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Browsing by master's degree program "Ihmisen ravitsemuksen ja ruokakäyttäytymisen maisteriohjelma"

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  • Tammi, Rilla (2021)
    Added sugar intake has been associated with several adverse health issues, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the knowledge of added sugar intake’s associations with overall diet quality and population subgroups is currently scarce. Our objective was to examine the association of added sugar intake with overall diet quality and population subgroups formed by sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, and obesity measures in the Finnish adult population. We also explored whether the association between added sugar intake and overall diet quality differs in the population subgroups. We applied the data from the cross-sectional population-based national FinHealth 2017 Study, and our analytical sample comprised 5094 Finnish adults. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire and added sugar intake was estimated by a newly developed calculation method utilizing food item disaggregation based on the national food composition database Fineli ®. Overall diet quality was assessed by the modified Baltic Sea Diet Score (mBSDS), depicting a healthy Nordic diet. The analyses were established separately for women and men, and associations were calculated by chi-square tests and linear and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and energy intake. Interactions were investigated with interaction terms and stratified analyses. Added sugar intake was inversely associated with education (P = 0.032 women; P = 0.001 men), smoking (P = 0.002 women; P < 0.0001 men), and physical activity (P < 0.0001) in both sexes. An inverse association was found with BMI in men (P = 0.003). Higher added sugar intake was associated with lower overall diet quality (P < 0.0001) and lower consumption of healthy perceived mBSDS components (P ≤ 0.001). An inverse association was also found with red and processed meat consumption in men (P = 0.011), while there was no association in women. Of the studied population subgroups, a significant interaction was found in physical activity subgroups in men (P = 0.005), the inverse association between added sugar intake and overall diet quality being stronger among active men compared with moderately active and inactive men. In conclusion, our findings suggest that high added sugar intake was associated with lower overall diet quality, lower education, and unhealthy lifestyle habits. The findings of this study can be utilized as background information when establishing new incentives to reduce added sugar intake or maintain a satisfactory intake level in the Finnish adult population. More research, especially longitudinal studies, is needed of added sugar intake’s associations with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, obesity measures, and overall diet quality in the population and population subgroups.
  • Peltonen, Henna (2021)
    Background: Preschoolers suffer frequently from infections. Large group sizes and varying hygiene practices may enhance pathogen transmission within preschool settings. Preschool-attributable infections cause economic consequences for society, which is why identifying the related risk factors is of importance. One such may be diet. Appropriate immune defence requires sufficient intakes of energy, protein, polyunsaturated fat, dietary fibre, and numerous micronutrients, whereas excess sugar and saturated fat may be harmful. However, previous nutritional research examining preschoolers’ infections has mainly focused on probiotics. Little research has been done on the role of whole-diet in preschoolers’ susceptibility to infections. Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with common colds, gastroenteritis, and antibiotic courses among Finnish preschoolers. Methods: The study sample included 721 children aged 3-6 years attending the cross-sectional DAGIS survey. The parents reported retrospectively how many common colds, gastroenteritis, and antibiotic courses their children had experienced during the past year. Children’s food consumption was recorded using a 47-item food frequency questionnaire filled in by the parents. The parents also reported background factors of their children and family. The following three dietary patterns were identified based on the food consumption frequencies using principal component analysis: 1) sweets-and-treats pattern (high loadings of e.g. biscuits, chocolate, and ice cream); 2) health-conscious pattern (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, and berries); and 3) vegetables-and-processed meats pattern (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, colds cuts, and fruits). Dietary pattern scores were calculated for each child to describe the strength of adherence to each identified dietary pattern. The distributions of the dietary pattern scores were divided into thirds that were labelled low, moderate, and high adherence groups. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to examine the associations between thirds of the dietary pattern scores and the prevalence of common colds and antibiotic courses. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between thirds of the dietary pattern scores and a chance of experiencing at least one gastroenteritis. Results: Prevalence of common colds was lower in moderate and high adherences to the sweets-and-treats pattern compared to low adherence (PR=0.89, 95% CI=0.80-1.00; and PR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79-0.99, respectively) and higher in high adherence to the health-conscious pattern compared to low adherence (PR=1.13, 95% CI=1.01-1.27) after adjusting for age, sex, number of children living in the same household, frequency of preschool attendance, probiotic use, and the highest educational level in the family. Moderate adherence to the sweets-and-treats pattern was associated with a lower chance of at least one gastroenteritis (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.44-0.92) and lower prevalence of antibiotic courses (PR=0.77, 95% CI= 0.59-1.00) compared to low adherence. No significant associations were observed between the vegetables-and-processed meats pattern and the infectious outcomes. Adjustments for the background factors did not modify the associations. Conclusion: The results were unexpected. The associations observed would suggest that favouring unhealthier foods but avoiding healthier foods was linked to better immunity, which is difficult to accept as true. Parents who were most health-conscious of their children’s diet might also have been more conscious of their children’s illness conditions than less health-conscious parents, which may explain the results. Further research with longitudinal designs is needed to determine whether dietary habits play a role in preschoolers’ susceptibility to infections.
