Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by study line "Luokanopettaja, kasvatustiede"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Karhunen, Nelli (2022)
    The aim of this study is to examine how much other than Finnish or Finnish as a second language subject teachers use literature education in multidisciplinary teaching and how much they collaborate with Finnish or Finnish as a second language teachers. Previous studies show that while teachers attach great importance to multidisciplinary teaching, cross-subject collaboration requires a lot of extra work from teachers. Research shows that reading literature is holistically linked to the better performance of pupils at school. This study provides information on how much teachers cooperate in literature and what kind of collaboration is. The investigation will also examine the reasons why there is no cooperation. The data of this study have been based on the Finnish and Swedish responses of the survey data sent to other subject teachers in the Lukuklaani project, which received 611 answers. Among the answers to the survey sent to other subject teachers, I looked at the questions that had been used to investigate the literary education carried out by subject teachers. With regard to the answers to closed questions, I examined qualitative indicators and open answers through qualitative content analysis. The results of my research showed that the other subject teachers use very little of literary education in their teaching. In multidisciplinary learning modules, literary education was used as an upwardly differentiated material and in deepening the knowledge of the subject through non-fiction. The reason why literature education was not utilised was that the subject taught by the subject teacher was not involved in the school's multidisciplinary teaching, or that multidisciplinary learning modules were limited. Subject teachers cooperated with Finnish or Finnish as a second language teachers most often every academic year or less often. Closer cooperation was less common. Cooperation was carried out in the teaching of multidisciplinary learning entities, the teaching and evaluation of writing and literacy, language maintenance, expressive skills and the organization of school parties. The reason for the lack of cooperation was the unwillingness of Finnish teachers and the lack of time. The study shows that subject teachers do quite a bit of multidisciplinary cooperation, but do not express a reluctance to cooperate.
  • Kaunisto, Nenna (2022)
    The aim of the study was to examine the role of customer learning in the co-development process of a product or service. The customer's learning is an essential part of the co-development process. With the help of research, the aim is to find possible learning challenges and to deepen the customer's learning path and its meaning. Companies should be able to enable customer learning even better in the future because customers are constantly demanding more and more individualized services and products. The frameworks of the research were the co-development process and customer learning. The customer's learning perspective was further deepened with the theories of trialogical learning, Bloom's taxonomy, and flipped learning. The research was carried out using design-ethnographic methods, using versatile material, collected from the company's customers and employees. The data were semi-structured interviews with customers and employees and other material from the co-development process, such as presentation material. The material was analyzed using thematic analysis methods. The results showed that the role of the customer's learning plays a very strong role during the co-development process. If the client's learning remains at a light level, the result of the project usually does not match the desired goals. In the customer's learning, special attention should be paid to the customer's motivation and enthusiasm, different participatory working methods, the utilization and cross-pollination of the different expertise of the customer group, and the general coordination of the project, for example, the guidance of workshops and the coordination of interim tasks. The study gathered together tips on different ways of working and learning in the co-development process.
  • Humalajoki, Samuli (2022)
    Objectives. Studies show that intelligence is declining in Western countries. Researchers ’concerns have widened into a debate over whether society is depleting or whether there is an issue in statistics. The purpose of this study is to sort out the epistemological beliefs of the Mensians in relation to the decline in intelligence. It also explores how incremental theory of intelligence is reflected in the beliefs of Mensians. The aim of the study is to give people who are found to be intelligent the opportunity to describe the evolution of intelligence to broaden the understanding of the phenomenon. Because intelligence is a complex concept, the theoretical background of the study contains broad research of measurement and definition of intelligence. Methods. This qualitative research is part of a phenomenographic research tradition. The material of the study is secondary data from a previous master’s thesis, which examined the beliefs of Mensians in the development of intelligence. This study focuses on the open-ended response in the data, in which Mensians describe why they believe intelligence is declining in the West. In accordance with the phenomenographic research approach, the material was first analysed by classifying the beliefs found in the material into units. Those units were formed into descriptive categories that reflect the relationship between the beliefs associated with the phenomenon in a larger picture. Results and conclusions. According to the results of the study, Mensians widely believe that intelligence is built on a person’s own making. Therefore, incremental beliefs were strongly present in the epistemological beliefs, but entity-theoretic beliefs were also found. The Mensians saw many reasons for the decline in intelligence, the most common being digitalisation and transition in society. Other answers include the breeding of stupid people, chemicalization and life habits. There was concern about the decline in intelligence and it was understood to be part of the negative development of modern society. On the other hand, many Mensans also questioned the whole phenomenon and suspected it as a misunderstanding.
