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Browsing by study line "Home Economics Teacher"

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  • Vanne, Elina (2022)
    The aim of this master's thesis was to study the childhood food memories of 67-76-year-olds. In the first theoretical part of my dissertation I deal with food culture, its formation and the factors that shape it. I write about the history of Finnish food culture since 1945 and the journey towards the current state of Finnish food culture. In the second part of the theory, I write about food memories, previous studies of childhood food memories in Finland and childhood eating habits. My dissertation becomes part of home economics food research, because it deals with Finnish food culture, food memories, cooking skills, food service and even the history of Finnish families' daily lives. My research questions were: How childhood food memories are perceived? Who or what is involved? And in what ways do childhood memories appear in a person’s life at a later age? I did not make hypotheses or presuppositions, as I wanted interview material to speak for itself. The study was conducted as a qualitative study. The research material was collected through pair interviews involving people aged 67–76 years. The subjects were siblings and all of the interviewees were born and have spent their childhoods mainly in the cities of southern Finland. The interviewees were selected at discretion. They have lived their childhoods during the greatest food culture changes in Finland in the last hundred years. The interviews were collected as semi-structured thematic interviews, and the collected material was transcribed, themed and analyzed by means of material-based content analysis. The results of the study show that the role of the mother was the most important in childhood food memories, but the father and grandmother also play a major role in them. Food memories strongly reflected the spirit of the period studied, such as the availability of food, the possibilities of choice, the appreciation of food, Finnish food culture and the social situation. Childhood food memories perceived as positive and negative. Negative food memories are often ignored and there are less negative food memories than positive. There are a lot of positive food memories and they evoke nice and warm thoughts and feelings. In addition to the people, the sensory experiences were emphasized in the food memories. Of the sensory memories, the experiences related to the sense of smell and taste were the most pronounced, but the appearance of the food also affected the attractiveness of the food. The results of my research are largely consistent with previous research. The purpose of the study was to store unique and important Finnish food memorabilia that contain valuable information about history, create an understanding of the present and strengthen the field of home economics research.
  • Jäppinen, Mona (2022)
    The aim of this study is to analyze how facilities and the role of time affect practises in coo-king and dining in the second home. The theoretical framework of this study is based on pre-vious studies of second home living and eating practices. It seems that the busy lifestyle causes reduction of time spent in cooking and eating together. On the other hand, previous studies also show that the second home living acts as a counterweight for busy citylife. The studies related to eating practices are mostly focused on everyday life while ingnoring the in-habitants of second homes. This study takes part to the discussion about second home living, cooking and dining by studying cooking and eating practises. In the previous studies this sub-ject has not been studied from this point of view. The study was executed by utilizing qualitative methods. A thematic interview was used for research material collection. The research material consists of twelve interviews of indivi-duals that spend regularly time in their second homes. The research material was analyzed in a material-based content analysis. The research results show that the more free opportunities to use time are a remarkable fac-tor in cooking and dining in the second home. The results also refer that there was time for cooking in the second home and the food was always prepared from ingredients if it was possible. Because of the conditions in the second home and to save time various methods are utilized to make cooking easier. The results show that there is a strive to dine together and without hurry in the second home. The results also tell of the meanings of cooking and dining in the second home. As a conclusion it can be said that the greater availability of time has a remarkable effect on cooking and dining practises in the second home. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for further studies on eating practices and their impor-tance in second home living.