  • Hentilä, Annukka (2022)
    Background and objectives: It is important for human’s health and environment that red meat consumption decreases, and legume consumption increases in diet. To develop more tailored and effective interventions, it needs to be studied which food motives affect red meat and legume consumption across different population groups. Our aim was to study the associations between food motives and red meat and legume consumption and whether these associations differ between men and women and age groups. Material and methods: Ten food motives (health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price-cheap, price-value, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern as measured using the Food Choice Questionnaire) were studied among 3 079 adults who participated in the DILGOM 2014 study. Red meat and legume consumption was assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire. The associations between food motives and red meat and legume consumption were tested with linear regression analyses. The interactions between gender/age groups and food motives were studied by linear regression analyses and when the interaction was statistically significant the gender and age group stratified analyses were done. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The research protocol of the DILGOM 2014 were approved by the Ethics Committee of Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District. This study was part of the Leg4Life (Legumes for Sustainable Food System and Healthy Life) project. Results: The highest relative importance was for price-value, sensory appeal and health motives and the lowest for weight control, ethical concern and familiarity motives. Higher importance of health (std. β=-0.052), natural content (std. β=-0.071) and ethical concern (std. β=-0.088) were associated with lower red meat consumption. In contrast, rating mood (std. β=0.039), convenience (std. β=0.042,), sensory appeal (std. β=0.106), price-cheap (std. β=0.061) and price-value (std. β=0.035) motives as more important were associated with higher red meat consumption. The size of the association between food motives and red meat consumption was the most prominent, but small, for sensory appeal, natural content, price-cheap and ethical concern. Regarding legume consumption, higher importance of health (std. β=0.093), natural content (std. β=0.048), weight control (std. β=0.039) and ethical concern (std. β=0.054) were associated with higher legume consumption. On the contrary, higher appreciation of convenience (std. β=-0.112), price-value (std. β=-0.070) and familiarity (std. β=-0.084) were associated with lower legume consumption. The size of the association between food motives and legume consumption was the most prominent, but small, for health, convenience, price-value and familiarity. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that people with higher red meat consumption are more appreciative of convenience, taste and monetary aspects of food while people with higher legume consumption value more health and ethic related aspects of food. Based on our results the food motives that should be in the center when developing and implementing actions to decrease red meat consumption and increase legume consumption are convenience, sensory appeal, price-cheap and familiarity. Knowledge on the most valued food motives regarding red meat and legume consumption, may help alter individuals’ food consumption towards healthier and more sustainable direction.
  • Koponen, Kari (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Diet has a major influence on the human gut microbiome, which has been linked to health and disease. However, epidemiological studies on the association of a healthy diet with the gut microbiome utilizing a whole-diet approach are still scant. OBJECTIVES: To assess associations between healthy food choices and human gut microbiome composition, and to determine the strength of association with the functional potential of the microbiome. DESIGN: The study sample consisted of 4,930 participants in the FINRISK 2002 study. Food intake was assessed using a food propensity questionnaire. Intake of food items recommended to be part of a healthy diet in the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations were transformed into a healthy food choices (HFC) score. Microbial diversity (alpha diversity) and compositional differences (beta diversity) and their associations with the HFC score and its components were assessed using linear regression and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA). Associations between specific taxa and HFC were analyzed using multivariate associations with linear models (MaAsLin). Functional associations were derived from KEGG orthologies (KO) with linear regression models. RESULTS: Both microbial alpha (p = 1.90x10-4) and beta diversity (p ≤ 0.001) associated with HFC score. For alpha diversity, the strongest associations were observed for fiber-rich breads, poultry, fruits, and low-fat cheeses. For beta diversity, most prominent associations were observed for vegetables followed by berries and fruits. Genera with fiber-degrading and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) producing capacity were positively associated with the HFC score. HFC associated positively with KO-based functions such as vitamin biosynthesis and SCFA metabolism, and inversely with fatty acid biosynthesis and the sulfur relay system. CONCLUSIONS: These results from a large and representative population-based survey confirm and extend findings of other smaller-scale studies that plant and fiber-rich dietary choices are associated with a more diverse and compositionally distinct microbiome, and with a greater potential to produce SCFAs.
