two consumer product bundles. The objectives were manipulated with the number of products (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) included in bundles. The variables used to examine the cognitive load in the MODM task were self-reported cognitive load, EEG measures of frontal theta synchronization, and frontal alpha desynchronization, as well as blink rate and pupil size difference. Results and conclusions. Overall, the findings were partially mixed as the results indicated that the self-reported cognitive load and information overload were increasing linearly as the decision objectives (the number of products in the bundles) increased. However, brain oscillations were not significantly affected by the increase in objectives. Interestingly, the blink rate decreased, but pupil size was not detected to change as a function of an increasing number of objectives. Instead, the eye activity indicated a visual load when there were more objectives in the bundles.
  • Sholihat, Aliva (2023)
    Statistical learning is a universal cognitive mechanism that allows humans to detect patterns and regularities in their environment, playing a crucial role in various cognitive functions, including language acquisition. This research delved into the relationship between subjective sleep quality, measured using the PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) questionnaire, and statistical language learning in adults. In two separate studies, participants' performances in statistical language learning were measured: Study 1 (N = 97) and its replication in Study 2 (N = 120). Both studies utilised the two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) recognition task, complemented by a confidence judgement rating. The results showed a significant learning effect above chance in both studies, highlighting adults' capability for statistical language learning. Explicit learning mechanisms significantly contributed to statistical language learning, highlighting the vital role of the declarative memory hippocampal-prefrontal cortex system in adult statistical language learning. Study 1 found that a logarithmic model most suitably represented the relationship between subjective sleep quality and statistical language learning performance. This model showed an initial drop in learning performance as subjective sleep quality declined, but performance stabilised with a further decline in subjective sleep quality. However, this relationship was not statistically significant in Study 2. While this research provides novel insights into the interplay between sleep quality and statistical language learning, future studies should consider subjective and objective sleep measures for a more comprehensive investigation. The research findings have implications for understanding the cognitive mechanisms underpinning language learning and the potential influence of sleep quality on these processes.
  • Halonen, Juho (2023)
    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism of cooperation between self-interested agents in which an individual helps another in order to gain a cooperative reputation, and is then rewarded by third-parties who conditionally help those who have helped others. Social Heuristics Hypothesis, an application of dual-process models to cooperation decisions, states that intuitive decision-making defaults to decisions that are typically beneficial in social interactions, whereas deliberative decisions are fitted more accurately to the specific features of the present situation. Drawing on these two models of social behaviour, the present studies hypothesised that promoting intuitive decision-making results in more reciprocal helping and cooperation decisions. Two pre-registered online-studies (total N = 487) did not support the hypothesis. While indirect reciprocity was observed, a time pressure manipulation designed to increase intuitive versus deliberative decision-making processes did not have the predicted effects in a Dictator game or Prisoner’s Dilemma with partners who had been either fair or selfish in an earlier Dictator game with a third-party player. Additionally, Cognitive Reflection Test scores failed to predict the reciprocity observed. Explorative analysis showed that, contrary to hypothesis, contributions to partners who had been selfish were higher in time pressure treatment versus a treatment where participants were made to wait before submitting their decisions. This finding could potentially be explained by social heuristics that promote signalling one’s cooperative qualities instead of indirect reciprocity. The predictions of Social Heuristics Hypothesis have been under active interest and dispute during the last decade, and the present studies contribute to an unstudied field of Social Heuristics Hypothesis in the domain of indirect reciprocity.