  • Tarvainen, Tea (2023)
    Household chores are an important part of household functioning. Their significance is also examined in the perspective of household production. Domestic work upbringing, however, has been studied only marginally and no definition of the concept of domestic work upbringing was found in previous scholarly publications. However, previous scientific publications suggest that household chores have an educational dimension. This thesis fills this identified knowledge gap and examines the practices and educational principles of mothers' domestic work upbringing. Additionally, it explores the goals that mothers aim to achieve through the domestic work upbringing they provide. The data for this qualitative study was collected through an online questionnaire. The online questionnaire was open on a Facebook group ‘ÄiTyLIt’ for two weeks in March 2023. The online questionnaire for parents of children under 12 years of age consisted primarily of open-ended questions. The survey data includes 214 mothers' responses, which I have analyzed by means of theoretical content analysis. Atlas.ti analysis software was used to assist the analysis. The mothers' practices and educational principles of domestic work upbringing were di-verse. They can be categorized as child-centered, functional, verbal, time-based and reward-based practices and principles. In addition, some mothers reported using a chore list or a reward chart as a tool for domestic work upbringing. Many mothers reported that they consider the age and skill level of the child, as well as the child's own desire, enthusiasm or personality when raising a child to do household chores. Plenty of the mothers in this study did housework together with their children. This was often based on routine and a desire for an equal division of labor. Furthermore, many mothers praised, encouraged and thanked their children for doing household chores. The aims of domestic work upbringing were mainly focused on the child's own life skills and the shared household. Mothers especially wanted to teach children skills of independence, responsibility, self-help and doing one’s own share. Moreover, mothers wanted to communicate to their children that household chores are part of everyday life and for everyone in the household. In conclusion, it can be proposed that through domestic work upbringing mothers want to contribute to the well-being of both the child and the household, which may also have a positive impact on societal action as a whole.
  • Nikitin, Noora (2022)
    The purpose of this research was to figure out how COVID-19 has affected food purchases, making everyday meals, and using restaurant services amongst families with kids. The theoretical framework consists of execution of everyday dining and planning, formation of food choices and food shopping and also importance of eating out. According to previous studies, everyday dining is usually quite a busy and it demands quick solutions. Eating with family in peace is more common at weekends than on weekdays and planning has been shown as important factor in everyday life. In addition, the theoretical framework deals with eating out and the importance of school or work catering to Finnish food culture. Although COVID-19 is quite new as a research topic, theory of this research consists also of some of the most important effects of the Corona pandemic, for example from the perspective of consumption. The need for this research is the topicality and importance of this topic. The research questions were: What kind of effects the Corona pandemic and its limitations have had on eating in everyday life? What kind of effects the Corona pandemic and its limitations have had on food purchasing on everyday life? What kind of effects the Corona pandemic and its limitations have had on the usage of restaurant services? This study was carried out with qualitative research and the data was collected using a thematic and stimulus interview. The respondents were mainly found from a Facebook group, that is targeted for families living in the center of Helsinki. The interviews were carried out using Zoom and there were five mothers and one father in the study. The research data was first transcribed and then analyzed with thematizing and content analysis. According to results of this research, there was need for making everyday life easier during the Corona pandemic. Food planning has increased, as well as food preparation and its demands. There were also new methods for buying food and motives for usage of restaurant services. Increased planning and cooking were experienced as burdensome. To make everyday life easier, families typically used semi-processed food products and food delivery services, especially at the beginning of the pandemic. Motives for eating out were different than before COVID-19, because eating out was more likely to make everyday life easier. Results shows that ordering groceries was more common among the studied families but demands for cooking have also increased during the pandemic. These effects require important skills, for examples planning, control of everyday life and craftsmanship which are taught in home economics lessons. The changes in food purchases and food choices in unexpected situations, like the Corona pandemic, may also gain more value in the future’s home economics teaching.
  • Järvinen, Janette (2021)
    During the exception period caused by the coronavirus, the cooking of college students has increased in households. Familiar daily routines and regularly recurring everyday activities, such as the lack of contact teaching and student meals, may have created challenges for food planning and preparation. Being responsible for daily meals requires cooking skills as well as the ability to assess the healthiness of food. The goal of this study is to provide research information on university students' eating habits and experiences of health promotion during exceptional times, and on how university students have experienced the adequacy of their own resources in organize health-promoting eating during exceptional times. The theoretical background of the study relies on the researches of nutrition, eating habits and control of everyday life applied the field of home economics pedagogy. The research was carried out using qualitative methods. The research material consists of five university students. The data collection was carried out by in-depth interviews with university students. The interviews were conducted in March 2021 using the Teams app because, due to the prevailing period of exception faceto-face encounters were not possible. The research material was analyzed by thematic design. According to the research results, organizing nutritious meals during exceptional times required more resources such as cooking skills, abilities to rhythmize a new kind of everyday life and also motivation and a desire to prepare health-promoting meals. The students felt that their cooking skills were sufficient, but especially the organization of lunch and maintaining the nutritional quality of lunch was perceived as a great challenge despite their abilities. Continuous cooking, scheduling, and planning were described as heavy, timeconsuming, and stressful. This has had an unhealthy effects on students ’eating habits. A new kind of everyday rhythm and the workload of cooking seemed to be a challenge in students' everyday activities. Due to the preservation of the meal rhythm, the financial situation and the social interaction situations, the university students experienced a longing for an affordable and nutritious student restaurant. According to the results obtained, the new kind of everyday life offered by exceptional circumstances and the challenges it brings seemed to undermine conventional everyday management, such as the organization of daily meals.
