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Browsing by study line "Humanities Study Track"

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  • Miras, Eva (2020)
    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how people displaced by climate change can be accommodated within the European Union's existing migration governance system while taking into consideration the recent failures and injustices of this system during the so-called refugee crisis. The intention for framing the discussion about climate-induced migration in the context of the refugee crisis is not to compare or equate the two phenomena but to highlight the many injustices and protection gaps that exist under the current migration regimes, and to analyze how climate change will impact these regimes and the legal protections provided for migrants, asylum seekers, and displaced peoples. To begin this analysis, this thesis first looks at the relationship between climate change and migration, where it is determined that climate-induced migration is a complex and multi-causal phenomenon that can impact human mobility in multiple ways. People displaced by climate change face multiple protection gaps in both international and EU law, and there is currently no distinct instrument or coherent policy approach from the EU that is directly applicable to ‘climate migrants’ or climate-induced migration. The second part of this analysis looks at the fractured structure of EU migration governance and how the systems and mechanisms in place failed to adequately protect asylum seekers during the refugee crisis, with a focus on the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). This analysis showed that the EU failed to implement its supranational migration policies efficiently during the refugee crisis, which had a detrimental impact on securing and ensuring the legal protections of migrants and asylum seekers. Part of this failure was due to the lack of unity and trust between Member States, and also because the EU adopted an increasingly securitized approach to migration, abandoning its human rights obligations in order to create a false sense of security. The conclusion of this study found that the increasing securitization of both climate change and the EU’s migration and asylum policies will likely have negative consequences for people displaced by climate change and seeking protection in the EU. The continual and persistent portrayal of climate-induced migration as a potential security threat has hindered the development of any effective policies to address the issue, and the EU has shown little political will to radically rethink its current migration laws, mechanisms, or governance systems. The impacts of climate change will only further contribute to the protection gaps and marginalization that migrants and asylum seekers already face, and the way forward is to continue funding scientific research that captures the complex and multi-causal nature of climate-induced migration, which will help move migration and asylum policies beyond their current securitized outlook and provide evidence-based policies that will better protect those displaced by climate change.
  • Oreschnikoff, Aleksis (2020)
    The European Union’s (EU) approach towards the Arctic has been labeled incoherent and its actorness in regional governance has been deemed limited. The Arctic Ocean is governed in an institutional complex where global and regional processes intertwine. Institutional interplay that occurs between different levels and across sectors contributes to Arctic maritime governance. Influencing these interactions can provide an avenue to governance, even for an actor beyond the region. This research provides empirical evidence on EU’s aims and ambitions regarding the maritime Arctic, while contributing to the theoretical and methodological development of systematic investigations in complex, interactive governance. This study looks at the discourse and practices through which the EU builds its governing actorness. Using a mix of qualitative data from public documents and statements, interviews and observations, the study uses a multi-method, multiperspectival approach to explore the various dimensions relevant to EU’s actorness. Both discourse and content analytical techniques are used to examine the storylines, actors, policy contexts and strategic practices that enable to discuss actorness in terms of interactive governance. The study finds that the EU builds an image for the future of the Arctic marked by uncertainty and connectivity. Increased knowledge, on the one hand, and enhanced interactions between relevant entities, on the other, are considered crucial to approaching such a future. Necessary actions, however, largely depend on the skillful individuals nested within appropriate institutional contexts. EU’s actorness in Arctic maritime governance is characterized by network-building and entrepreneurial individuals. It remains unclear, however, whether network-actorness or policy entrepreneurs effectively influence the governance arrangement. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the EU and the Arctic Council perform similar governance tasks. Therefore, further mixed-method research focusing on the interplay between the EU and the Arctic Council is essential to understand governance developments in the European part of the Arctic Ocean. Examining causal linkages between entrepreneurial network-building and governance outcomes is also considered relevant for future research.
  • Cosgrove, Pierce (2020)
    This thesis aims to examine and contextualize the histories, meanings, and the messages behind a number of the most significant classical structures in Helsinki, looking in particular at who erected these buildings and why they did so, along with what the planners and architects were trying to emphasize through their architectural design choices. The legacies of these builders and their buildings are also to be analysed. Specifically, this thesis does not aim to answer why Finland has classical architecture, but rather what it means for this young nation to have it, especially so in such significant abundance and considering that a great many of the nation’s most important buildings have been designed in this particular style.
  • Pajuvuo, Sanna (2021)
    This thesis analyses the sex work debates in Polish media from March 2017 to March 2018. In the context of Europe, Poland is remarkable both as a country of origin as well as a transit country for migrant sex workers, so unsurprisingly a public debate about sex work exists there. Additionally, Catholicism has a great influence on the Polish society, so a religious dimension is expected to be present in the discussion. Through the published interviews of three Polish women in the sex industry, two of whom live abroad, and the discussion inspired by them, attitudes and perspectives towards sex work in the public debate in Poland are scrutinised. Combining politics of the body, subject-in-process, and intersectional feminism as a theoretic framework, and critical discourse analysis as the method, the agendas and power structures found in the debate are brought to light. For categorising the attitudes found in the material, a framework of different perspectives towards sex work is applied. According to the material, all of the interviewed women see themselves as independent agents who have knowingly chosen their jobs or lifestyles. However, the commentary from other people seeks to discredit the women. Some see them as mentally unstable, while others think that through publicity they are trying to lure other women into the sex business. It can be seen in the debate that the dominant discourses of sex workers as victims or evildoers are resisting the struggles for power of competing discourses. These new discourses are using the tactic of presenting an essentialist sex worker subject with a demand for worker’s rights. While this stable subject is deployed to gain recognition for the sex worker cause, the sex worker identity is often fluid and temporary, and many sex workers keep their activities secret instead of giving public interviews.