  • Besic, Sameer (2022)
    Combining studying and goal-oriented sports is challenging. This master's thesis looks at the path of successful high-level athletes to the top and how they have experienced the combining of two careers. The aim is to look at the experience’s athletes have of combining sports careers and studies at different levels of education and what they have found challenging and what has been, on the other hand, successful. On average, sports careers at the top level are short, and after the end of their careers, many athletes find employment in jobs corresponding to their studies. The best way we can understand athletes' experiences is if we are also aware of how to develop into a top athlete. The data of the study consists of seven interviews. Seven Finnish athletes who have had successful sports careers and who also have had varied study experiences were interviewed for the purpose of the study. The study data was collected in autumn 2021 through a thematic interview. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed. A phenomenographic approach was used in the analysis of the data. Based on the research results, athletes had similar experiences combining study and sports in comprehensive school. Combining these did not require any special effort. However, the sports-oriented classes in comprehensive school provided an opportunity for morning training. In high school, different experiences were experienced. It was possible to combine sports and studies in a regular high school, but it required initiative and support from the school side. In sports schools, it was easier to combine the two careers, and the school provided significant support to promote both athlete careers. In higher education studies, combining sports and studies was considered challenging. In particular, courses requiring attendance slowed down the completion of studies. However, the interviewees agreed that studying and graduating is possible during a sports career. Studying was seen as a counterbalance to the sport. Sports academies aim to simplify the combination of sports and studies. However, not all athletes knew how to take advantage of the services provided by sports academies because most of them were unaware of their existence. In the future, the activities of sports academies should be developed so that it is even more efficient and accessible to athletes.
  • Leipivaara, Jonna (2021)
    Objectives. As a future teacher, who identifies as a female, I felt the need to expand my knowledge of the expectations that agents of other genders, in addition to females, face. This study came to being from the need to examine what expectations are placed in executing masculinity. Connell’s (1995) theory of hegemonic masculinity is a central basis of this study. Hegemonic masculinity is a normative model of the most respected way of being a man while only few men are truly able to reach this. A list of hegemonic masculinity’s expectations composed by Arto Jokinen (2000) worked as a basis for five ideals which I searched from the study material: strength, success, control of emotions, power and heterosexuality. This set of expectations creates positions of dominance and subordination between men. I therefore expanded the purpose of the study to examine the ways in which boys organize hierarchies between each other. The purpose of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret the manifestation of ideals of masculinity in upper comprehensive school aged boys and their ways of organizing hierarchies between each other. Methods. I received the material from a study project called Local Educational Ethos (LEE). The material was composed of nine single- or group interviews and together there were 16 interviewees. This material I analyzed in a qualitative, theory directed content analysis method. Results and conclusions. All five ideals of masculinity were able to be identified from the material. The normativity of hegemonic masculinity is extended to affect upper compulsory school aged boys. The ways of organizing hierarchies Bullying, verbal teasing and calling other pupils gay stood out from the material as ways of organizing hierarchies. This observation is in line with the presented theories of organizing hierarchies.