  • Huovinen, Millie (2021)
    Food is associated with many social practices and symbolic meanings that are culturally bound, separating and connecting members of culture. By studying food cultures, one can gain a deeper understanding of the society of the country in question, the deep structures of the culture and the history of the country. As culture constantly changes with society, so does food culture and its manifestations. As communication technology takes over the sector as a form of social interaction, food cultures are also increasingly shifting to social media as food images serve as a means of communication. This research falls into the fields of cultural research, visual culture research, and food culture research. The aim of the study is to try to find features typical of Finnish and Japanese food culture in social media food images. As the research material consists of a list of pictorial materials, it is also rewarding to look at the aesthetic content that food images contain and how the layout and content of the image are affected by the fact that the food images have been produced for publication in social media. The study emphasizes the cultural-historical approach as the factor that has most shaped Finnish and Japanese food culture. The research material consisted of food images produced by 6 people, of which there were a total of 30. Half of the research subjects and food images represented Finnish food culture and half Japanese food culture. To support the analysis of the images, the subjects' own comments on the food images of their choice were used. This is a qualitative study in which the material was analyzed by means of content analysis. Content analysis was combined with semiotic image analysis, in which reality is interpreted based on the characters and codes present in the images. An even more marginal aspect of socio-semiotics is represented by the social nature of the research material as part of the ways in which people communicate in social media. Despite the small research data, the research provided indications of typical elements that occur in Finnish and Japanese food culture. These include typical ingredients, food rations, cooking methods, and aesthetic perceptions. In Finnish food culture, emphasis was placed on simple dishes that have taken a lot of influence from other countries. Japanese food culture emphasized the preservation of traditions and the use of domestic raw materials.
  • Myyryläinen, Roope (2023)
    Objectives. The purpose of this master’s thesis was to find out what kind of effects being part of community has on being vegan. The community in which context veganism was studied was punk ja hardcore community where veganism is considered to be common lifestyle. This study aimed to find out in which way punk and hardcore communities relate to veganism and what is the significance of being vegan in order to be part of the community. Study also aimed to find out how does the community effect on being vegan. The theoretical framework of this study was constructed from the background factors and implementation of veganism and punk and hardcore subculture research. Methods. The study material was formed through a semi-structured thematic interviews. Eight vegans belonging to the punk and hardcore community (n=8) participated in the study. The interviewees were asked, among other things, how they experience community atmosphere regarding veganism, how the community affects their veganism and what they perceive community to be for those who aren’t vegans. The data was analyzed using theory-guiding content analysis. Results and conclusions. Veganism is viewed positively and is perceived as a significant part of punk and hardcore community and subculture. Veganism is not a determining factor in terms of belonging to the community, you can also belong to the community without being vegan. However, community encourages and slightly pressures towards a vegan lifestyle. The positive and helpful atmosphere of the punk and hardcore community has a positive effect on the initiation of veganism for the members of the community. The commonness of veganism in the community is perceived as an easing factor for the implementation of veganism. The community offers support, advice and encouragement in implementing a vegan lifestyle, which has been found to have a significant impact in terms of starting and continuing the vegan lifestyle.
