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Browsing by study line "Kehitysmaatutkimus"

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  • Surakka, Päivi (2019)
    This thesis is a contribution to the budding discussion within social sciences about blockchain – an emerging technology that, for the last decade or so, has garnered a lot of attention especially with its cryptocurrency applications. More recently, blockchain has started to spread to fields outside of the financial sector as new imaginaries are being projected onto it in e.g. logistics, energy, entertainment, and the humanitarian sector. The study at hand focuses on blockchain in the realm of anti-money-laundering. Blockchain, when applied to cryptocurrencies, seems to propose challenges to the actors who try to prevent money-laundering, and institutional reactions trying to restrict or manage the use of certain blockchain applications have already started to emerge. However, these reactions have also affected the development of the technology itself. As blockchain is an emerging technology and phenomenon, the research conducted for this study is of the explorative kind. Reflecting on ethnographic observation and eight semi-structured interviews with e.g. cryptocurrency activists, NGOs and representatives from tax administration, central bank, foreign ministery, and financial supervision authority, the thesis examines the different imaginaries projected onto blockchain. By applying a combined framework of the global assemblages approach and the concept of practical activity, the thesis investigates the tactics, politics, morals and the subject of blockchain, and attempts to answer the following questions: How is blockchain being applied or resisted, in order to resolve the perceived problems in the field of anti-money-laundering? What is being tried to achieve by the use or resistance of blockchain in this field? Why is blockchain regarded to be of value or a risk? And fundamentally, if examined as a combined entity – who is blockchain? A myriad of interpretations emerge from the data. For many, blockchain holds promise of a better future where individuals have more power over their freedoms and assets. For others, blockchain is challenger that is controlled by no one and allows illicit activities to go unnoticed. For some, blockchain is a threat that should be restricted and governed. The main finding of the study is that blockchain allows many different agendas and imaginaries to be projected on to it. The “original” emancipatory values of blockchain that would allow its users independence, anonymity, immutability, and freedom from central governance seem to be extremely interchangeable with the values of governance and efficiency. The contradictory goals and morals enacted through blockchain have not been resolved. As the juridico-legal attempts to govern blockchain increase, certain blockchain-based actions could go deeper underground, making it more difficult for law-abiding actors to take part in blockchain-based activities. For the humanitarian sector, blockchain holds a lot of interesting potential. Blockchain could be used for e.g. improving access to energy, providing legal identities, and enabling cost-free remittances. The mutually constitutive nature of governance and technology should be taken into account as interpretations are made, so as to not prevent or hinder the development of applications with societally beneficial goals.
  • Hokkanen, Saana (2020)
    The earth and all of its inhabitants are currently on a trajectory of multiple cascading global crises, which threaten the existence of all beings and the complex relations, which enable the functioning of all societies. In addition to posing a physical threat to human and non-human existence, the climate emergency also poses a conceptual and an ontological challenge. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the institutionalized and globalized ontological assumptions (or imaginaries) at the core of the current world-system (/ecology) characterized by capitalism. One of the main arguments in this thesis is that the perpetuation of the core imaginaries (namely those of Society and Nature’s dualism, mechanistic image of the world and hierarchical existence) at the root of current global structures, as well as the international climate responses, has led to inadequate and misinformed responses to the emergency. The methodological approach of this thesis is an incorporated synchronic and diachronic analysis which combines the world-ecological theory with the analytical tool of social imaginaries (referring to representations of individual and social existence; the ‘truths’ according to which people live and the shared understandings of ‘what is’ and ‘how it is’). The data consists of United Nations’ policy documents, which include the Paris climate agreement, the Katowice Climate package and reports from related Conference of the Parties (COP –meetings). This thesis shows how the dominant climate responses of the UN (as the main international climate actor), are built on and framed by the imaginaries at the root of capitalism as a world-system, thus continuing the global and institutional enactment of the distorted imaginaries powering the extractive, othering and exploitative practices which constitute the foundation of the capitalist world-ecology. By examining the current responses to the climate emergency within the wider world-ecological context, this thesis takes part in the increasing critical scholarly work tackling concurrent global crises from radical, alternative and multidisciplinary perspectives. It also offers a new contribution for developing the world-ecological theory further, by incorporating a new analytical tool of social imaginaries, which equips the theory better in studying complex agency within the existing conversation. This thesis is thus a new contribution to the world-ecological conversation, which with the notion of all beings being part of the same co-constitutive existence, can be extremely useful in mapping out the currently dominant global practices and structures, and the (onto)logics at the foundation of these, while simultaneously addressing the a-symmetrical psycho-social aspects of life and environment-making.
