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Browsing by study line "Molekylärä och analytiska biovetenskaper"

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  • Suonto, Lotta (2019)
    Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) is a group of hereditary diseases where tooth enamel is abnormally formed. This disease has been found in Lancashire Heeler dogs. However, none of the mutations known to cause AI in canine, explain the disease in the Lancashire Heeler population. A research study was initiated to investigate the genetic background of the disease in the breed. Based on the pedigree data the disease was suggested to be inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. Whole-exome sequencing of two affected dogs was performed which revealed a plausible candidate variant in a gene regulating intracellular calcium concentration. The aim of this study was to examine whether the mutation in the candidate gene causes AI. The DNA were extracted from blood samples of 249 Lancashire Heelers. A genome-wide SNP genotyping was conducted on four cases and a homozygosity mapping was performed. The candidate variant was genotyped in a large cohort of Lancashire Heelers (n=249) and dogs from related breeds (n=91) to confirm the association with the disease. The expression of the candidate gene in lymphocytes was studied with RT-PCR. Clinical studies were performed to evaluate the clinical features and serum calcium levels were measured. The segregation of genotypes and phenotypes of the dogs was complete. The identified variant is predicted to cause a premature STOP codon, which, if translated, leads to a truncated protein lacking protein transmembrane domains. According to the results acquired from RT-PCR, it is possible that the protein will complete the translation despite the mutation. Clinical studies did not reveal other clinical features than enamel defects and serum calcium levels were normal. According to the results, we suggest that the identified variant is causal for AI in Lancashire Heelers. The results have significant impact because no other genetic connection between the gene and AI has been found before. Consequently, the development of a gene test is possible, creating multiple opportunities for researchers and veterinary medicine. The results are applicable also to human medicine. However, we need more research to achieve a complete understanding of the mutation and its effects.
  • Taskinen, Juuso (2019)
    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells are responsible for maintaining and forming new vessels from existing ones, in a biological process called sprouting angiogenesis. Sprouting angiogenesis is a crucial mechanism for the resolution of hypoxia and normal development of tissues. It also plays a key role in internal plague hemorrhages, which can lead to embolisms and other cardiovascular complications. Angiogenesis is also crucial for cancer development. Sprouting angiogenesis is initiated by hypoxic tissue excreted vascular endothelial growth factor gradient, which induces normal endothelial cells into either a proliferative stalk cell or a signal sensing tip cell phenotype. Both of these cell types depend on the rapid flow of lipids to their plasma membrane, either to form plasma membrane protrusions in tip cells or as new plasma membrane material in dividing stalk cells. This flow is envisioned to involve both vesicle-mediated and non-vesicular mechanisms. A major non-vesicular route of lipid transfer occurs at membrane contact sites via lipid transport proteins. Furthermore, lipids can be transported to the plasma membrane by the direct fusion of vesicles or endosomes with the plasma membrane This thesis set out to explore the role of two membrane contact site proteins, oxysterol-binding protein- related protein 2 and protrudin, in angiogenesis and lipid transfer. Their role was examined by RNA-sequencing transient knock-down samples of these proteins in HUVECs. The RNA-sequencing data was examined by differential expression, gene ontology overrepresentation and gene set enrichment analyses. Gene expression analysis provided almost 10 000 significantly changed transcripts (adjusted p-values < 0.05), in each silenced cell type. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in oxysterol-binding protein- related protein 2 silenced cells, is skewed toward negative fold changes, whereas the distribution of differentially expressed genes in protrudin silenced samples is normally distributed. The results also show significant changes in gene ontologies related to proliferation, cell cycle, angiogenesis as well as hypoxia in both sample types. Gene set enrichment analysis showed upregulation in angiogenesis related pathways, such as the PI3K-Akt and MAPK pathways, in both samples. Significant downregulation was present in cell cycle related pathways and cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in both ORP2 and protrudin silenced samples.