  • Ketola, Katriina (2021)
    Tarkastelen abrahamilaisen institutionaalisen jumalauskon kehittymistä, omaksumista ja säilymistä selittäviä kognitiivisia ja evolutiivisia mekanismeja 2010-luvun psykologisen tutkimuksen ja kognitiivisen uskontotieteen filosofien näkökulmista. Jumalauskon kehittymisen ovat mahdollistaneet seuraavat kognitiiviset tekijät: intuitiivinen ajattelutyyli, kognitiiviset vinoumat eli ontologiset kategoriasekaannukset, teleologinen ajattelu ja dualismi sekä skitsotypia. Nykyisen muotonsa jumalausko on kuitenkin saanut tuhansia vuosia kestäneen kulttuurillisen tiedon omaksumisen, säilyttämisen, muokkaamisen ja edelleen siirtämisen prosessien kautta. Yksilö omaksuu uskon jumalaan kulttuuriympäristöstään. Lisäksi yksilöllistä vaihtelua selittävät yllä eritellyt kognitiiviset tekijät. Yksilötasolla jumalauskon säilymistä motivoi eksistentiaalisen toimintakyvyn ylläpitäminen: usko toimii turvan lähteenä, maailmaa jäsentävänä mallina sekä mahdollisesti torjuu kuolemanpelkoa. Uskomiseen motivoitunut henkilö hakeutuu tilanteisiin, joissa hän kokee jumalan läsnäolon. Nämä kokemukset jumalan läsnäolosta vahvistavat uskoa entisestään. Yhteisötasolla jumalauskoa ylläpitää kyseenalaistamista vaikeuttava sosiaalinen paine, joka ilmenee epävakaissa elinolosuhteissa
  • Nyberg Hovinen, Anette (2023)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between age-related cognitive function and how music is experienced and reflected in individual’s daily life. As the life expectancy of humans is increasing, more and more people are predicted to suffer from memory disorders and cognitive decline in the future. Musical activities provide a promising tool in supporting healthy aging, but more knowledge on how cognitive function is related to music experience is required. Methods. The data from Seniorikuorotutkimus (SEKU) and Musiikin muistijäljillä (MUMU) studies were used for this study. 88 participants, age between 60–88 years, were included in the final statistical analyses. General cognitive ability, working memory, short-term linguistic memory and executive control were assessed using neuropsychological tests such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the CERAD word list task and the WMS-III-word list task. Experiencing music and the use of music in daily life was assessed using the validated MusEQ questionnaire. Results and conclusions. Based on the results, general cognitive functioning as measured by MoCA or episodic and linguistic memory as measured by word list tasks were not related to experiencing music and the meaning of music in daily life as measured by the MusEQ questionnaire. In the statistical analyses, only the musical background, measured as choral singing and/or playing experience, was connected to daily experiencing of music in the regression model. The result is important as experiencing music or the importance of music in daily life appears to be independent of cognitive function. Thus, the result can be used, for example, when planning the use of music in supporting neurocognitive aging.
  • Elonen, Jasmin (2021)
    To make fast and efficient decisions in changing environments, humans must plan their actions throughout their lives by maintaining and updating relevant information. Such goal-directed situations demand flexible adjustment of behavior and the suppression of task-irrelevant details. Executive dysfunctions in cognitive flexibility, working memory and inhibition have been related to aberrant prefrontal cortex functioning. The prefrontal cortex has previously been found to have an important role in these executive functions as a supervisory modulator and processor of information from posterior sensory brain areas. Structural and functional abnormalities in these brain areas have been found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These impairments may be the underlying reason for problems in decision making and planning for people with ADHD. However how the brain’s oscillatory activity modulates different cognitive functions in areas relating to planning and decision making is still unclear. To investigate thisthe brain’s activity was measured with MEG while participants (21 ADHD patients, 28 controls) performed in Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). WCST is a fast-paced task, where cards are sorted according to changing rule categories with the direction of feedback. The aim of this study was to investigate planning in adults with ADHD and a control group during WCST planning period and compare trials with previous feedback being correct or incorrect. Difference in the local neuronal activity in prefrontal and posterior areas were expected between the ADHD and control groups. Data-analysis and source modelling and reconstruction were conducted on the neuronal (MEG) data and structural (MRI) data. Statistical analyses were run for local neuronal amplitude dynamics and visualized within and between groups. The behavioral results of reaction times and hit rates did not show significant differences between groups. Clinical questionnaire scores did not correlate with reaction times. However, contrast of planning in correct-incorrect feedback trials within groups showed increased and decreased brain activity in delta, theta, alpha and beta oscillations. The control group showed activity in frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital regions related to default mode, somatomotor with increased activity in the beta and alpha bands. For the ADHD group greatest positive activity was seen in beta band in frontal and parietal areas, but also in occipital regions. These activation sites were mostly related to dorsal and ventral attention and somatomotor networks but also to default mode and visual networks. Mostly temporal activity of suppressed delta, theta and alpha oscillations in the lateral areas was seen in the between groups comparison. These areas related to ventral attention and somatomotor networks. Impaired neuronal activity in the ADHD group was seen in weaker increased beta than the control group and the missing increased alpha oscillations. It remains for the future studies to interpret the roles of this oscillatory activity but direction towards impairments in cognitive functions like flexibility, working memory and inhibition in planning in ADHD. These data also suggest that planning in the WCST needs the flexible modulation of many cognitive functions and processes that are modulated by increased alpha and beta oscillations and the suppressed delta and theta oscillations.