  • Malkamäki, Katariina (2020)
    Chinese infrastructural investments in Africa have increased significantly. In mainstream development studies, such investments are strongly encouraged due to their potential to create economic growth and modernisation. Because of controversies around such projects, regarding their impacts on the economy and locals, they require continuing political-economic analysis. Using Lamu Port in Kenya as a case study, this thesis provides a critical analysis of the justification, planning, implementation and construction processes of the project are examined especially from the point of view of local artisanal fishermen. Framed around the theory of social costs developed by K.W.Kapp, as a critique of neoliberal modernisation, fieldwork was carried out in Lamu to systematically analyse both the official justification of the project and the perceptions of local fishers and other locals on the impacts of the port construction on their lives. Data collected from one-on-one interviews have been systematised using Attride-Stirling’s thematic networks analysis. Along with a textual analysis of original official documents by the Government of Kenya and the LAPSSET authority, the thesis avoids earlier problems of methodological nationalism and, instead, develops a holistic analysis of social costs. The results show that, while some local jobs have been created, they are temporary and marginal and are nowhere near significant enough to make up for the undermining of local livelihoods through the reduction of fish stocks. A wider question of food security and long-term job security needs to be raised. The local economy before the construction of the port was stagnant, but it was stable. New jobs related to port construction proved not to be available. Widespread discrimination against locals further complicates the social costs of public-private enterprise. These results show a lack of congruence between the statements by the Government of Kenya, the optimism by international development agencies, and modernisation theorists on the one hand and the lived realities of fishers on the other. The transnational corporations constructing the port in this case the China Communications Construction company have, in the meanwhile, continued to make more profit and increased the price of their share on the world market. This disconnect indicates one way in which development projects are socially constructed and justified, while the dominance of a profit-oriented capitalistic system shifts costs of production to third parties and the environment in order to continue to extract profit from the Global South. As these social costs are systemic, their remedy would require restructuring the institutional foundations of the local, national, and global political economy of development and change
  • Rautakorpi, Jasmin (2021)
    Commodity chain data transparency is a growing phenomenon in public discussion and in the private sector. It is an essential way for companies and certification schemes to express their sustainability efforts and values. However, commodity chain data can include questions of power and information asymmetry which can affect the commodity chain stakeholders, such as the producers and the consumers. The Fairtrade movement is known as the defender of the small-scale producers in the so-called Global South and which aims to reduce global poverty. This research focuses on the Fairtrade certified coffee commodity chain data and examines what kind of challenges and needs the commodity chain stakeholders have in terms of data transparency and what potential benefits they receive. The stakeholders include consumers, producers and coffee buying companies. This research relies on the Global Value Chain -framework and examines the commodity chain data in light of power asymmetries. The purpose is to provide a multifaceted review about the questions of commodity chain data and Fairtrade. This research uses qualitative, semi-structured interviews which were conducted with seven participants from different backgrounds, such as the private sector and organizations. Additionally, some complementary data was collected from Fairtrade International and FLOCERT’s websites. The data was analyzed through the lens of qualitative content analysis. The central findings are Fairtrade commodity chain data related challenges, such as confidentiality, information gaps and the different needs of the stakeholders. These somewhat conflicting needs make it difficult to set a level of transparency that would meet the needs of all the stakeholders which in turn provides limited benefits. Nevertheless, despite challenges, Fairtrade is seen as a valid partner, expressing a wider societal significance. When considering commodity chain data transparency, it is important to ask whose interests the data represent. The central conclusion is that the benefits of commodity chain data transparency depend on how well they meet the needs of the stakeholders.
  • Ylijärvi, Tomas Daniel (2019)
    Tutkimus keskittyy Suomen kestävän kehityksen politiikkajohdonmukaisuuteen ja sen ongelmiin. Tarkastelun kohteena on kestävän kehityksen johdonmukaisuus kokonaisuutena, joka huomioi ekologisesti kestävän kehityksen lisäksi myös sosiaalisen ja taloudellisen kehityksen. Näitä eri kehitystä kuvastavia käsitteitä käsitellään tutkimuksessa eri politiikkasektoreina, jotka ovat kestävän kehityksen lisäksi kauppa- ja kehityspolitiikka. Tutkimus pyrkii selvittämään johdonmukaisuuden haasteita sekä mitä erilaisia näkökulmia toimijoilla on kestävään kehitykseen ja miksi toiminnassa ollaan mukana. Tutkimuksessa pyritään myös selvittämään, kuinka johdonmukaisuus näkyy erityisesti kehityspolitiikassa ja miten informaatio, intressit ja johtajuus vaikuttavat johdonmukaisuuteen. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys rakentuu vahvasti johdonmukaisuuden ympärille, joka toimii työkaluna tutkimuksen edetessä. Keskeisiksi käsitteiksi teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä nousee johdonmukaisuuden lisäksi kestävä, sosiaalinen ja taloudellinen kehitys. Teoreettinen viitekehys ohjaa tutkimuksen analyysiä ja auttaa tutkimuskysymysksiin vastaamisessa. Tutkimuksen aineisto on kerätty etnografiaa käyttäen ja sen analysointiin on hyödynnetty sisältöanalyysiä. Pääaineistona toimivat dokumentit, internetsivut ja tapahtumat, sekä täydentävänä aineistona teemahaastattelut, jotka ovat kerätty aiheelle oleellisilta toimijoilta. Analyysin myötä kestävän kehityksen johdonmukaisuudessa on mahdollista nähdä viitteitä ongelmista erityisesti informaation, intressien ja johtajuuden osalta. Kokonaisuudessaan eri sektorit perustelevat osallisuuttaan kestävään kehitykseen eri tavalla, joka luo pohjaa näille ongelmille ja ristiriitaisuuksille. Tutkimuksesta ilmenee poliittisten ja taloudellisten intressiristiriitojen aiheuttavan epäjohdonmukaisuuksia, joista ollaan osittain jopa tietoisia. Tiedostamattomia epäjohdonmukaisuuksia ilmenee puolestaan erityisesti laajan informaation takia, joka juontaa juurensa kestävän kehityksen laajaan kokonaisuuteen. Haasteita aiheuttaa tutkimuksen perusteella myös tapa, jolla tätä kestävän kehityksen laajaa kokonaisuutta johdetaan. Johdonmukaisuuden ongelmia kehityspolitiikan osalta aiheuttaa puolestaan sen muuttunut toimintaympäristö ja epäjohdonmukainen johtaminen. Kaikki tutkimuksessa ilmenevät seikat johdonmukaisuudesta vaikuttavat olevan kuitenkin myös vahvasti sidoksissa toisiinsa. Tutkimuksen vastaukset valottavat niitä motivaatioita ja perusteluita, joista lähtöisin Suomen kestävän kehityksen kenttä toimii. Näiden seikkojen ymmärtäminen ja niiden vaikutuksien sisäistäminen voi olla kokonaisuudessaan tärkeää kestävän kehityksen kannalta jokaisella eri tutkimuksen sektorilla. Tutkimustulosten ilmi tuomat haasteet hidastavat johdonmukaisuutta sekä aiheuttavat ristiriitoja ja epäkohtia toimijoiden työskentelyssä. Näiden haasteiden tunnistaminen voi olla ensisijaisen tärkeää kestävän kehityksen politiikkajohdonmukaisuuden luomisessa ja siten myös yhteiskunnallisesti merkittäviä.