  • Laattala, Laura (2022)
    In 2020 new university students started their studies in special arrangements due to COVID- 19-pandemic. This thesis has two purposes. First, this thesis examines the student engagement of first-year students at the University of Helsinki. Second, it examines the correlation of student engagement and sense of coherence. The theoretical background of this study is Korhonen’s (2014) model of student engagement, where engagement develops through the interaction of individual and collective progress, strengthening student’s identity and sense of belonging. This study aims to answer to the following research questions: 1) How are the first- year students engaged in their studies, and how does their engagement differ from that of first year students in 2012? 2) How does engagement differ according to change of residence and previous experiences university studies? 3) What engagement groups can be found in first year students? 4) Is there a connection between sense of coherence and student engagement? The data was collected with a survey in spring 2021. The survey was answered by 183 first year students at the University of Helsinki. In the survey student engagement was measured with EEQ and sense of coherence was measured with the SOC-13 scale. The data was analyzed with quantitative methods. First-year students were more engaged in the individual dimension, but in the collective dimension engagement was weaker. Students’ engagement was strong in areas of identity and sense of belonging. There were several differences between 2021 and 2013 data. First-year students who begun their studies in 2020 had better academic skills, but in all other areas engagement was weaker. In particular, sense of belonging and participation were weaker than in students who started their studies in 2012. Students who moved to a new residence experienced fewer social practices in their studies. Students who had earlier university degree, had stronger academic skills and stronger sense of meaning in studies, identity and belonging. Three different engagement groups were found and named strongly, individually and weakly engaged. Sense of coherence correlated positively with five areas of student engagement.
  • Vackström, Eveliina (2022)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The interest towards the subject of the study awakened because the field of student councelling is in major changes in Finland due to the most recent changes in the law enforcement regarding student councelling and transferring information from the basic education to secondary education. In this study that was put into practice as a qualitative research the articulated phase of basic and secondary education is inspected from the perspective of the student counselling of a pupil with special needs and the transfer of information. Six student counsellors of basic education were interviewed for the study with a structured interview. The data of the study consisted of those interviews. The data of the study was analyzed by theming the research results. It was discovered that there is no overestimating the importance of the articulated phase of basic and secondary education. The student counselor of a pupil with special needs requires getting familiar with the individual needs in education of the pupil and getting familiar with questions of the health of the pupil or other aspects in pupil’s life that may affect the choice of vocation. The student counsellors do a lot of multiprofessional cooperation with the special education teachers and student counsellors of secondary education. Pointing out facts regarding to pupil’s education and other aspects that can affect the choice of vocation was important but the student counsellors also pointed out that supporting the student and their self-image was important as well as encouraging the student. The importance of coopetaring with the pupil’s guarding was also brought up in regards of pondering the choice of vocation and also in regards of getting the permission to transfer information. The discoveries of the study also pointed out that the obligation to maintain secrecy complicates transferring information between basic and secondary education and it needs changes. It was discovered in the study that more coherent courses of action are needed in regarding transferring information throughout the whole country of Finland.
  • Salonen, Nette (2022)
    The aim of this master’s thesis is to examine the teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy of those teachers who taught remotely during the autumn of 2020. Furthermore, the aim is to find out if some background variables are connected to these above mentioned constructs. Teacher efficacy and collective efficacy are based on the self-efficacy beliefs which describe person’s beliefs in their own ability to succeed in specific situations (Bandura, 1977). Teacher efficacy is connected to many positive outcomes, e.g., remaining in the profession (Burley et al., 1991), and job satisfaction (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010). There is also evidence that teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy are connected to each other (Goddard & Goddard, 2001). This master’s thesis aims to supplement the previous research data on teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy in the context of COVID-19. The data used in this study are from a research project that aims to examine the effects of COVID-19 on studying, teaching and well-being. The project is run by University of Helsinki and Tampere University. The data were collected in November 2020 by sending electronic surveys to every comprehensive school in Finland. In total there were 5797 teacher participants, but the final sample consisted of those 1095 teachers who said that they had taught remotely during the autumn. The methods used in this quantitative study included describing the data and running correlation analyses and Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The dimensions of teacher efficacy were more correlated between themselves than the dimensions of collective teacher efficacy. The correlations between the two were even weaker. Class teachers had higher teacher efficacy compared to subject teachers or special education class teachers. Female teachers of the lower levels of comprehensive education had the highest levels of efficacy when teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy were examined together; the result is in line with several other studies (e.g. Greenwood, 1990; Edwards et al., 1996). Results indicate that remote teaching has weakened the collective teacher efficacy by decreasing the encounters of the work community. The result that class teachers had the highest levels of teacher efficacy might be explained by the vast level of general competence brought by the education or by their more reasonable workload.