  • Nurmi, Miska Juhani (2021)
    Objectives The purpose of this thesis is to consider what the cognitive models of online causal learning are and what they have to offer for the interactive AI approach. In this thesis, an interactive AI system is considered one that focuses on understanding and collaborating with a human user and which can therefore benefit from cognitive models. The general overview of the models is given by replicating some of the computational results of Bramley et al. (2017) which explored cognitive models for online causal learning. The earlier paper contained four models on how people might learn their causal beliefs, and five models on how people might choose where they place their tests, also known as interventions. Thesis also discusses the implications that the replicated models have for interactive AI, both by considering how these models could be better extended into the interactive AI framework, but also by considering a simple AI based system that could make use of such models. Replication The replication was done by reimplementing the original models of Bramley et al. in R and by reproducing the corresponding figures. Out of the four models used for causal belief updating, two were successfully replicated so that the results corresponded to the original paper. It is not certain why the two other models could not be replicated, and the task is left open for future work. Out of the five intervention choice models, four were implemented and three successfully replicated. One of the models was very close to the original results, but this thesis could not conclude whether it fully reproduces the original results. Implications The simple AI model proposed in this performed poorly but was able to show that in theory, an interactive AI system that incorporates such a model might be feasible in the future with further development. Some recommendations to better extend the replicated models into the interactive AI framework were made. Main recommendations were that a better model on how people might choose where they focus their local attention is needed. Furthermore, it should be ensured that the models approximate human behaviour in larger graphs as well.
  • Raatikainen, Riikka (2022)
    Tutkielma käsittelee optimismivinouman esiintymistä tulevaisuusskenaarioissa, joiden aiheena on ilmastonmuutos. Siinä missä skenaariomenetelmän käyttö voi vähentää tiettyjen kognitiivisten vinoumien vaikutusta tulevaisuutta koskevissa arvioissa, toiset vinoumat voivat puolestaan haitata skenaarioiden laatimista ja arviointia. On arveltu, että useissa eri konteksteissa esiintyvä optimismivinouma näyttäytyisi myös skenaariomenetelmän yhteydessä. Tutkimus selvittää kokeellisesti, esiintyykö ilmastonmuutosaiheisten skenaarioiden arvioinneissa optimismivinoumaa, eli pitävätkö koehenkilöt positiivisia skenaarioita muita todennäköisempinä. Lisäksi tarkastellaan, onko skenaario-optimismi yhteydessä optimismivinoumaan toisessa kontekstissa mitattuna sekä muihin muuttujiin. Tutkimuskysymysten selvittämiseksi koostettiin kyselylomake, joka lähetettiin Helsingin yliopiston ainejärjestöjen sähköpostilistoille. Kyselyyn tuli 182 vastausta. Tutkittaville esitettiin neljä skenaariota, jotka vaihtelivat positiivisesta negatiiviseen, ja ne käsittelivät saimaannorpan selviytymistä ja kannan kokoa 50 vuoden päästä. Koehenkilöiden tuli asettaa skenaariot todennäköisyysjärjestykseen, jonka pohjalta kullekin vastaajalle laskettiin tietty optimistisuuden taso. Keskimäärin vastaajat olivat pessimistisiä arvioissaan, ja tämä optimistisuuslukema jäi alle neutraalina pidetyn arvon. Skenaarioarvioissa ei siis esiintynyt optimismivinoumaa. Optimismivinoumaa mitattiin myös laittamalla koehenkilöt arvioimaan eri elämäntapahtumien todennäköisyyksiä omalla kohdallaan verrattuna muihin. Näissä kysymyksissä optimismivinoumaa esiintyi, sillä vastaajat arvelivat keskimäärin kokevansa positiivisia tapahtumia muita todennäköisemmin ja negatiivisia muita epätodennäköisemmin. Elämäntapahtumaoptimismin määrä myös korreloi positiivisesti