  • Karhu, Pilvi (2020)
    The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of Covid-19 epidemic to the everyday life and the work-life balance among young adults. Work is a significant part of a person’s every-day life. Individualisation of working hours stands out in the current work life. Therefore, the need for finding the work-life balance increases. Work-life balance is seen to be a main factor, whereby the employee is able to stabilize the demands becoming from work and leisure. The exceptional global circumstances with Covid-19 epidemic have suddenly affected people’s everyday life and ways of working during the year 2020. Majority of Finnish employees were forced to move to remote work due to the Covid-19 epidemic. The remote work makes it even more challenging to maintain the border between work and leisure time. In addition, people were required to adapt their everyday life due to the health threatening virus. This research applies qualitative methodology. The data were collected by using the theme interview method. Six young adults took part in the interview. All interviews were carried out during September and October in 2020. In addition to the interview the interviewees were asked to describe their normal day during Covid-19 epidemic with a timeline. The timeline was used to support the interviews according to the stimulated recall Interview method. The interview recordings were transcribed word for word and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Hermeneutic-phenomenological approach was also applied in this research. The significance of routines stood out in the everyday life during Covid-19 epidemic. Certain everyday routines were shattered due to the epidemic, while people were forced to adapt their ways of working and free time activities. Despite this, other daily routines were considered as a resource to manage in the crisis. Especially the continuing of work was seen as an important factor in the Covid-19 crisis. Work and leisure time activities were overlapping more flexibly during the Covid-19 epidemic. On the other hand, it was considered important to make a clear boundary between work and leisure time in the end of the day.
  • Topp, Jenni (2023)
    Background and objectives: First, this research aims to understand Ghanaian student teachers' genuine thoughts and views on remote education and learning. Secondly, the interest is to find out how the student teachers see the use of remote methods in their future work and especially, how to teach practical skills remotely. Third, the broader goal is to take a stand on the development of teacher education in a time where sustainability issues, developing technology and crises challenging the global world are shaking up our world view in a new way. The bicycle model of the future home economics teacher, which guides systemic thinking and is based on a transformative learning concept, adapted for this study, is used to help the examination of the results. To support future orientation, the data is also examined with the help of 21 century competencies on teaching and learning. Finally, this master's thesis is an article-form thesis, and its purpose is to produce a scientific article, as well as this summarizing section describing the background work and research process of the article. Context: The concept of remote teaching and learning used in this study refers specifically to learning and teaching that takes place online with remote connections. Such learning can be real-time or asynchronized learning through online platforms. These do not necessarily require a constant network connection but rely on digital pedagogy. Methods: The data of this qualitative online study was collected through WhatsApp interviews and the informant group consisted of nine Ghanaian student teachers. The research data has been analyzed with theory-based content analysis, using the bicycle model on comprehensive climate education as a guiding theory. The bicycle model was modified from the original to suit this study. Results and conclusion: The results of this study clearly indicate both that remote teaching and learning has become a permanent part of Education, but also that remote methods, related to technological knowledge and interaction skills should be further developed in teacher education. The informants of the study saw an interactive, communal, and learning environment that utilizes peer learning but also takes individuals into account as particularly meaningful when thinking about their own learning but also their future work as a teacher.
  • Leskelä, Elina (2022)
    Objectives. Home economics education should establish action which tackles challenges and opportunities related to daily life and digital tools. Previous studies have shown that the most important predictors of home economics teachers’ information and telecommunication technology use are the teacher-level factors of digital competence, perceived usefulness of information and telecommunication technology in home economics teaching and the school-level support. In addition, there is a connection between perceived usefulness of information and telecommunication technology in home economics teaching and its use for facilitating pupils’ learning. This study investigates use of digital tools in home economics teaching, in a sense of what kind of experiences and perceptions home economic teachers’ and teacher students’ have. Thus, finding out how digital tools are used in home economics teaching and which factors have an impact to pedagogical decisions. Methods. This study combines two types of data, thus being a mixed-methods study. Data was collected by a questionnaire from Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish and Estonian home economics teachers and teacher students (n222). 1) Qualitative data was analysed by using thematic analysis, but only using Finnish home economics teachers’ and teacher students’ responses. 2) Part of qualitative data was quantified by using Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish and Estonian respondents’ answers. 3) Quantitative data was analysed by using SPSS-program. Means, standard deviations, t-tests and cross-tabulations were calculated from the data. Results and conclusions. Home economics teachers and teacher students used digital tools particularly to ease teachers work tasks and to support pupils’ learning. By respondents’ experiences digital tools bring value to teaching and the use of digital tools is favourable. Home economics studies have supported and encouraged teacher students to use digital tools, but there is need for further and greater support in the future, especially at teacher training.