  • Oksanen, Marja (2022)
    Alcohol policy, alcohol legislation and alcohol consumption have a long history in Finland. For long, Finnish people have been seen as binge drinkers and harms caused by alcohol have been a true problem and burden for the public health. Still, alcohol is present in our everyday life. Therefore, there needs to be different ways to limit the consumption and related harms. This is where alcohol policy comes into action; its long history and the quite restrictive methods used in Finland have been generated for the welfare of the Finnish people and public health. Alcohol policy entails many aspects to consider. Discussing alcohol policy without taking into account such factors as self-regulation, alcohol culture and consumer practices leaves the discussion unilateral. The aim of this thesis is to identify what kind of policy measures were targeted when discussing the alcohol Act 2018 in the plenary session before voting about the Act. Also, the aim is to identify whether there was prejudice or stigma present in the discussion and how was alcohol culture taken into consideration when discussing the new act. In this study the focus is on alcohol culture and politics and therefore the research design of this study is qualitative. The material used in this research is a transcript of a plenary session held the day before the new Act was voted on. The method of analysis used to analyse the research material is directed content analysis. Still, it should be recognized, that this research is strongly related to rhetoric analyses as well. The debate in the plenary session was intense and strongly emphasized by personal opinions and arguments. The discussion many times shifted away from health policy to industrial policy which leaves open a question about the justification of alcohol policy in general. Stigma was present in the discussion and alcohol culture was referred to in a negative and positive sense. The nine target areas of alcohol policy were addressed, pricing and availability being emphasized more than other. The topic in general is part of a wider societal discussion and should be addressed from a wider perspective than alcohol policy alone.
  • Luiskari, Lotta (2021)
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disease impacting over six million people in the world. In addition to the motor symptoms of the disease, the disorder is accompanied with gastrointestinal problems. These include delayed transit time, disturbances in the microbial composition of the gut, inflammation in the intestine, structural changes in the epithelial lining and increased intestinal permeability. Paracellular permeability is regulated by tight junctions (TJ) which are complexes formed by proteins such as claudins, occludin and zonula occludens proteins. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered have beneficial effects on the host. Probiotic bacteria can modulate intestinal permeability and the expression of TJ proteins. These microbes are also able to improve the gastrointestinal symptoms, such as constipation, in PD patients. As a part of a larger study, the aim was to examine whether the expression of TJ proteins is altered in the lactacystin-induced mouse model of PD and to investigate whether probiotic supplementation elicits changes in their expression. The study was conducted in eight- to nine-week-old C57Bl/6JRccHsd mice, to which PD symptoms had been induced by lactacystin injection to the substantia nigra. Starting at one to two weeks after the injection, four groups of mice were treated with one out of four specific probiotic strains (A, B, C and D) for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, jejunal and colonic samples were collected from the mice. These samples were analyzed using Western Blot to determine the expression of TJ proteins claudin-1, claudin-4 and occludin. Based on the WB results, the jejunal gene level expression of these proteins in one probiotic group (D) was compared to the untreated group with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of TJ proteins was not altered as a result of the lactacystin injection in jejunum or colon, suggesting that lactacystin model is not optimal for investigating PD-related alterations in TJ proteins. Supplementation with microbe D increased the jejunal expression of claudin-1 on both protein and gene level, whereas in the colonic protein expression there was no change. Clear effects were not detected on claudin-4 or occludin nor when treated with microbes A, B or C. Therefore, microbe D might influence intestinal TJ function and permeability through regulating the expression of claudin-1.