skenaario-optimismin kanssa. Lomakkeella selvitettiin myös muiden muuttujien yhteyttä skenaarioarviointien mahdolliseen optimismivinoumaan. Yleisen optimismin tasoa selvitettiin valmiilla kyselyllä, mutta tämä ei korreloinut skenaario-optimismin kanssa. Ilmastonmuutosasenne puolestaan korreloi negatiivisesti skenaario-optimismin kanssa, eli ilmastonmuutokseen vakavasti suhtautuvat arvioivat skenaarioita pessimistisemmin. Vastaajien ikä, sukupuoli tai saimaannorppatiedon määrä ei vaikuttanut skenaarioarviointeihin. Optimismivinouman puute skenaarioarvioissa oli yllättävä tulos, jonka tarkkaa syytä ei voida sanoa täsmällisesti. Tämä voi johtua joko skenaariomenetelmän kognitiivisia vinoumia vähentävästä vaikutuksesta tai skenaarioiden aiheena olleen ilmastonmuutoksen herättämistä negatiivisista mielikuvista. Olisikin tarvetta tutkia aihetta lisää edustavammalla otoksella sekä tutkimusasetelmalla, joka erottelisi skenaariomenetelmän ja ilmastonmuutosaiheen vaikutukset toisistaan. Skenaarioiden käytön kannalta optimismivinouman puute voidaan kuitenkin nähdä hyvänä asiana.
  • Stenius, Thomas Christian (2021)
    There is a persistent belief among design scholars that design and science are fundamentally different activities. While there are historical reasons for this, the academic literature surrounding both design and scientific cognition does not fully support this notion. Against this background, the aim of this thesis is to examine how designers think while designing and the ways in which design thinking may resemble scientific thinking. For this study, verbal protocol analysis was chosen as the method. Five experienced architects were asked to perform a design task for approximately an hour, and think aloud concurrently while designing. Their verbal output was then transcribed and coded inductively, and analyzed using both the video and verbal data in parallel without directly utilizing any existing coding scheme or framework. Subjects used basic sketching tools during the sessions, which were conducted remotely over video conferencing software due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. After multiple iterations of inductively coding the data, behavioral patterns consisting of three main activities were identified: framing (mentally defining the boundaries of a specific topic of focus), creation (generating and implementing ideas), and evaluation (evaluating previous designs). These patterns, or design activity sequences, formed the basis for the design activity model (DAM) that was developed and used in this study. Five different sequences were identified: full loops, extensions, partial loops, reverse loops, and parallel sequences. Subjects tended to start and end any design action with framing, which is why these sequences are called loops. They varied in duration but were generally short, ranging from a few seconds to a minute or two. On average, subjects would perform roughly two sequences per minute. These, however, tended not to be evenly distributed over the entire duration of the design task. The cognitive activities of the subjects were also contrasted with cognitive activities found in science, including deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning, analogies, categorization, causal reasoning, distributed reasoning, and hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Many similarities were identified, but not all of them could be observed directly from the data and had to be inferred from the context, as subjects did not always verbally express what their exact reasoning patterns were. The empirical analysis suggests that designers utilize specific sequences of actions while designing. The study suggests, albeit not conclusively, that there are similarities between design and scientific thinking, which is in contrast to the popular belief among design scholars that they are fundamentally different. To complement this study, future avenues of research are suggested. An additional contribution of this study is the DAM itself and its coding scheme.