  • Vähämäki, Reeta (2021)
    Goals: Due to the Covid-19 situation, Finnish schools moved to distant education in spring of 2020. Interaction is a particularly important element in learning. Studies had shown that it affects the whole experience of learning for students and teachers. The quality of interaction also determines results and attitudes towards future learning. Distant learning has mainly been studied with adults and higher education. These studies showed that good interaction is an especially important element in distant learning. This could be formed through safe on-line environment and well-planned lessons. The purpose of this study is to find out how have students in Finnish schools experienced distant learning in the spring of 2020. Method. There were eight different interviews made for this thesis. There were nine different interviewees altogether in ages between 13-18 during the spring of 2020. Interviews were conducted in the winter of 2021, almost a year after the quarantine. The interviewees were given choises to take the interviews individually, in pairs or groups. They had also an opportunity to choose the interview face to face or with distant connection. About half of the interviews were made via distant connection and all but one individually. The analysis was made using content analysis. Results. The overall impression of the distant learning in quarantine time of 2020 was mainly negative. The results show that experiences of presence and interaction had diminished during distant learning. The interviewees experienced participation and asking during lessons mentally harder than in normal lesson. The learning environments on-line were found to feel unsafe and that was one of the main reason participation was diminished. Many had problems because of the lack of peers in class, and they missed normal school environments and habits, like recess. Positive results were that distant learning tended to be calmer, and it contained less hustle. There is a possibility to create more interaction and participation in distant education classes by thorough and versatile planning and making possibilities to do group work.There should be more ways to cultivate the feeling of safety in distant learning.
  • Munck, Lilli (2021)
    The objective of the study was to clarify how animal rights view and animal-protection appears in the adolescents´ perceptions of animals´ use in food production. In the animal rights view animals´ use is critically examined, whereas animal-protection focuses on the animal welfare without challenging animals´ use itself. Animal rights view was examined by two animal philosophic theories, preference utilitarianism and animal rights theory. In the examination of the animal-protection views utilitarianism and the ambivalence of the human-animal relationship served as a theory. The connection of diet followed by the young people to their views was also examined, because the earlier study shows that following vegan and vegetarian diet supports animal rights view more strongly, whereas the omnivore´s animal ethical views are multiple. Animal ethics has been presented to be added to the contents of the home economics subject, because it is strongly related to today's sustainability- and food education. The data of the study was collected as a part of a survey that was published in Helsingin Sanomat in March 2020. The analysis focused on the age group 15–25. Material included answers to one open question about animals' welfare and rights in food production. The material was qualitatively analysed by using thematic analyses. As a result, five themes were found: questioning of the animals' use, criticism of factory farming, promotion of welfare, defence of the Finnish production and defence of eating meat. The first two represented the animal rights view. Respondents questioning animals´ use considered using animals ethically problematic, whereas in the criticism of the factory farming the animals' intensive production was resisted but not animals' use itself. The animal-protection view appeared as a desire to promote the welfare on farm animals without criticising structures of the food production. The defenders of the Finnish production considered that the welfare is coming true well enough in Finland. A small group did not consider paying attention to the animals' rights and welfare at all important. Animal rights view was most common among vegans, which supports previous studies. Results can be utilized in the planning of teaching materials about farm animal welfare and rights.