  • Laine, Hanna (2022)
    The purpose of this thesis is to examine classroom teacher’s views on participation and agency in primary school’s visual arts education. The study aims to find out how classroom teachers define the concepts of participation and agency and in what ways it is found possible to promote these things in school in general, and visual arts classes in particular. The theoretical framework of participation and agency is based on the socio-pedagogical approach of participation. The promotion of participation and agency is viewed in social and political contexts and examined through the concept of engaged pedagogy. The study was conducted as a qualitative interview survey. A total of six people were interviewed for the study and the interviews were conducted as semi-structured thematic interviews. Interviews were conducted both by using online connections and in person. All the interviewees were working as classroom teachers or special class teachers that had taught visual arts to primary school students. According to the study, classroom teacher’s views in participation and agency could be categorized as opportunities to influence, personal experiences of meaningfulness and active acts. The views in promoting participation and agency in school and in visual arts education adapted the above-mentioned categories. Participation and agency were promoted via social and political means. The opportunities to impact were associated to both political and everyday decision-making. Promoting student’s identities and internal motivation were emphasized in the personal experiences of meaningfulness. Active acts consisted of dialogical and interactive working methods that emphasized responsibility among students.
  • Ilomanni, Pia (2023)
    Finnish elementary students’ mathematics performance is well above average in international comparison, but research shows that it is declining. Also, students’ motivation is not as strong as could be expected according to their performance. We used the person-centred approach to investigate Finnish third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students’ mathematics motivation profiles. In addition, we explored differences between the motivation profiles regarding students’ mathematics identity, performance, and their parents’ mathematics-related attitudes Participants were 304 Southern Finnish third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students from five separate schools and their parents/guardians (N=241). The surveys were conducted during spring of 2021 in the pilot stage of an international research project focusing on students’ mathematical motivation. Analysis was conducted with Mplus. Motivation profiles were derived by a latent profile analysis (LPA), additional analysis used bch and r3step methods and crosstabulation (spss). Analysis revealed three distinct types of math-related motivation profiles: highly motivated, non motivated and indifferent. Further investigation of the profiles showed that students’ higher mathematics identity is represented strongly in highly motivated group, as are students’ mathematics performance scores. Parents’ self-reported perceived low mathematics competence is highly represented in those students belonging to the non motivated profile. The article: ” Examining motivation profile differences across students' mathematics identity, performance, and parents’ attitudes” is planned to be published in the LUMAT-journal.
