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Browsing by master's degree program "Alkeishiukkasfysiikan ja astrofysikaalisten tieteiden maisteriohjelma (Particle Physics and Astrophysical Sciences)"

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  • Veltheim, Otto (2022)
    The measurement of quantum states has been a widely studied problem ever since the discovery of quantum mechanics. In general, we can only measure a quantum state once as the measurement itself alters the state and, consequently, we lose information about the original state of the system in the process. Furthermore, this single measurement cannot uncover every detail about the system's state and thus, we get only a limited description of the system. However, there are physical processes, e.g., a quantum circuit, which can be expected to create the same state over and over again. This allows us to measure multiple identical copies of the same system in order to gain a fuller characterization of the state. This process of diagnosing a quantum state through measurements is known as quantum state tomography. However, even if we are able to create identical copies of the same system, it is often preferable to keep the number of needed copies as low as possible. In this thesis, we will propose a method of optimising the measurements in this regard. The full description of the state requires determining multiple different observables of the system. These observables can be measured from the same copy of the system only if they commute with each other. As the commutation relation is not transitive, it is often quite complicated to find the best way to match the observables with each other according to these commutation relations. This can be quite handily illustrated with graphs. Moreover, the best way to divide the observables into commuting sets can then be reduced to a well-known graph theoretical problem called graph colouring. Measuring the observables with acceptable accuracy also requires measuring each observable multiple times. This information can also be included in the graph colouring approach by using a generalisation called multicolouring. Our results show that this multicolouring approach can offer significant improvements in the number of needed copies when compared to some other known methods.
  • Virta, Maxim (2022)
    Strongly coupled matter called quark–gluon plasma (QGP) is formed in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC [1, 2] and the LHC [3, 4]. The expansion of this matter, caused by pressure gradients, is known to be hydrodynamic expansion. The computations show that the expanding QGP has a small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio (η/s), close to the known lower bound 1/4π [5]. In such a medium one expects that jets passing through the medium would create Mach cones. Many experimental trials have been done but no proper evidence of the Mach cone has been found [6, 7]. Mach cones were thought to cause double-bumps in azimuthal correlations. However these were later shown to be the third flow harmonic. In this thesis a new method is proposed for finding the Mach cone with so called event-engineering. The higher order flow harmonics and their linear response are known to be sensitive to the medium properties [8]. Hence a Mach cone produced by high momentum jet would change the system properties and, thus, the observable yields. Different flow observables are then studied by selecting high energy jet events with different momentum ranges. Considered observables for different momenta are then compared to the all events. Found differences in the flow harmonics and their correlations for different jet momenta are reported showing evidence of Mach cone formation in the heavy-ion collisions. The observations for different jet momenta are then quantified with χ 2 -test to see the sensitivities of different observables to momentum selections.
  • Siilin, Kasper (2022)
    I use hydrodynamic cosmological N-body simulations to study the effect that a secondary period of inflation, driven by a spectator field, would have on the Local Group substructures. Simulations of the Local Group have been widely adopted for studying the nonlinear structure formation on small scales. This is essentially because detailed observations of faint dwarf galaxies are mostly limited to within the Local Group and its immediate surroundings. In particular, the ∼ 100 dwarf galaxies, discovered out to a radius of 3 Mpc from the Sun, constitute a sample that has the potential to discriminate between different cosmological models on small scales, when compared to simulations. The two-period inflaton-curvaton inflation model is one such example, since it gives rise to a small-scale cut-off in the ΛCDM primordial power spectrum, compared to the power spectrum of the ΛCDM model with single field power-law inflation. I investigate the substructures that form in a simulated analogue of the Local Group, with initial conditions that incorporate such a modified power spectrum. The most striking deviation, from the standard power-law inflation, is the reduction of the total number of subhalos, with v_max > 10 km/s, by a factor of ∼ 10 for isolated subhalos and by a factor of ∼ 6 for satellites. However, the reduction is mostly in the number of non-star-forming subhalos, and the studied model thus remains a viable candidate, taking into account the uncertainty in the Local Group total mass estimate. The formation of the first galaxies is also delayed, and the central densities of galaxies with v_max < 50 km/s are lowered: their circular velocities at 1 kpc from the centre are decreased and the radii of maximum circular velocity are increased. As for the stellar mass-metallicity and the stellar mass-halo mass relations, or the selection effects from tidal disruption, I find no significant differences between the models.