  • Nuutinen, Lotta (2024)
    The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of drinks and foods are taken into matriculation examination as packed lunch, which factors influence the choice of packed lunch contents and what kind of role does packed lunch play in the context of matriculation examination. The theoretical framework covers e.g. the definition of a proper meal and its comparability and polarity towards increasing use of snacks and both of their relations to packed lunch. Individual and social factors related to food choices are also covered in the theoretical background. Matriculation examination is a unique event in the context of eating whereupon studying packed lunch can enlighten the cultural and social meanings between food, the individual and society. With help of previous research and by answering the above proposed research questions the aim was to uncover what makes ’a proper packed lunch’ in this context. The study was carried out as a qualitative study. The data was collected using an online survey. The link to the survey was shared in Lukiolaisten liitto´s Instagram Stories for 24 hours and the link was also shared with acquaintances of the author. The data consists of 96 responses (N=96) and the analysis was carried out using content analysis. The results of this study implicate that those who participate in matriculation examination take a variety of different foods and drinks with them. Eight factors behind packed lunch choices were identified: The most common factors were that packed lunch was easy to eat and snack. Other factors were that participants liked the contents and they were filling, they did not disturb others when eaten, they were familiar, and nourishing. The remaining individual factors were categorized in the ’other’ category. The roles of packed lunch were to function as a provider of energy and maintainer of physical performance. Packed lunch also brought comfort, strength and cheer. In addition, packed lunch served as a break and a substitute for meals and proper food. The factors influencing choices and the roles given to the packed lunch often overlapped in the responses. Based on the results a proper packed lunch in matriculation examination consists of a bread product, fruit and some treat as well as water and some other drink. Even though the contents of packed lunch appeared to be more of a snack type, they were seen as a substitute for meals and proper food. Based on the findings it can be concluded that thoughts and practices regarding packed lunch contents, factors influencing the choices and roles are to some extent shared in the culture.
  • Liuska, Lotta (2021)
    This study reviews the everyday life of special needs families during the Covid-19-pandemic. In special needs families at least one child has an increased need for services for their health, growth and/or development. Previous studies show that these services are an important resource and help in everyday life, as it is often built around taking care of the child. In previous studies special needs families have mainly been reviewed during normal conditions and the more recent studies conducted during the pandemic emphasize the perspective of authorities. The purpose of this study is to highlight the everyday life of special needs families during the Covid-19-pandemic and how services have been organized. This study applies qualitative methodology. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews. Seven mothers of special needs families took part in the interviews. The families were from across Finland. The family structures, children’s diagnoses and available resources varied within these families. Tran scripted data was analyzed with content analysis. The study shows that the everyday life of the families focused at home during the Covid-19-pandemic, which led to everyday life routines, free time and use of money changing. During the pandemic the families had to quickly rebuild their everyday life and its routines. Everyday life became more restricted as the routines focused at home. Parents' free time decreased as the children did not attend school or free-time activities. The meaning of home and its surroundings were highlighted because families were not able to spend their time together in shopping centers or restaurants. It became apparent that the realization of services varied between the families during the Covid-19-pandemic. During the pandemic the services were no longer considered safe due to the increased risk of infection, which led to some of the services coming to a halt and the implementation of special arrangements to other services. The decision of realization of the services was partly held by the service providers, while in some cases the families made the decision themselves to pause the service. The need for help in the families did not decrease and especially mothers had to answer this with their own work input. The families found the service system to be rigid and hoped for more flexibility from their service providers. That would mean considering the wishes of the family and the focusing on the best interest of the child.
  • Kolmonen, Mari (2023)
    Aims. The aim of this master’s thesis was to find out usage of S-Group’s carbon footprint calculator among consumers of Osuuskauppa Hämeenmaa. The second aim of this thesis was to gain deeper understanding of consumers’ carbon footprint calculator usage and to find factors which increase consumers’ interest towards climate-friendly food. Research questions in this thesis were: 1. How do consumers use the carbon footprint calculator? 2. What do consumers think about climate-friendly food? 3. How could consumers be supported towards climate-friendly food? Methods. The data of the study was collected through an online survey that was published in Osuuskauppa Hämeenmaa’s Facebook-page on late June 2022. Material included answers to mandatory multiple-choice questions and answers to one voluntary open question. The online survey received 266 answers. The quantitive material was analysed using descriptive methods. The material from open answers was analysed using material-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. Overall consumers were concerned about the climate impact of their food choices. Consumers experienced changing their food choices as an interesting way to affect climate change and their carbon footprint. Sometimes consumers paid attention to the climate impact of their food choices while purchasing food. However, consumers felt unable to influence climate change with their buying behavior. The carbon footprint calculator was not being used in everyday life or it was rarely used even though it was felt to be useful when trying to choose climate-friendly products. The carbon footprint calculator was not felt to have affected food purchases. Consumers felt that grocery stores should provide more support for climate-friendly choices. For the most part, consumers experienced changing their usual habits difficult and some consumers would have needed more information and time to make climate-friendly choices. However, customers did not directly feel the need for support from others. The carbon footprint calculator alone does not seem to help consumers make climate-friendly choices. To make climate-friendly choices consumers would need more support.