  • Simpura, Lyyra (2021)
    Background: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common diseases characterized by disturbing gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in the absence of structural or biochemical changes in GI tract. Well identified group of compounds responsible for GI symptoms are FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides and polyols). Legumes contain α-galacto-oligosaccharides (α-GOS), unabsorbed, osmotically active and rapidly fermented fibres, known for colonic gas formation. The role of phytic acid (PA) and its effects on GI symptoms as complex-forming agent is not fully understood. These antinutrients can be removed by enzymatic treatments. However, usefulness of these treatments on reducing GI symptoms is not known. Aims: The aim of this research was to investigate whether two different enzymatic treatments of pea-based products have an impact on experienced GI symptoms. α-GOS and PA content was reduced in the test products. Material and methods: This was a 3–week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over-designed study. Participants (n=26) were healthy males and females aged 21–70 who claimed to experience GI symptoms after consuming legumes. Each participant received weekly two portions of either α-galactosidase-treated, double-enzyme-treated or control, spoonable pea-based product. They reported severity of nine GI symptoms within 72–hour time period via web-based survey using visual analog scale (VAS). Maximum values, the time for experiencing the maximum values, maximum values in 8 time points and symptom sum scores were analyzed. To study differencies in GI symptoms caused by the study products, data was analyzed statistically using mainly non-parametric Friedman’s test. Dependence of baseline symptoms and symptom scores were examined using crosstabulation and analyzed statistically with Fisher’s exact test. Results: Participants’ median symptom scores were rather low throughout the intervention, indicating that the participants were after all not very sensitive for legume GOS. Maximum pain score was significantly higher with the double-enzyme-treated product compared to the control product (p=0,038). At time point 5 bloating score was significantly higher with the α-galactosidase-treated product than with the double-enzyme-treated product (p=0,051), and flatulence score was significantly higher with the α-galactosidase-treated product than with the control product (p=0,021). There were no statistically significant differencies in any other examined variables between the study products. Although there was a slight trend towards more severe symptoms with the enzyme-treated products compared to the control product. Conclusions: The enzyme-treated pea-based products were not better tolerated than the control product, but that may be due to the fact that the experienced GI symptoms were rather mild in general. There are some evidence on the use of α-galactosidase supplement to alleviate GOS-induced GI symptoms. In future, the products should be tested in specifically α-GOS- and/or PA sensitive population.
  • Salo, Tuuli (2022)
    The current definition for dietary fibre was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) in 2009, but implementation still requires updating food composition databases with values based on appropriate analysis methods. The Finnish National Food Composition Database Fineli is among the first to be updated with CODEX-compliant values of total dietary fibre (TDF), insoluble dietary fibre (IDF), dietary fibre soluble in water but precipitated in 78 % aqueous ethanol (SDFP) and dietary fibre soluble in water and not precipitated in 78 % aqueous ethanol (SDFS). Previous data on population intakes of dietary fibre fractions is sparse. The aim of this study was to assess intakes and sources of dietary fibre and dietary fibre fractions in Finnish children based on updated values of the national food composition database Fineli. In addition, associations of sociodemographic factors with energy adjusted total dietary fibre intake were assessed. Our sample included 5206 children at increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention birth-cohort, born between 1996 and 2004. We assessed the intakes and sources based on 3-day food records collected at the ages of 6 months, 1, 3, and 6 years. Associations of child’s age, sex, breastfeeding status and sociodemographic factors were assessed with independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and univariate analysis of variance. Food sources of dietary fibre were assessed with source analysis. Older children and boys had higher intakes of absolute dietary fibre. The highest energy-adjusted intake of TDF was however observed in 1-year-olds (2.85 g/MJ in boys; 2.77 g/MJ in girls). At the age of 6 months, non-breastfed girls and boys had higher energy-adjusted intake of TDF than their breastfed counterparts, while at the age of one the setting reversed. Children of older parents, parents with a higher level of education, non-smoking mothers, and children with no older siblings had higher energy-adjusted intakes of total dietary fibre. Cereal products, fruits and berries, potatoes, and vegetables were the major food sources of total dietary fibre as well as the dietary fibre fractions. IDF was the major dietary fibre fraction followed by SDFP and SDFS. Proportions of IDF and SDFP decreased with age, while the proportion of SDFS increased. Our study based on updated CODEX-compliant food database values found that on average the TDF intake of Finnish children met the recommendations. The proportions of dietary fibre fractions as well as the roles of different foods as dietary fibre sources shifted with the child’s age, reflecting age related changes in the child’s diet.