  • Veinola, Katri (2022)
    Currently in Finland there are very limited number of assessment tools in use to identify mathematical learning difficulties in children aged 9 to 16. This study examines the validity of the FUNA-DB measure for assessing mathematical learning difficulties in terms of concurrent validity. The objective of this study is to determine how FUNA-DB correlates with a previously developed RMAT measure, and how, compared to the RMAT measure, FUNA-DB identifies those children and adolescents who potentially should be suspected to have a mathematical learning difficulty. This research is part of a larger FUNA research project in Finland. The study was performed by having 318 children tested with both FUNA-DB and RMAT measurements. The analysis of the data was performed using quantitative research methods. The correlation of FUNA-DB and RMAT was measured by task sections using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In addition, configural frequency analysis was used to determine whether both FUNA-DB and RMAT recognize the same weak students. In addition, descriptive statistics were examined. The results of this study showed that FUNA-DB and RMAT correlated with each other for all task sections (p <0.001). In addition, statistically significant correlation was identified between task sections where the tasks did not correspond to each other in terms of content. FUNA-DB and RMAT both identified the same low-performing students (p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that FUNA-DB appears to be a valid and effective assessment tool in identifying mathematical learning difficulties. Moreover, the study showed that the language best spoken by the student was not relevant to the results of the FUNA-DB measurement, while in the RMAT test, those who spoke Finnish outperformed (p<0.05) the students who did not speak Finnish as their mother tongue. Therefore, FUNA-DB does not seem to be tied to a student’s language skills and it specifically measures math proficiency, as it should. However, the as-sessment of the validity and reliability of the FUNA-DB test in this study remains rather one-sided, yet there are ongoing studies which examine the reliability and validity of FUNA-DB in other means.
  • Niemi, Sofia (2023)
    In a mediated society, the importance of media education is emphasised, and it is important that media education and news are processed with children and young people in schools. News aimed at children offer teachers a good way to discuss about current affairs with children, as well as provide media education. This study examines how news and current topics are handled in primary schools and utilized as part of teaching. The study also examines the importance of news aimed at children for teachers and pupils. The subject of the study is Helsingin Sanomat’s Children's News, a news media aimed at children in Helsingin Sanomat. Children's news is commonly utilized in schools, but there is no information on how Children’s news is used in schools. In addition, research on the educational use of news and news for children is largely focused on international research, so the aim of this study is also to produce research information on the topic specifically in the Finnish context. This study is a qualitative case study that examined Children's news in educational use and also teachers' and pupils’ experiences on educational use of and more generally on Children's news. The data of this study consisted of semi-structured themed interviews with primary school teachers and of a teaching experiment which was conducted on the basis of the interviews. The data in the experiment was collected from primary school pupils using a questionnaire and semi-structured themed interviews. The data was collected in two phases in 2021 and 2022. The method of analysis for both data sets was qualitative content analysis. Based on this study, Children's news was utilized in teaching weekly and specifically as part of the actual teaching. The Children's news broadcast, which most of the pupils also mentioned that they liked, was exploited the most in the teaching. Children's news was used most frequently in Finnish language and literature lessons, but also, for example, as part of the work on transversal competence skills such as learning skills. Educational situations with Children’s news were not usually very planned and the planning appeared particularly as checking the news topics beforehand as well as by the acquisition of any additional information. The main methods of teaching with Children's News were discussions and written methods of working. Interviews with teachers also highlighted the importance of handling news in teaching, as well as the importance of news aimed specifically to children. Pupils also felt that following the news was a positive thing and being informed about world events was important. The results show that Children's News offers opportunities for a wide range of uses in primary school education, including media education, integrative instruction and as part of the work on transversal competence skills. I hope that this study will provide examples and perspectives on educational use of news and media education and encourages to use of the news as part of teaching.