  • Haris-Kiss, Andras Kristof (2022)
    Over the last thirty years more than five thousand exoplanets have been discovered around a wide variety of stellar objects. Most exoplanets have been discovered using the transit method, which relies on observing the periodic brightness changes of stars as their planet transits in front of them. The discovery efficiency of these planets has been strongly enhanced with the advent of space telescopes dedicated to the discovery of planets using the transit method. Planetary signals in the photometric data of active stars can be challenging to find, as the surface features of the stars combined with their rotation might produce signals which are orders of magnitude stronger than those caused by the planetary transit. The question of what statistical methods should be applied to account for the innate variability of stars in order to identify the transits of exoplanets in the lightcurves of active stars is being investigated in this thesis. I test a number of statistical methods in order to combat stellar activity and to identify planetary transit signals. The rotation period of the star is investigated using the Lomb-Scargle and likelihood ratio periodograms. Starspot induced variability is approximated with a number of sinusoids, with periods based on the star's rotation period. Additional stellar activity is filtered out using autoregressive and moving average models. Model fittings are performed with least squares fitting, and using samples generated by the Adaptive Metropolis algorithm. After the lightcurve has been detrended for stellar activity, the likelihoods of planetary transit signals are assessed with a box-fitting algorithm. Models are compared with the Bayesian and Akaike information criteria. Planetary characteristics are then estimated by modeling the shape of the transit lightcurve. These methods are tested and performed on the lightcurve of HD~110082, a highly active young star with one confirmed planetary companion, based on the observations of the TESS space telescope. I find that stellar activity is sufficiently filtered out with a model containing four sinusoid signals. The signal corresponding to the planet is confirmed by the box fitting algorithm, agreeing with results available in scientific literature.
  • Keitaanranta, Atte (2022)
    Results from cosmological zoom-in simulations focusing on the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies starting from redshift z=50 until the present time are presented in this thesis. In addition, the dynamics of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries found in a subset of the galaxies as a result of galaxy mergers are studied. The first 12 zoom-in simulations were run with GADGET-3, an N-body hydrodynamical tree code on the Puhti supercomputer at the Finnish IT Centre for Science (CSC). The zoom-in regions were chosen from a low resolution large-volume simulation, run with the University of Helsinki computing cluster Kale. The SMBH binary dynamics were simulated with the regularized integrator code KETJU. In total three simulations using KETJU were run on the CSC supercomputer Mahti. The GADGET-3 simulations included both dark matter only runs and runs containing also baryons. The simulations were run at two different resolutions. No significant differences between the two resolutions were found for the dark matter only runs, whereas the runs including a baryonic component showed large differences. The medium resolution runs had too low particle numbers and too large particle masses to correctly resolve star formation and feedback, leading to rotation curves that missed their central peaks. The results from the high resolution simulations agreed with earlier published results. The rotation curves peak in the central regions of the galaxies with the curves becoming almost constant at large radii. The star formation rates peak in the redshift range z~2-3 and at smaller redshifts star formation can momentarily increase due to the occuring of galaxy mergers. At the present day, all of the studied galaxies include mainly old stellar populations, resulting in red colours for all the galaxies. Still, the galaxy formation efficiency parameter of each galaxy is somewhat higher than what is seen in the observations. Finally, all three SMBH binaries for which the dynamics were studied using KETJU led to a coalescence of the two black holes. The orbital decay of SMBH binaries occur in three phases: dynamical friction, three-body interactions and gravitational wave emission. The merger times strongly depend on the eccentricity of the binaries with the semimajor axis of the binary with the highest eccentricity decreasing the fastest. This is expected from theory, with the evolution from subparsec scales to coalescence agreeing very well with the theoretical evolution taking into account the post-Newtonian correction term 2.5PN, which is the lowest order post-Newtonian term responsible for gravitational wave emission.