  • Jouhki, Ida (2022)
    Many athletes, goal-oriented exercisers, and normal-weight adults are interested in pursuing weight loss and a more aesthetic appearance. However, research on the association between body composition changes and cardiometabolic health is relatively scarce in metabolically healthy adults, whose body mass index is below 30. Thus, the current study observed, how the serum cardiometabolic profile of fitness competitors changes in response to an intensive weight loss period prior to competitions, and whether these changes persist during competition week and a post-competition recovery period. In addition, the association between android fat mass and serum cardiometabolic profile was investigated. The study was part of University of Jyväskylä and National Institute for Health and Welfare’s study that followed the competition preparation of 23 fitness athletes (13 men, 10 women) prior to the Finnish National Championships and their subsequent recovery from the pre-competition weight loss. The results of the competitor group were compared to a control group (10 men, 12 women) that strived to maintain their baseline body composition, energy intake, and exercise levels throughout the study period. Participants’ serum cardiometabolic profile (250 serum metabolites), body composition, energy intake, and energy expenditure of weekly exercise were measured in four time points: six months pre-competition (PRE), one week pre-competition (MID), one day post-competition (COMP), and six months post-competition (POST). Changes in the serum cardiometabolic profile and their associations with android fat mass, energy intake, and exercise levels were analyzed with Generalized Estimation Equations models. During the weight loss period (PRE-MID), the competitors’ body weight decreased by 8,0 ± 3,5 kg (false discovery rate, FDR = 0,02) and 12,0 ± 3,4 kg (FDR < 0,001), and total fat mass decreased by 10,7 ± 2,1 kg and 9,7 ± 1,5 kg (FDR < 0,001) in women and men, respectively. The competitors’ serum HDL-cholesterol, HDL-phospholipid and apoA-1 concentrations, and HDL particle size and number increased (FDR < 0,01), while serum total and VLDL-triglyceride concentrations, VLDL particle size, and concentrations of glucose and glycoprotein acetyls decreased (FDR < 0,001). Decreased android fat mass (~-79%, FDR < 0,001) explained the majority of the metabolic changes during the weight loss period. Increased energy intake during the competition week (women: ~18%, FDR = 0,19; men: ~41%, FDR < 0,001) was associated with increases in serum HDL- and VLDL-triglyceride concentrations (FDR < 0,05). In the end of the recovery period (POST), the competitors’ body composition and most (n = 64) of the serum metabolite concentrations had reverted back to baseline levels (FDR > 0,05), except for lipids in large VLDL particles and a few (n = 7) HDL-related metabolites (FDR < 0,05). The current results suggest that weight loss and loss of android fat mass are associated with anti-atherogenic changes in fitness competitors’ HDL and VLDL particle composition and in concentrations of serum glucose and inflammation markers. Increased energy intake after weight loss may lead to acute increases in HDL- and VLDL-triglyceride concentrations, but weight-loss-related changes in the serum cardiometabolic profile are not substantially dissipated until body weight and fat mass are regained. Further longitudinal research with larger sample sizes is warranted to confirm potential causal relationships.
  • Suomi, Juho (2021)
    Introduction: Fitness athletes change their nutrition a week before competition during “peak week” in the hope of achieving a better physique in competition. There is little evidence of the benefits of peaking in fitness sports and current literature suggests that these peaking methods might even be harmful to athletes’ condition or pose a risk to their health. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional strategies of fitness athletes during the peak week and the effects of these strategies on body composition, anthropometry, and hormonal markers. Materials and methods: Participants consisted of 6 female and 10 male fitness athletes preparing for the 2019 Finnish championships. The participants’ hormone levels (cortisol, estradiol, T4, FSH, T3, insulin, free testosterone, leptin, and ghrelin) were measured from blood samples collected before the beginning of the peak week and on the day after the competition. Body composition and anthropometric measurements (weight, fat mass, fat free mass, intracellular water, total body water, chest circumference, waist circumference, vastus lateralis CSA) were taken at the same time points. The energy and nutrient intake of the athletes was estimated based on self-reported food diaries. The associations between nutritional factors and changes in body composition and hormonal markers were investigated with regression analysis. Results: The competitors were found to significantly (p < 0,05) increase their energy intake, carbohydrate and sodium intake, and to decrease their protein intake when transitioning to peak week. During the peak week body weight, fat free mass, intracellular and total body water, waist circumference and vastus lateralis CSA increased statistically significantly (p < 0,05). A statistically significant decrease was found in cortisol, estradiol, free testosterone and ghrelin levels, whereas T4, FSH, T3, insulin, and leptin levels increased significantly (p < 0,05). Conclusions: We found that fitness athletes change their nutrition a week before the competition in the hope of achieving a better competition physique. The changes in energy and nutrient intake were not associated with changes in body composition, but they may be connected to hormonal changes. The hormonal changes detected during the peak week indicate that athletes start to recover from a long period of energy restriction, which may lead to a better competition physique.