  • Makkonen, Emilia (2021)
    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method that in recent years has gained the attention of researchers. In certain contexts, tDCS can be utilised in modulating brain function and cognitive performance, and it has been found to modulate symptoms and neural correlates of some pathologies. Due to differences in protocols between studies, the literature is inconclusive on the effects of tDCS on some brain areas and networks. In this study the effects of tDCS directed to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on functional networks of the brain in resting state are examined. 36 healthy female subjects were divided into control and tDCS-groups of equal sizes. Functional networks were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in resting state before one stimulation session of 20 minutes with 2 mA current or sham stimulation, and after the session. Functional networks were identified with independent component analysis (ICA), which was performed on the set of images with both groups combined. The groups were then compared on a network level. The tDCS group showed increased functional connectivity in and around the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in language network compared to the sham group. Other networks identified by ICA that showed no statistically significant differences between groups were posterior and anterior default mode, dorsal attention, sensorimotor, orbitofrontal, left and right frontoparietal, medial and lateral visual network, basal ganglia and the cerebellum. The results of this study were partially in line with previous studies that have found increases in the functional connectivity of brain regions associated with reward processing. There is a need for systematic examination of the effects of different tDCS protocols on functional networks in future studies.
  • Saaristo, Jenni (2023)
    Tapahtumasegmentaatio jäsentää sekä arkista kokemustamme että muistiamme. Parhaillaan meneillään olevan tapahtuman hahmotus ja prosessointi tapahtuu todennäköisesti aivokuorella, mutta ilman toimivaa hippokampusta tilanteesta ei voi syntyä pysyvää muistoa. On olennainen kysymys, missä kohtaa ja miten hippokampus osallistuu tapahtumien prosessointiin ja mieleen painamiseen. Aiemmin on magneettikuvaustutkimuksin osoitettu, että hippokampus reagoi tapahtumien välisiin rajoihin aktivaatiopiikein. On ehdotettu, että ne ilmentäisivät aistimodaliteetista riippumattoman tason prosessia, jossa hippokampus kokoaa yhteen ja vahvistaa koetun tilanteen kokonaisrepresentaation, jotta se voidaan painaa muistiin. Aiemmat tutkimukset on kuitenkin toteutettu yksinomaan audiovisuaalisilla ärsykkeillä, ja koska hippokampuksen tiedetään osallistuvan myös visuaaliseen prosessointiin, ei ole täysin selvää, etteivätkö havaitut aktivaatiot voisi selittyä alemman, aistitietoa käsittelevän tason prosesseilla. Tämän kysymyksen ratkaisemiseksi tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin reagoiko hippokampus tapahtumarajoihin puhtaasti auditiivisessa ärsykkeessä. Ärsykkeenä oli 71-minuuttinen tarinallinen äänikirja, jonka osallistujat kuuntelivat passiivisesti fMRI-rekisteröinnin aikana, ja jonka tapahtumarajat määriteltiin kokeellisesti erillisen koehenkilöryhmän avulla. Aivokuvausaineisto analysoitiin aivoalueittain sekä hippokampuksesta että eksploratiivisesti myös kaikilta aivokuoren alueilta. Hippokampuksen havaittiin reagoivan tapahtumarajoihin aktivaatiopiikein. Aivokuorella voimakkaasti reagoivia alueita olivat mm. posteriorinen mediaalinen aivokuori, ventromediaalinen prefrontaalialue, parahippokampaalinen poimu sekä etummainen pihtipoimu. Monien näistä alueista uskotaan osallistuvan meneillään olevan tapahtuman mallintamiseen ja hahmottamiseen, ja osa mahdollisesti osallistuu huomion siirtämiseen sisäisen ja ulkoisen välillä. Etummaisen pihtipoimun tiedetään osallistuvan odotusten ja havaintojen välisten konfliktien monitorointiin, mikä saattaisi tukea teoriaa, jonka mukaan segmentaatio olisi riippuvaista havaituista ennustevirheistä. Tätä ei kuitenkaan tämän tutkimuksen perusteella voida varmasti päätellä, vaan asiaa tulisi tutkia tarkemmin. Tämän tutkimuksen tulokset tukevat näkemystä, jonka mukaan hippokampuksen lisääntynyt toiminta tapahtumarajoilla liittyy korkean tason abstraktiin segmentaatioon ja mahdollisesti episodisen muiston luomiseen. Tämä prosessi mahdollisesti tapahtuu yhteistyössä aivokuoren aktiivisten alueiden kanssa, mutta kausaaliset suhteet ja informaation kulku näiden alueiden välillä on selvitettävä myöhemmissä tutkimuksissa.