  • Ronkainen, Inka (2021)
    Aims. The aim of the study is to find out what kind of expectancies and values 7 th graders hold in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, physics and Finnish language. Subjective task values, which are intrinsic value, utility value and attainment value, have been studied a extensively, but phenomenon-based learning is a new perspective in this research field, as it only became established in Finnish schools with the latest curriculum. Subjective expectancies, values, self-efficacy and costs influence adolescents’ performance and school related choices. The study uses expectation value theory applying person-oriented approach. This research answers three research questions: 1) What kind of motivational profiles can be identified in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, science and Finnish language among middle school students based on expectancies and values? 2) How is the gender distributed in the identified profile groups? 3) Do the identified profile groups differ in terms of school performance? Methods. The data used in the study was collected with an electronic questionnaire, which was answered by 1013 7th grade students from Helsinki. The first research question was studied using latent profile analysis. The second research question was examined by cross-tabulation and the third was examined by one-way analysis of variance. Results and conclusions. Using the profile analysis, five different profile groups were identified from the respondents: phenomenon-oriented (23%), motivated and well-being (24%), weakly motivated (15%), motivated but loaded (16%) and science-oriented (26%). Phenomenon-oriented students were more interested in phenomenon-based learning than in other subjects, although they also considered traditional subjects important. Motivated and well-being were interested and felt competent in all subjects; they were not burdened by studies. Weakly motivated did not value any of the subjects and the study was perceived as burdensome and challenging. Motivated but loaded students hold high attainment value across subject domains but they also showed high cost value. Science-oriented students hold high interest value in mathematics and physics but low interest in phenomenon-based learning. The results were in line with the previous study, but phenomenon-oriented were identified as a new group. Girls were more evenly distributed in all profile groups, while the percentage of boys was clearly lower in phenomenon-oriented group compared to girls. School performance were lower in weakly motivated students compared to other groups.
  • Kivistö, Iina (2021)
    According to the National core curriculum for basic education (2014), schools should guide students towards a sustainable lifestyle, as well as understanding that people are part of na-ture and completely dependent on the surrounding ecosystem. Schools should also address emotions related to climate change, as children have experienced, for example, sadness, fear, and helplessness. Studies suggest that climate education in schools is very fragmented and variable and should be improved. Studies show that children’s books are a good way to deal with difficult issues and emotions among children. In this thesis, I examine what climate emotions occur in children’s books on climate change and how the books present climate change. Based on these questions, I evaluate how children's books on climate change could be used in climate education. This thesis is a qualitative study. Four Finnish children's books on climate change published during 2019 and 2020 were used as data. The books are aimed at children of primary school age. The books were analyzed by using content analysis. In the second research question, I used theory-guided content analysis, in which the guiding theory was the model of ecological literacy by Wong and Kumpulainen (2019). The characters in the books had a wide range of climate emotions: distressing emotions from fear to anxiety, worry, and joy and enthusiasm. The climate emotions in the books were simi-lar to emotions that people have related to climate change. The books described climate change and issues related to climate change in many ways. Children's books on climate change can be useful in climate education, as they can help children deal with difficult climate emotions, as well as understand climate change as a wider phenomenon. More research is needed on how books could improve children’s ecological literacy, and more specifically cli-mate literacy.
  • Almén, Jannica (2022)
    The purpose of this Master's thesis was to find out what kind of role after-school clubs play in supporting the daily life and well-being of the child and family. The objective is to highlight the factors that are part of a high-quality after-school club. After-school clubs, as well as its connections with well-being support, have been little studied. However, previous research has shown that there is a strong connection between child and parental well-being. So, the well-being or ill-being of someone affects other family members as well. According to previous research, after-school clubs play a large role in combining parents' work and family life, as well as reducing a child's lonely time after school. After-school clubs also play an important role in strengthening the child's social relations and healthy lifestyle. The study was conducted as a qualitative study. The data were collected as themed interviews by interviewing eight parents of children attending Tennis- ja mailapelikoulu -after-school club organized by Grani Tennis. The research setting was phenomenographic, meaning the goal was to understand and describe the meanings given by parents to the phenomenon being studied. The data was analyzed using theory-driven content analysis in which the theoretical framework of the thesis served as the theory. The study’s results highlighted the important role of after-school clubs in organizing the daily life of the child and the family and in supporting everyone’s well-being. They allow parents to work full-time. While working, it is important to have a safe place for their child to spend time after school. Parental well-being is supported by the fact that the daily life is not burdened with additional planning in relation to reducing the child's lonely time. The well-being of the child and parents was also perceived to have a strong connection. After-school clubs particularly support the child's social, psychological, and physical well-being. After-school clubs in Finland, however, should be still developed more so that there are enough instructors that have the skills to work with different children and supporting their needs. It should be ensured that every child has equally a safe place to develop and grow. As after-school clubs are fee-required, they should also be developed so that every family has the possibility to use them in their daily life.