  • Virta, Marianne (2019)
    This thesis examines the assumed impact of development cooperation projects, and the implementation of result-based management as well as the measurement of the achievements. In this thesis I analysis the theories of change and implemen-tation of result-based management in the project documents of the Higher Education Institutions Institutional Cooperation Instrument (HEI ICI) -programme. Result-based management came into the development field following the new public management in the 1990’s, and it became central within development cooperation as a critique towards failures to achieve sustainable results. The concept of theory of change was also introduced in the 1990’s, and it describes the process assumed to lead to desired outcomes. This is a qualitative research, and the methods used are narrative analysis and content analysis. The material is the project documents of HEI ICI -projects. The project documents and result frameworks are analyzed narratively examining their theories of change. The result frameworks are also examined through content analysis examining the result-based manage-ment and measurability of results. From the documents, four change-narrative types were created. The types are related on the role higher education has on promoting employment and entrepreneurship, how better targeted curriculums can respond to challenges in the society, the role of trained teachers and staff have on development, and how higher education can support sustainable development. The result frameworks were examined based on the four predefined result areas, focusing on measurability. Promoting the quality and relevance of higher education can have an impact on poverty reduction, promotion of human rights and achievement of sustainable development goals. Higher education is also important for economic growth. Through reform-ing curriculums and teaching education can be targeted to respond better to the needs of the society. Education also has a role in the societal change, and higher education is important in orientating the curriculums to be in line with sustainable develop-ment. Promoting higher education and by improving knowledge of sustainable land use and sustainable resources, sustaina-ble development and democracy can be improved. Each of the four result areas has its own indicators on how the results are achieved. The quantitative indicators include for example, the number of trained teachers, number of new curriculums and degree programmes, number of publications and number of course participants. Qualitative indicators can be linked to how curriculums are improved, how to improve teach-ing and research results, how facilities are improved and how attitudes towards education have changed. Each project’s result framework differs, but in the end the indicators and means to achieve results are very similar. The expected impacts of HEI ICI -projects are very diverse and the objectives are cross-cutting. Higher education has many different opportunities to affect the development of the society and create change. This thesis only examines the context of the HEI ICI -program, but it still shows the importance of higher education and different ways how higher education can support development.
  • Lindberg, Joel Markus (2020)
    This thesis studies the discourse of governmental actors in resource-rich countries that base much of their economic structures on the extraction of natural resources. The goal of the study is to explore the links between foreign capital and government-led resource extraction ventures and understand what kind of a discourse is built around natural resource ventures and how governments represent these ventures as a viable model for ‘development’. The focus of this study is the case of the new Orinoco Mining Arch – project in Venezuela, established in 2016, that represents a new extractivist turn in the traditionally oil-based economy of the country. In this thesis the link between foreign capital and resource extraction is understood as fundamentally interconnected through the theoretical framework that positions extractivism as part of a developmentalist and neoliberal ontology. The methodological approach of this thesis is that of Critical Discourse Analysis which is presented based on the poststructuralist views of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe on discourse. Furthermore, Fairclough’s approach to Critical Discourse Analysis is used as a way to study and analysis of the research material through textual analysis, discursive practice and social practice. The data consists of three types of material that the Venezuelan governmental actors have published regarding the mining activities of the Orinoco Mining Arch: the opening speech by president Nicolás Maduro at the event to officiate the AMO project, the communications and news articles related to this new project published by the country’s Ministry of Mining and country’s the National Development Plans’ sections that relate to mining. This study shows that attempts to legitimize governmental mining ventures are carried through by building a public image of an ecologically sustainable, dynamic and sovereign mining industry that is deeply linked to the Chavist-nationalist imaginary, and intertwined with more subtle elements, including foreign capital, in the discourse. The analysis of the data found that this resource nationalist discourse, its origin and its features are currently reproducing a developmentalist based neo-extractivist narrative which praises ’development’, considers resource extraction as necessary, and follows a neoliberal logic of accumulation of capital. Thus, despite of its apparent potential for conflict, foreign capital it is part of the developmentalist narrative that the governmental discourse creates. Its manifestation as neo-extractivism has an immense potential for destruction in the socio-ecological context.