  • Halmetoja, Saara (2021)
    Kaksikielisyyden yhdentymishypoteesi (engl. convergence hypothesis) esittää, että kehittyvän kielitaidon myötä ensimmäisen ja toisen kielen käsittelyyn käytetään jaettuja aivoalueita. On avoin kysymys, miten kaksikieliset käsittelevät sanatason kieliopillista eli morfosyntaktista tietoa yksikielisiin verrattuna. On esitetty, että äidinkielen morfosyntaktista ja sanastollista tietoa käsitellään aivotasolla eri mekanismein ja osittain eri aivoalueilla. Morfosyntaksin käsittelyn aivoperustaa on tutkittu paljon säännöllisten ja epäsäännöllisten verbien avulla, mutta aiheen tutkimus muilla sanaluokilla on jäänyt vähemmälle huomiolle. Taivutetut substantiivit sisältävät sekä syntaktista että sanastollista tietoa. Tässä pro gradu -tutkimuksessa selvitettiin ensimmäisen ja toisen kielen taivutettujen sanojen käsittelyä aivoissa tapahtumasidonnaisten jännitevasteiden avulla. Äidinkieleltään englanninkielisiltä yksikielisiltä (n=20) ja kaksikielisiltä (n=17), jotka olivat äidinkieleltään suomenkielisiä ja englantia toisena kielenä puhuvia, mitattiin aivosähkökäyrää passiivisen kuuntelun tilanteessa. Koehenkilöille esitettiin puhuttuja englannin- ja suomenkielisiä sanoja ja akustisesti samankaltaisia pseudosanoja, joista osa oli taivutettu suomen ja englannin monikon päättein (/s/ ja /t/). Morfosyntaksin käsittelyä eri kielitaustoilla tutkittiin vertailemalla taivutuspäätteille syntyneitä jännitevasteita. Englannin monikkopäätteelle /s/ syntyneet vasteet olivat kielestä riippumatta voimakkaampia, kun sanavartalona oli oikean sanan sijaan merkityksetön pseudosana. Tämä vaikutus jatkui pidempään, kun kyseessä oli oikein taivutettu englanninkielinen sana. Tulos on samansuuntainen kuin aiemmissa yksikielisillä tehdyissä tutkimuksissa. Vasteet suomen kielen päätteelle /t/ eivät tuottaneet vastaavaa eroa vasteissa, vaan suomea heikosti taitavilla englanninkielisillä aikainen vaste oikein taivutetuille suomen sanoille oli suurempi kuin taivutuspäätteellisille pseudosanoille. Sama vaikutus esiintyi myöhäisessä vasteessa kielitaustasta riippumatta. Äidinkielelle syntyneet aivovasteet eivät siis olleet täysin yhteneviä kaksikielisten ja yksikielisten välillä. Yksikielisillä havaittiin englanninkielisten sanojen yhteydessä vastakkainen vaikutus, jossa aikainen vaste oli suurempi, kun päätteeseen liitetyllä sanalla ei ollut merkitystä. Kokonaisuudessaan tulokset viittaavat siihen, että sujuvataitoiset vieraan kielen puhujat käsittelevät morfosyntaksia yhtenevästi syntyperäisten puhujien kanssa, mikä tukee yhdentymishypoteesia.
  • Pomare, Adriano (2023)
    Statistical learning (SL) is a set of cognitive mechanisms which allow an organism to subconsciously pick up recurring patterns from its environment. While research in this field has flourished over the past decades, its relationship with multilingualism remains unclear. Our goal is to estimate the extent of this relationship by comparing individual language skills with the performance in a statistical language learning (SLL) task. For this purpose, we conducted an online experiment to collect information about the participants' linguistic background and to test their SL ability via a Statistically Induced Chunking Recall (SICR) task. Additionally, visual linguistic stimuli were generated to examine how the phonotactic rules of the participants' native tongue would impact SL. In particular, we tested how violating vowel harmony in Finnish affected the performance of participants with different degrees of multilingualism. To measure multilingualism, we created the Multilingualism Score (MS), a multifactorial index designed to gauge one's multilingualism level and to analyse its relationship with the performance in the SICR task. Our results exhibit positive correlation between these two factors, suggesting that multilingualism and SLL are significantly correlated. We also observed overall lower performance associated with the violation of vowel harmony. However, we were not able to establish a clear connection between multilingualism and the performance gap.