  • Leppänen, Linnea (2022)
    Objective of the study. The beginning of teacher’s career, in other words, the induction phase, has been noticed in previous studies to be very challenging and stressful for them. During the induction phase teachers often decide on the continuation of their careers. In previous studies related to teachers in the induction phase, it has been noticed that they have higher stress levels than more experienced teachers. They also feel that their workload is excessive. This master’s thesis objective was to study the induction phase teachers’ workload forms and factors. I also make subject teachers’ workload risk profiles with person-oriented research. The main objective of this thesis is to increase understanding of the induction phase subject teachers’ workload to improve teachers’ working conditions. Methods. The data of this thesis consisted of six induction phase subject teachers’ interviews. The interviewed subject teachers were chosen at discretion for this study. The data on my study was collected as a part of a larger joint research project of the Universities of Tampere, Helsinki, and Easter Finland funded by the Academy of Finland entitled “Early career Teachers’ Professional Agency across four European countries -Key for Sustainable Educational Change?”. The data from these interviews were analyzed qualitatively with theory-based content analysis. Result and conclusions. In the induction phase subject teachers experienced a lot of workload. Teachers were burdened by stress the most. Stress was caused by excessive workload, time pressure, and the lack of support. According to the results, prolonged stress caused burnout. All the burnout dimensions (cynicism, decreased professional self-esteem, and exhaustion) came up in teachers’ speeches. This master’s thesis showed that in the induction phase subject teachers had a risk to become exhausted due to excessive workload. Subject teachers’ workloads are important to identify in order to improve teachers’ well-being at work.
  • Särkelä, Sanna (2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Objectives. Sexuality is a part of humanity. Sexuality develops through our lives and includes various stages of growth and development. Sex education is part of human rights and WHO (World Health Organization) has defined Europe wide standards for sex education. Previous studies show that sex education increases more knowledge and strengthens the child’s self-esteem. On the other hand, studies have shown teachers experiencing sex education challenging and they need further education on it. The aim of this research was to determine perceptions and experiences of primary school teachers about sex education. Methods. The data of this qualitative research was collected by interviewing five primary school teachers. The material is analyzed by the method of analysis of the content. Interviews are transcribed and transcribed material decrypted into sections sorted by the topic. These themes emerged from the data itself and on research issues. By using content analysis, the purpose was to create a view of teacher’s perceptions and experiences and reflect them with the theoretical frame of reference of research. Results and conclusions. Teachers considered sex education important and relevant. The world is changing all the time and teacher’s knowledge should keep up with the change. Content areas of sex education were mainly familiar to teachers, but some flaws in their knowledge were also found. Teachers perceived the subject as a natural thing, but they also identified the challenging nature of the subject. Sex education raised some uncertainty among teachers which was mostly due to lack of education. Further education of teachers would improve sex education on primary schools and strengthens teachers’ faith in themselves as sex educators.
  • Peuramäki, Milja (2022)
    The study examined Finnish classroom teachers’ self-compassion and perfectionism in relation to burnout. The study sought to find out how self-compassion and perfectionism affect the burnout experienced by classroom teachers and what kind of relationship there is between self- esteem and perfectionism. Previous studies have shown that perfectionistic concerns are a risk factor for burnout. Self-compassion has been found to affect very positively for a person's well- being and resilience. In Finland, no research has been conducted among teachers about these topics. The data was collected via an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to teachers by Luokanopettajat ry -email list and Alakoulun Aarreaitta -Facebook group. The questionnaire measured burnout by Maslach Burnout Invetory, perfectionism by The Short Almost Perfect and self-compassion by Self-Compassion Short Form. Answers were received from 153 classroom teachers. Self-compassion was negatively correlated with perfectionist concerns and all dimensions of burnout. Perfectionist concerns were positively correlated with all dimensions of burnout. Two different groups of perfectionism and self-compassion were found. The second group (46%) consisted of teachers with high self-criticism, high perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings and low self-compassion This group was named as self-critical teachers. Teachers in the second group (54%) were more self-compassionate and less critical about themselves. This group was named as self-compassionate teachers. Self-critical teachers experienced more exhaustion than self-compassionate teachers. No statistically significant difference was found between these groups for cynicism and inefficacy. Based on the correlation matrix, self- compassion was negatively and perfectionistic concerns were positively related to all the dimensions of burnout. Perfectionistic strivings correlated negatively with inefficacy so striving for perfection seems to be protective factor against inefficacy. According to the study, self- criticism and perfectionist concerns are predisposing factors for burnout. Self-compassion seems to protect teachers from burnout.