  • Reskalenko, Aleksandra (2021)
    Despite public campaigns demonstrating the global fashion industry’s sustainability efforts to address climate change, the industry is still largely behind the needed systemic change to remain on the 1.5-degree pathway. Its sizeable contribution to climate change, such as the estimated 10% share of the global total of greenhouse-gas emissions in 2017, is only anticipated to increase, due to growing population and consumption patterns. The concept of decoupling economic growth from material resource use as a path towards sustainability becomes especially contradictory when faced with the fashion industry’s linear business and fast fashion models. This thesis examines how the systemic change of the fashion industry is perceived, and how the industry’s linear business model and its contradictions with the concept of decoupling can be addressed through regulatory measures, especially in the case of European Union (EU) policies on fashion. The thesis analyses the framework for systemic change in the fashion industry through the case of the EU and its preparation for the EU Strategy for Textiles (2021) and the Sustainable Products Initiative (2021), including their preparatory policy materials, such as roadmaps and discussion papers by the European Union and its respective agencies. The document data is triangulated with semi-structured expert interviews, and the data is analysed using qualitative content analysis. Based on the analysis, EU policy perceives systemic change of the fashion industry primarily as a transition to a circular economy model, where it is presented as a win-win situation for both environment and economy. Despite these ambitious aims, there is still reliance that there are no limits to growth. The study finds that this promise of ever-increasing economic growth within planetary boundaries is materially contradictory. In fact, the study suggests that the system of capital accumulation and its adherence to the material growth of economies is the main impediment for systemic change. The evidence indicates that this contradiction is deeply embedded, highly complex, and global in scope, with numerous obstacles, if it is to be overcome. Yet, some elements in the EU process show a desire to attempt to address these problems and radically alter the structure and operations of the fashion industry. The study finds that by reflecting the true costs of environmental and climate harms, as well as human rights, by increasing the criteria and obligations for the fashion industry actors, the problem of overproduction and overconsumption may be addressed.
  • Talka, Santeri (2018)
    Regional integration in Central Asia (CA) has seen very limited success, despite strong cultural and historical connections and shared grievances. I attempt to identify factors that promote or inhibit intensification of regional cooperation. I use a political economy approach to identify foundational factors, stakeholders and political phenomena that influence deepening regional cooperation. I analyse the formal institutional integration initiatives through realist and constructivist IR theories. I also bind the case study of Central Asia to a broader theoretical debate on the relationship between regionalism and multilateralism in 21st century. The relationship between intraregional dynamics (comprising the CA states) and interregional dynamics (comprising external sponsors or partners contributing to regionalism) is complex, and partially characterized by conflict of interests. CA states lack incentives to promote regional institutions and identities, but are willing to exploit regionalism opportunistically. I analyse CA policy principally through the framework of political elites, emphasizing nationalism and state sovereignty. Simultaneously, CA elites have used open regionalism to meet goals in globalist foreign policy and nationalistic domestic policy. On the other hand, external hegemons perceive strong incentives to promote regionalism under their own leadership. I analyse the external sponsors mostly through a neorealist framework of hegemonic influence. Despite these conflicts, there are some specific areas of shared interests, particularly fighting non- traditional security threats. Use of regional integration initiatives in CA can be perceived as not incompatible with greater multilateralism, even contributing to the integration of the region to a global system on its own terms. Based on this case study, I argue for a complex, non- categorical understanding of regionalism and multilateralism. I argue that new regionalism, and open regionalism in particular, have been used in CA for promoting specifically globalist policy agendas. This conclusion supports the premise that regionalism and multilateralism exist in a dynamic relationship, influencing each other in a mutually supportive manner. Rather than understanding regionalism as a “stumbling block” or temporary “building block”, it should be perceived as a permanent part of the contemporary global system.
  • Isomäki, Noora (2021)
    Carbon markets form a fundamental part of green economy, that is supposed to bring the world out of climate crisis, while maintaining economic growth and human well-being. This thesis contributes to the critical research on the green economy assumptions and draws from the political-ecological literature. It explores voluntary carbon markets with qualitative methods, through a case study of a production chain of carbon credits starting from their production in the Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia and ending in their buying and re-sale by the Compensate foundation in Finland. The focus of the analysis are the representations needed to create supply and demand for the carbon credit, and their effects. The thesis examines the complexity of commodification of carbon credits. Carbon offsets rely on highly technical auditing schemes. To produce carbon credits with forestry projects, the project developers must describe a “baseline”. The baseline describes a threat, which the relevant area is facing, and the conservation organization can tackle. I analyse how the representations of the threat make the conservation area governable and justify intervention and how they, at the same time, are unable to include the wider context, so they leave important drivers of deforestation unaddressed and instead target small-scale activities of individuals and local communities. Similarly, I show how in order to sell such carbon credits, climate change must be represented as a problem that can be solved by individual climate action of responsible consumers rather than as a systemic problem. As an effect, both the production and sale of carbon credits have a strong focus on targeting individuals at the expense of leaving broader societal structures unaddressed. This thesis highlights that the global North’s ability and moral justification to continue high-carbon lifestyles through offsets, requires people living in the global South to change their livelihoods and environments. Even if the communities in the conservation areas have some power to impact the ways the offset project operates, the level of optionality is much lower than in the global North, where the consumer is only subtly nudged to offset the distant damage they do. This approach is generally justified based on orientalist and neo-colonial discourses, according to which the people of the global South are unable to take care of their environments – and even themselves. The fact that no changes are demanded from the people of the global North and no existing power structures or practices are challenged arguably increases the desirability of the carbon markets as the major climate solution. This, however, also makes it justified to call carbon markets a non-transformative climate solution.
