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Browsing by study line "Politics and the International Economy"

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  • Zhong, Huishan (2020)
    Abstract Introduction. International migration is one popular and challenging issue in Central Europe for decades, especially after the collapse of the communist bloc. This thesis explores, how international migration correlates with the level of economic development in six Central European countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia) during the years 1995-2019. In this context international migration is divided into two types: immigration and emigration. This thesis aims to help policymakers to determine the international migration policy by understanding the correlation between international migration and economic development better. Methods. This study explores the correlation between international migration and economic development in Central European states and reflects it against the historical, political, and economic context. National-level migration and macroeconomic data related to Central European states were collected from the World Bank, Eurostat, OECD, UNCTADstat, WIID, UIS, UNHCR and ETH Zurich databases in the period 1995-2019. The endogeneity issues in panel data analysis were noted. Macro-econometric models and spatial autoregressive models were conducted through Stata. Results. The empirical analysis confirmed the following hypotheses: (1) an increase in immigration correlates with a higher level of economic development in receiving countries. (2) An increase in emigration correlates with a lower level of economic development in sending countries. As expected, the empirical results further displayed a positive (negative) correlation between female immigrants (emigrants) and the economic development of receiving countries (sending countries). Conclusion. This thesis presents that (1) an increase in immigration strongly correlates with a higher level of economic development in receiving countries; (2) an increase in emigration significantly correlates with a lower level of economic development in sending countries. This study also emphasises the correlation between female migration and economic development in Central Europe.
  • QIU, XINGYUAN (2020)
    This paper investigates the economic implications of the 2018 US-China trade war on the EU, and measures the trade restrictiveness of non-tariff barriers by applying the Trade Restrictiveness Index methodology under the framework of Kee et al. (2009). A cross-sectional OLS regression was applied to estimate the ad-valorem equivalent of NTBs in 2017 and 2018, which were then used to construct the TRIs and deadweight loss. The paper depicts empirical evidences that NTBs tend to play a more crucial role than tariffs in the EU countries, as their NTBs make, on average, an additional contribution of more than 83% to the overall protection level measured solely by tariffs. Besides, the results suggest that both the restrictive level of NTBs and the overall protection level imposed by the EU fell from 2017 to 2018. In addition, a more-developed EU country tends to impose a lower restrictive level of NTBs than a relatively less-developed EU country during the US-China trade war. Moreover, the decreasing TRI, OTRI, MA-OTRI and DWL during this period reveals that the US and China have both held out the olive branches to the EU, while the EU also seized the opportunity to strengthen bilateral trade and cooperation with them. Especially, the reason for the decreasing DWL can be resulted from the backspin that the positive benefits brought by strengthening relationships and seeking deeper cooperation with alternative trading partners in 2018 outweigh the negative impacts caused by the US-China trade war and broken-down confidence of global investors in 2017. From a sectional level, there is evidence supporting the advice that the EU should try to avoid export products that with the highest AVEs imposed by the US and China to these two countries respectively, such as miscellaneous manufactured articles, rubber and plastics in my case.
  • Geyer, Lukas (2020)
    Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyz society got entangled in discussions about what it means to be Kyrgyz. Even though Kyrgyzstan has experienced a surge in nationalism over the last decades, it is only since recently that non-heteronormative sexualities are increasingly constructed as a threat to the continued existence of the Kyrgyz nation. Based on five in-depth interviews with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) individuals, I explore how they rationalise the increasing homophobia in Kyrgyz society and what kind of behavioural strategies they adopt to cope with the hostile environment. In particular, I assess whether the discursive exclusion of LGBT individuals from the Kyrgyz nation alters their relationship with the nation and the state. The research participants demonstrate an awareness for the connection between increasing nationalism and worsening attitudes against LGBT people and report corresponding adjustments in their behaviour, ranging from adaptation and hiding strategies to activism and emigration. While all respondents have a negative relationship with the Kyrgyz state, most report a decreasing sense of belonging to the Kyrgyz nation amid growing homophobia as well. These results suggest that the increased emphasis on the purportedly heteronormative nature of the Kyrgyz nation succeeds in redefining individual belonging to the nation and shifting the imagined boundaries of the nation.