  • Haaranen, Anniina (2022)
    The aim of this thesis was to find out how textile care appears in home economics textbooks. Textile care is considered as an essential area of focus in home economics education and an important everyday skill. The study examines what topics are associated with textile care, in what order they are presented, and what terms are associated with the different stages of the textile care. In addition, the study exam- ines how environmental aspects are merged with textile care. The environmental perspective is im- portant to consider in everyday activities so that they are sustainable and do not contribute to climate change. The research was conducted as a qualitative textbook analysis using theory-driven content analysis. The materials utilized in this study were six home economics textbooks published within the 21st cen- tury. A table of analysis was used to categorize the different themes found in the textbooks. In addition to the text contained in the books, images, additional information content, and possible attachments in the books were also included in the analysis. Clothing care, laundry, as well as pre-and post-treatment of laundry were recognized as the main themes among the researched materials. These concepts and themes are described in more detail in the theoretical section of the thesis, as well as within the research results. In all the researched textbooks textile care clearly appears as its own area of focus. The magnitude of the content has some influence on the extent to which the various stages of textile care have been covered in the textbooks. Sustainable aspects of textile care were also found in other sections of the book. The themes related to sustainable development were raised in a few books in sections related to consumer education, addressing especially the circular economy and sustainable decisions when pur- chasing clothing. The four main themes used as basis for the study were found in all the books and were mainly presented throughout the books in the same order. The most notable differences in the different stages of textile care were found in the contents related to clothing care. In more recent text- books, sustainability was clearly an integral part of the textbooks’ other content and was considered in all stages.
  • Silander, Niina (2022)
    Meat production has a number of negative effects on the environment, the climate and the welfare of farm animals. In addition, the consumption of red meat and meat products in particular is linked to a number of lifestyle diseases and certain types of cancer. In Finland, meat is consumed in excess regarding recommendations, and most Finns are not ready to give up eating meat altogether. Studies have shown that people perceive meat as natural, normal, necessary and comfortable. In other words, meat is perceived as food that people want to consume. Health reasons and ethical reasons most often motivate the transition to a vegetarian diet. In addition, ecological reasons have been identified as an important motive for the partial reduction of meat intake. This study examined how meat and it’s substitutes are part of the everyday eating of Finns and what changes have taken place in the consumption of meat and vegetable proteins in 2013 and 2020. The topic is approached with a qualitative research approach, which also includes quantitative features due to the large data size. The material in my research is in two parts; the first sub-dataset contains 485 food day descriptions from 2013 and the second sub-dataset contains 445 food day descriptions from 2020. The main method of data analysis is theory-driven content analysis. In the data, most of the respondents consumed meat or fish during their day. However, in the 2020 data set, holding a vegetarian food day was slightly more common, and plant proteins were consumed more variably than in the 2013 data set. Consuming meat turned out to be an everyday and easy choice based on the data. The most common reasons for reducing meat consumption were the desire to eat healthier, more ecologically and ethically. In addition, in the 2020 data, the choice of vegetarian food was influenced by the ease of cooking and the taste of the food. Many respondents said they were concerned about the climate and animal rights and were actively working towards a more vegetarian diet. Based on this study, the shift toward a more vegetable based diet has occurred fairly effortlessly and naturally. However, a discrepancy between knowledge, attitudes and practice can be identified in the respondents 'descriptions of the food day, as the respondents' attitudes are practically realized in only some of the descriptions of the food day. According to this study, meat consumption is not polarized, and the majority of respondents fall into the middle ground in terms of meat-related values ​​and consumption habits. In addition, the majority of respondents were positive about the plant-based nature of food. According to a previous study, a mere positive attitude may not be reflected in consumption at a practical level, which is why new ways are needed in the future to support consumers' shift towards a vegetarian diet.