  • Silver, Laura (2021)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract Human trafficking is a complex issue that has close connections to other large societal and global issues such as contemporary slavery, inequalities and migration. Trafficking can be seen as a part of a larger scale exploitation of labor and migrants. The risk of being re-trafficked after a trafficking experience is higher and well executed reintegration can reduce this risk. However, the research into the reintegration and rehabilitation of trafficked persons is underrepresented in the current academic literature. This thesis takes a closer look at the assisted return programs and reintegration and rehabilitation of trafficked persons in Indonesia to determine how well the programs respond to the needs of trafficked persons when they return home. The work provides insights into the experiences of integration and rehabilitation after trafficking and brings forth some of the experiences of trafficked persons. The causalities behind trafficking are explored through the concept of vulnerabilities to highlight how different systems produce vulnerabilities and increase the risks of being trafficked. These same vulnerabilities are faced upon return as well with additional vulnerabilities (f.e. health and psychological issues) imposed on trafficked persons by their experience. Vulnerabilities of a person are constructed in multiple dimensions. In this thesis the vulnerabilities are framed firstly through the concepts of labor migration, globalization and capitalism and secondly through concepts of oppression, exploitation and dehumanization to highlight the complexities surrounding vulnerabilities and consequently trafficking and reintegration. Through reviewing existing literature on reintegration of trafficked persons, an online interview with the employees of Indonesian Migrant Workers Union (SBMI) and a questionnaire to previously trafficked persons on their needs, a framework for desirable reintegration was established. The framework was then used to analyze IOM Indonesia’s Handbook on Service Mechanisms for Witnesses and/or Victims of Trafficking in Persons in Indonesia to establish how well the programs in Indonesia answer the needs of trafficked persons. The results of the thesis highlight that the needs of trafficked persons upon return are multiple. People need to be presented with an opportunity to become self-sufficient economically and socially and their health needs (both physical and psychological) need to be met. Most common issues faced by the informants of this thesis were economic and psychological in nature, but other difficulties were common as well. The analysis of IOM Indonesia’s handbook provided a positive view of the reintegration and rehabilitation in Indonesia. The Handbook was comprehensive and all-encompassing. Furthermore, it encouraged to take each individual’s needs into consideration and adjust the programs to fit each person. All dimensions of reintegration are taken into account. The results of the questionnaire however indicated that the state response in prosecuting the perpetrators is not sufficient and many informants were left without a proper restitution and with a feeling of injustice. The programs provide great tools to combat different difficulties faced by trafficked persons and help to mitigate the risks and reduce vulnerabilities. However, there are larger societal and developmental complexities behind trafficking and vulnerabilities people face. Issues of poverty, oppression and inequality cannot be improved by the rehabilitation and reintegration programs. This would require larger shift in policy and the way we organize and think about our global world.
  • Vuola, Elina (2021)
    In spite of alleged complementarities between human rights and results and their programming approaches (HRBA and RBM), a number of criticisms have arisen on how the concept of results-based management can even undermine progress on human rights. This is the case especially if the potential explanations for the tensions are ignored. This puzzle is a point of my departure in exploring the relationship between human rights and result based management. The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to the discussions and understanding of the relationship between human rights, results and effectiveness agendas and their theoretical and operational interplay. The aim is especially to highlight the complementarities between the agendas, but also address the limitations and tensions but also the ‘better fit’ solutions between the two approaches. My main method was an appraisal of theoretical and empirical literature. An important finding is, that there is no inherent conflict between rights and results initiatives, but that tensions arise rather when the narrow, technical interpretation of results management is adopted to transformative work. The mainstream results-based management assumes that change occurs in a linear fashion where a set of activities results in outputs, outcomes and ultimately impact. However, the transformative vision of both human rights and rights-based agendas in development described in this thesis, establishes a much more complex causal chain and therefore collides with some basics assumptions behind the traditional RBM assumptions. However, findings indicate that RBM can be used for a variety of practices, including by complexity theory and social change theory. But in order to work, RBM needs to occur in accordance with the particularities and nature of the activity to be implemented. Theories of change – a central tool of RBM models – are considered as a good tool to reframe the results artefacts and communicate the assumptions and particularities behind change of each sector involved in development cooperation. In conclusion chapter I propose alternatives to the most problematic assumptions behind RBM models and offering different assumptions behind social change from human rights perspective.