  • Kantanen, Tiina (2022)
    Continuous learning, identity and ecology are strong phenomena in our time. They are also quite wide-ranging. Previous research has shown an interaction between learning and identity. However, there is just little research on the link between learning and identity and there has been a need for it. Previous research has found that, for example, individual-relevant learning subjects has influenced his or her willingness to learn. Thus, the meanings contained in identity affect in its own way continuous learning. The aim of this research was to study continuous learning and the meanings of learning subjects in the context of coloring with natural dyes. The aim of this research is to determine, analyze and construe the learning and the meanings contained in identity that take place in the learning process related to natural coloring. Research material consisted of 26 interviews, which were interviewed as part of the BioColour research project led by Riikka Räisänen. Interviews were transcribed by an outside party. The research material was analyzed by content analysis. The research material was coded, classified and themed. The classifications were made based on previous research, but the subcategories come from the research material. The themed was done through themes that come from the research material. Using content analysis, it was possible to create a wide picture of the topic under this research. Those, who dye with natural colorants, learn in many ways. They learn especially through oblique knowledge transfer, where different courses were the largest class in the learning process. The interviewees described also that they learned, among other things, through their experiments. Those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the learning subject. They experienced personal meanings: related to health, self and emotions, as well as ethical meanings: environmental and traditional meanings. Based on the results, it could be said that the those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the subject that they were during their lifetime, but the connection between this experienced meaningful subject and their learning cannot be studied with this research.
  • Lavanti, Lassi (2022)
    This study is an article-type master’s thesis, and its purpose was to study immigrant background families from ECEC personnel’s perspective. In this study ‘immigrant background’ is defined to include everyone who has either moved to Finland, been born in Finland but has parents with an immigrant background or speaks a foreign language at home. The personnel perspective in this study is brough by ECEC leaders and educators. The research questions were: How do the views of parents with an immigrant background appear to the ECEC leaders and educators? By what means do the ECEC leaders and educators support the families in their integration? The theoretical framework was produced by the diversities, acculturation and integration that was based on the international declarations, Finnish laws, policies, and recommendations from the curricula. With the help of these, this study aims to add knowledge of immigrant background families in ECEC, which is needed according to previous studies. This study was conducted between September year 2021 and May year 2022. The data was collected in December via individual and group interviews. The empirical material was gathered through semi-structured interviews with five ECEC unit leaders interviewed individually, and nine educators interviewed in four groups of two to four educators. The interviews were analyzed with content analysis using an inductive approach. The results indicate that the immigrant background families’ views appear for the leaders, and educators are mainly positive, especially the families' desire to integrate into Finnish society. The diverse cultures appeared for the personnel to conflict with Finnish culture, however, the conflict depended on the individuals and was not able to generalize. The means of integration were clear, and they matched all the dimensions of integration. The results explain the need for ensuring a shared understanding between parents and ECEC personnel. The article script “Language is Important” Perspectives from ECEC Personnel on Supporting Families with an Immigrant Background” is supposed to publish in an ECEC journal called Journal of Early Childhood Education Research. As co-authors in the article were Arniika Kuusisto and Heidi Harju-Luukkainen.