  • Vihtiälä, Elisa (2023)
    Objectives. This master’s thesis explores snacking and meal behaviour in hunting context. The objective of this study is to explore what snacks or meals people take when they go hunting, which factors guide the decision process of what to take, and what meanings food have on hunting trips. Foundation for the study was based on food choice and meaning theorems, that have been used to explain people’s eating behaviours over the past decades. Methods. The research was mainly carried out using qualitative methods; however, some quantitative elements were also used. The data was collected using an electronic questionnaire, that was distributed amongst Finnish hunting community via various digital platforms. Questionnaire was also distributed to personal contacts. The data consisted of 361 replies, and it was analysed using thematic content analysis. Results and conclusions. In the data the most common snacks or meals were meat products, sandwiches, hot and soft drinks and sweets, sausages and coffee being the most common single items. Justifications for the food decision process were summarized in 10 driving factors: ease of use, sensual attractiveness, mood uplift, well-being, familiarity, price, self-sufficiency, sociability, or meeting others’ expectations, maintaining capacity to act, and conditions. The meanings given to food and food breaks were summarized in 10 factors: maintaining capacity to act, sociability, tradition, pleasure, safety, practicality, to pass the time, ecology, expenditure, and superstition. The diversity of the factors of the decision process and the meanings can be explained by the versatility of hunting, as the actions of the individual depend on what, where when and how long one hunts and whether one hunts in solo, or with a group. Thus, the factors driving the decisions and the meanings food gets, can vary on an individual level between hunting trips.
  • Lokka, Johannes (2021)
    The aim of the study was to find out how the recipes for fish published in Kotiliesi magazine in different eras have changed in the period 1936–2004. In the past, domestic lake fish and Baltic herring were common food sources in Finland, depending on geographical location. Fresh fish was a seasonal food and the fish was preserved by salting. From the 1950s onwards, the change in the structure of Finnish society and the proliferation of refrigerators and freezers made it possible to consume fresh and frozen fish in an unprecedented way. Instead of household fishing, fish was bought from the store when it was frozen or farmed to an increasing extent. The study examines how the food guidelines for fish published in Kotiliesi in different eras have changed and how the changes in the structure of Finnish society are reflected in the fish guidelines. According to previous research, Norwegian salmon is widely consumed by the turn of the 21st century, and the status of Finnish herring has collapsed. The study was a qualitative history study, and the material used in the study was Kotiliesi magazines of different eras to study the change in fish consumption in Finland, especially from a home economics perspective. 1936, 1958, 1976 and 2004 volumes of Kotiliesi magazine were used as research material. The re-organized research material covered a total of 59 magazines, which utilized fish instructions and fish-related articles. The material was analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. Changed structure of fish guidelines, changes in fish species and processing rates, urbanization and purchased fish, increased living standards and prosperity, and internationalization are found themes. The fish instructions published in Kotiliesi have changed over the decades to a modern, industrial form and can be interpreted without previous cooking experience. The fish species that appeared in the instructions have changed so that Baltic herring and lake fish have changed to frozen fish and salmon. At the same time, the degree of processing of the fish has changed from whole to filleted. As a result of urbanization, fish was bought from the store instead of household fishing. The increase in living standards and prosperity made it possible to preserve fresh and frozen fish, so that salted fish was no longer used. In the internationalized market, Norwegian salmon fillet is an affordable choice when shopping for fish and there are plenty of instructions on how to make it easy.
  • Kilpi, Laura (2022)
    This thesis studies are about home economics teacher’s work with expert positions and how they experience working life. The focus of the thesis is growing into home economics expert. Thesis also studies an equal working environment. Equal working environment means credibility of home economics expert, fair share with working tasks and hiring. Thesis studies home economics expert and equal working environment with phenomenographic method. Participants collected from own contacts and asking interest to take part. The material consists of thematic interview and after interviews the material was transcribed. Interview was semi-structured thematic interview and try to find meanings on the theme like phenomenographic research. Thesis tried to found answer questions: 1. How home economics teacher comprised their own growing to the home economics expertise? 2. What is their perception of an equal environment? This thesis result is multidimensional. Growing to home economics expert include studies and own ac- tivity. Important part is also working experience with expert positions. Studies gives good base, but stu- dent’s need more support to expert work. The work environment is seen as equal and homogeneous. Problem areas was credibility with other expert and challenges with salary improvement.