  • Mickos, Daniel Johannes (2019)
    Due to the great need of improving sustainable urban transport and mobility in emerging cities in Latin America, development assistance in the form of Sustainable Urban Mobility planning is currently carried out by national European development agencies and partnerships. This type of assistance is commonly based on successful European experiences and approaches in the field, aiming to decrease both greenhouse gas emissions, poverty and inequality and in the same time to improve accessibility, quality of life and sustainability for the urban citizens. Whilst the model being successful for these purposes in Europe, the emerging nature and different mobility culture of cities in Latin America have experienced different outcomes of Sustainable Urban Mobility planning. The theoretical discussion of this thesis is based on a critical assessment of Modernisation theory and its manifestations in the urban transport sector. The theory would describe the European model of Sustainable Urban Mobility as the “modern”, whereas the mobility paradigm of emerging cities is “yet to be modernised”. This thesis argues that instead of applying the European mobility paradigm on emerging cities, the concept of Sustainable Urban Mobility and its planning models and guidelines need to be contextualised in order to reach the desired outcomes. Through qualitative content analysis of original data from interviews with grassroot level activists, representatives of civil society and non-governmental organisations in the cities of Bogotá and Lima, this thesis shows that the urban structures and mobility culture in the cities differ significantly from the ones in Europe, that lead to different outcomes when applying the European approaches of Sustainable Urban Mobility planning in the cities. The most critical finding is that due to different socioeconomic urban structures, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and increase of accessibility cannot be reached simultaneously in a short-term timeframe, as the poor people in the outskirts currently cannot afford other transport modes than non-motorised “sustainable” transport. Challenges such as urbanisation and corruption are often considered the main problems for the implementation of sustainable transport measures in emerging cities. This thesis shows that instead of solely focussing on these challenges, one should criticise the non-contextualised methods in use for encountering them and suggests a preventive approach for urban development. The conclusion follows: It is not only the guidance documents in use for development assistance in the field of Sustainable Urban Mobility that needs to be contextualised, but the whole concept.
  • Bergström, Katariina (2021)
    Keskustelua sukupuolesta ja tasa-arvosta voidaan pitää osittain kahtiajakautuneena. Yhtäältä voi törmätä puheeseen, joka mieltää sukupuolen muuttumattomaksi ja tasa-arvon uhaksi, kun taas toisaalta vastaan voi tulla keskusteluja, joissa sukupuolen moninaisuus ja todellisen tasa-arvon merkitys tunnistetaan. Kansainväliseen YK-perheeseen lukeutuva UN Women Suomi asettuu jonnekin näiden kahden polemiikin välimaastoon. Naisjärjestö kertoo ajavansa tasa-arvoa, mutta tällainen tasa-arvo mielletään pääasiassa naisen ja miehen väliseksi. Sekä kansallisen että globaalin tason toimijana UN Women Suomi ja sen tuottamat diskurssit muodostavat itsessään kiinnostavan tutkimuskohteen. Tämän tutkielman aineistona toimii UN Women Suomen vuonna 2020 julkaisema verkkoaineisto, uutiset ja tositarinat. Tätä aineistoa analysoidaan hyödyntämällä Foucault’n diskurssianalyysiä. Foucault’n ajatukset juuri mikrotason vallasta tarjoavat työkalun aineiston analysointiin. Lisäksi kyseisen diskurssianalyysin avulla pyritään pureutumaan paremmin siihen, kenen ääni aineistossa kuuluu, minkälaista diskurssia sukupuolesta ja tasa-arvosta tuotetaan sekä millä tavoin vallankäyttöä legitimoidaan. Naisjärjestön verkkoteksteissä globaalin etelän tasa-arvotilanne nähdään keskeneräisenä samaan aikaan kun Suomen merkittävää johtoroolia tasa-arvoasioissa peräänkuulutetaan. Rakenteellinen näkökulma epätasa-arvosta ei nouse riittävästi esille ihmisten yhtäläisiä mahdollisuuksia korostettaessa. Myös liiallisen naistoimijuuden vaaliminen sälyttää vastuun ongelmanratkaisusta nimenomaan näistä ongelmista kärsivien harteille. Lisäksi diskurssit globaalia epätasa-arvoa tuottavista rakenteista uusintavat olemassa olevia valtasuhteita globaalin etelän ja pohjoisen välille. Essentialistisista lähtökohdista ammentava tasa-arvopuhe ottaa siten huonosti huomioon epätasa-arvon intersektionaalisen luonteen sekä sukupuolen ja identiteettien moninaisuuden. Lisäksi naisjärjestön tasa-arvopuhe sijoittaa suurimmat tasa-arvohaasteet ”vähemmän kehittyneisiin maihin”. Vaikka tasa-arvon myönnetään paikka paikon olevan keskeneräinen myös Suomessa, kuva globaalista etelästä säilyy auttamatta stereotyyppisenä. Tällainen puhe asettuukin osaksi laajempaa orientalistista ja developmentalistista kontekstia, jonka avulla globaalin etelän todellisuutta toiseutetaan.
  • Ikävalko, Ville (2021)
    Air pollution kills an estimated seven million people per year according to the World Health Organization – people living in the cities of low- and middle-income countries being the one’s most exposed to toxic air. As rapid urbanisation continues to dominate the demographic trends in the developing world into the fore-seeable future, so will the negative consequences of air pollution. This, coupled with the intense pressure for developing economies to prioritise rapid and unadulterated growth as a mean to raise the living standards of their citizens over the environmental consequences of that growth, will almost invariably make air pollution one of the leading causes of death in the world, if it is not already. This thesis analyses environmental policy around air pollution to not only under-stand the policies and their effectiveness, or ineffectiveness, but also their rationality regarding the wider economic activities in the background. The study examines (state´s) air pollution abatement efforts in Delhi and the National Capital Region concerning the four primary sources of particulate matter in Delhi´s air: vehicular emissions, industries, dust, and crop burning. The research approach is based on policy analysis while the theoretical framework leans on political ecology. More specifically, the theoretical starting point is in urban political ecology, and political ecology of the state as per Antonio Ioris (2014), the former being built upon Marxist historical materialism, while latter is found upon a Marxist analysis of the (capitalist) state. The research aims to answer two questions: Does the quality and nature of Delhi´s environmental action correspond with Antonio Ioris’ theory of the environmental (capitalist) state; and second, to what extent do state interventions fail to address, further, or even create environmental issues due to the contradictory positions they hold with respect to accumulation and environmental protection. The main findings of the study follow the claims of Antonio Ioris about environmental statehood: the nature of state interventions concerning air pollution in Delhi and the National Capital Region have largely been ineffective, temporary, provisional, and partial. Furthermore, the failure to address the issue effectively obligates the Delhi government to declare air pollution emergency every winter during the worst pollution months in late October and November, introducing increasingly ad hoc - and drastic - measures that cascade up in accordance with the toxicity levels. From increasing parking tickets prices and banning diesel generators, to closing schools, banning all heavy vehicles, and prohibiting construction. Not coincidentally, the main source of air pollution during this worst period of the year is crop burning, a practice that has its roots in state legislation curbing water use in the neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana, as well as in state procurement policies that promote the unecological farming of rice in the northern plains of India. And so, the state has not only been ineffective in curbing air pollution in Delhi but has also played a part in bringing about the situation in the first place. The case of Delhi´s air pollution gives valuable insight into the contradiction the modern state finds itself when trying to balance between its two opposing responsibilities: the first as the one creating the best conditions for economic growth, and the other as the entity regulating and mitigating the environmental consequences of this growth. It is likewise yet another sobering instance of contemporary green action, where environmental action is rationalised though and out while maintaining irrationality in the assessment and conceptualisation of the issue the mitigation action is supposed to address in the first place, leading to environmental policy that is dislocated from the root cause of the issue. The inherent issues of state environmental policy highlight the need for more focus not only on the state policy itself, but on the rationality and commitment behind those policies. The Indian Democracy similarly offers a resolution by being able to exert pressure on state entities for more meaningful mitigation action. To make this happen, there needs to be an available and open real-time monitoring infor-mation on the pollution levels to empower the local residents and organisations to not only be able to point out the local pollutants in their areas and understand the health hazard these emissions are exposing them to, but also to be able to effectively direct action and demands towards the local, state, and federal rep-resentatives for meaningful environmental action to happen.
  • Myllyviita, Vilja (2021)
    Tutkielma tarkastelee sukupuolen ja sukupuolen tasa-arvon määrittelyä osana EU:n yhteistä turvallisuus ja puolustuspolitiikkaa. Metodeina tutkielma käyttää Foucault’laista diskurssianalyysia ja genealogiaa. Tutkielma tuo yhteen feministisen kehitystutkimuksen ja turvallisuuden tutkimuksen kirjallisuutta ja teoriaa. Tutkielma väittää, että sukupuoli toimii hallinnallistamisen välineenä, jossa biopoliittinen logiikka mahdollistaa sukupuolten tasa-arvon käsitteen valjastamisen osaksi missioiden ja operaatoiden toimintaa niitä legitimoivana. Tutkielman teoreettinen viitekehys koostuu jälkistrukturaalisesta feministisestä teoriasta, jälkikoloniaalista feministisestä teoriasta, ja Foucault’laisesta hallinnallistamisen ja biopolitiikan käsitteistä. Tutkielman aineistona toimii yhteisen turvallisuus- ja puolustuspolitiikan sukupuolten tasa-arvoa käsittelevät aineistot.
  • Simberg-Koulumies, Nina (2021)
    In the light of increasing socio-ecological crises, there has been a surge in the promotion of, and investments in, renewable energy in the Global South. Previous theories and research, largely framed around conservative and liberal paradigms, have hailed these developments as a breakthrough. Yet, just sustainability theorists have pointed to logically plausible problems in these alternatives, suggesting that they do not go far enough and could, indeed, worsen the present crises. From these critiques, the conservative and liberal advocacy of a shift towards a low-carbon society does not, and cannot, automatically guarantee just sustainabilities. Although controversial, neither conservative, liberal, nor just sustainability theorists have empirically ascertained these claims about the nature of sustainable development. Africa’s largest wind power plant, the Lake Turkana Wind Power (LTWP) project in Kenya, provides a useful case study for this purpose. In addressing this lacuna, this thesis attempts to answer two fundamental questions related to the project. First, which are the dominant discourses on the LTWP project in Kenya? and second, what are the prospects of these discourses to drive just sustainability in Kenya? To address these questions, a range of rich data was collected, consisting of eight semi-structured interviews with key informants in Kenya and Finland, written documents including 12 news and feature articles, two policy documents and one company impact assessment. The data was systematised using critical discourse analysis (CDA) set within a political-economic framework of just sustainabilities in which wind power is dialectically linked to the dominant fossil fuel system built on global inequalities. Based on this methodology, this thesis argues that not only is the LTWP project not regarded as an environmental sustainability initiative, it is mostly understood as satisfying economic needs. More fundamentally, as the LTWP is realised within the dominant capitalist frame, guided by a reliance on market forces, new technologies and a search for new frontiers of capital accumulation, processes that are erected on, and typically drive, local and global inequalities, it does not address wider concerns of inclusion, raised by representatives for local communities in Northern Kenyan in the semi-structured interviews. Analytically, this evidence shows that mainstream conservative and liberal theories of development and energy are insufficient for analysing the transition from fossil to alternative fuels, let alone provide a canvass for a total liberation of the Global South. Clearly, the political economy of LTWP also calls into question the objectives of donor nations involved in the project as financiers. This evidence provides further basis to put the case for understanding alternative energy projects, particularly the LTWP under study, within a much broader framework of alternative, radical theories of just sustainabilities centred on concepts such as just land.
  • Evers, Niklas (2019)
    The thesis examines how the national water policies of Tanzania and Kenya address informality in the urban water sector by critically analysing the representations of “problems” in policies related to increasing urban water access. While access to safely managed water has increased rapidly on a global in the last decades, in most cities in the global south 30¬–60 per cent of the urban population relies on informal practices to meet its daily water needs. Especially the urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) struggle to increase access to safe water to citizens, resulting in a high reliance on informal practices, such as getting water from unprotected wells or buying water from street vendors. While these practices are generally associated with health risks and higher water prices, they serve as the main everyday water supply for millions of people. Since the state has failed to provide access to water for everyone, both under private and public management, informally managed water systems are, despite their problems, increasingly seen as a viable alternative to the standard solution of expanding the piped network to increase access. Many of the case studies on informality in SSA cited in this thesis argue that the state should accept and support the informal water sector as a pragmatic alternative for water supply in unserved urban areas. By analysing the national water policies of Tanzania and Kenya, this thesis sets out to answer the research questions of (1) how the problem of water supply is constructed in urban water policy in Tanzania and Kenya and (2) how Tanzanian and Kenyan water policies approach the informal water sector. The analysis applies Carol Bacchi’s (2009) poststructuralist approach to analysing policy, the ‘What’s The Problem Represented To Be?’ (WPR) approach. Four general representations of problems related to urban water access and informality were identified in the data: (1) The problem of lacking infrastructure, (2) the problem of identifying appropriate technologies, (3) the problem of stakeholder involvement and (4) the problem of informality in the water sector. The results show a high reliance on investment in large-scale infrastructure projects as the main policy for increasing access to water in urban areas in both Kenya and Tanzania, even though previous studies on informality and urban water provision suggests this tactic will fail in providing safe water for all. In addressing the informal water sector in urban areas, informality was represented as a problem that eventually will fade away as soon as the piped network reaches all. However, both countries appeared to take a completely different stance towards informality in rural areas. Whereas large-scale infrastructure projects still were the go-to solution for increasing access in urban areas, for rural areas the analysed documents proposed a massive support of community-based informal practices as the cornerstones of future rural water supply, covering tens of millions of people in the coming decade. If the attempt to solve lacking access to safe water in urban areas by expanding the piped network should fail, as previous research suggests it might, the community based policies for rural water supply may be scaled out to solve the urban water problem. This thesis shows that the informal water sector is still to a large extent seen as a temporary problem. However, both Kenyan and Tanzanian water policy has opened the door to supporting informal practices as sustainable solutions as a way to achieve the ambitious goal of safe water for all.
  • Teiskonlahti, Terhi (2021)
    This thesis studies women in peacebuilding and concentrates on questions: why women are excluded from peacebuilding, and in vice versa how women could be involved in peacebuilding processes. The case study within this research focuses on the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (Rojava) and young women’s experiences and opinions about which factors either prevent or improve women’s participation in peace processes. In this master’s thesis, the data was collected by emailing the questionnaire surveys. Five young women from Rojava answered the questions, which were analyzed using conventional content analysis to find respondents’ opinions on barriers and enablers for women’s participation in peacebuilding. The findings of the study demonstrate that women from Rojava emphasized very similar enablers what the literature also underlines. These are an access to formal and informal education, allowing social norms, non-violent environment, political will and participation, and economical and other resources. In addition, a key finding of this research was, that in the case study women stressed their participation in the army and how this empowered them also for being part of peacebuilding. All these enablers are interlinked with each other and to have encouraging environment women to participate in peacebuilding, most of these factors should be in place. In addition, when these factors are lacking, they become barriers for women’s participation. The result of this thesis shows the main factors that are impacting women’s participation in peacebuilding. In addition, an increased understanding about women’s participation in army, and how it may empower women for peacebuilding is a finding worth of deeper study.