  • Mustakallio, Meri (2022)
    Background: Replacing animal protein with plant-based protein has health and environmental benefits, but new plant protein-based products have shown a high salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) content. Objectives: 1) To investigate the effects of replacing animal protein sources with plant-based protein sources on sodium (Na) intake in a 12-week ScenoProt intervention. 2) To gather information on NaCl contents of plant-based protein and meat alternative products available in Finland and to compare them with equivalent meat products. Methods: 1) 136 participants were randomized into different protein diets (G1: animal 70%/plant 30%; G2: animal 50%/plant 50%; G3: animal 30%/plant 70%). Na intake was measured with 4-day food records and 24h urine excretion using analysis of (co)variance. 2) An audit for plant protein and meat products was done. NaCl content in product categories was compared using t-tests and non-parametric tests. Results: 1) Na intake was highest in G1 (3.7±0.9 g/d), while the intakes in G2 and G3 were 3.1±0.9 and 3.1±0.6 g/d (p<0.001). Urinary Na was highest in G1 vs. G2 and G3 (p≤0.018; adjusted for baseline). Plant-based foods accounted for 28,5 % of sodium intake in G3. 2) Of 347 plant-based products, 89 % were salted/seasoned and mean NaCl content was 1.29±0.63 g/100 g. Plant-based mince and chicken strips were higher in salt than their meat equivalents (1.22±0.49 vs. 0.24±0.35 and 1.61±0.33 vs.1.16 ±0.63 g/100 g, p≤0.017), whereas meat sausages and meat salamis had higher salt content than the plant alternatives (1.94±0.23 vs. 1.64±0.33 and 4.04±0.39 vs. 2.12±0.60 g/100 g, p<0.001). Conclusion: Na intake and urinary excretion were lower when 50-70% of dietary proteins were from plant-based sources compared to a diet containing 70% animal-based proteins. However, plant-based dishes were a significant source of sodium in the plant-based diets and some plant-based products have high NaCl contents, which may question their healthiness, especially if consumed frequently.
  • Serasinghe, Nithya (2021)
    The socioeconomic status (SES) of the family is associated with the food consumption of the children and this association is mediated by different mediators. This study had two aims; firstly, to determine the associations between the determinants of SES and children’s food consumption, secondly to assess the mediating effects of food availability and parental role-modeling of the above associations. Parental educational level and relative income of the family were studied as the determinants of SES. Children’s food consumption was measured under two categories; fruits & vegetables (FV) and sugary food & drinks (SFD). Data was obtained from the baseline data collection of the DAGIS intervention study in 2017 which was conducted in 32 preschools in Salo (N=29) and Riihimäki (N=3). A FFQ filled by the parents was used to determine children’s food consumption. Information on parental educational level, family income, food availability, and parental role-modeling was extracted from the self-administered parental questionnaire. Parents of 698 preschool children aged from 3 to 6 years filled the parental questionnaire. Spearman’s correlations tests were conducted to determine the associations between SES determinants and children’s food consumption. Mediating roles of food availability and parental role-modeling were assessed through mediation analysis using PROCESS version 3 macro for SPSS. Parental educational level was a statistically significant predictor of children's FV consumption. Family relative income did not predict FV or SFD consumption of the children. The multiple mediators model revealed that the association between the parental educational level and children’s consumption of FV was partially mediated by three mediators: the availability of FV, parental role-modeling of FV, and the availability of SFD. The association between the relative income of the family and children's consumption of FV was fully mediated by two mediators: home availability of FV, and parental role-modeling of FV. This study suggested parental educational level is a better predictor of children’s food consumption compared to family income. The mediation roles of food availability and parental role-modeling should be taken into account in developing interventions to improve the FV and SFD consumption of children in Finland.
  • Ansung, Kim (2021)
    Understanding the relationship between plant-based diets and mental health has become an important issue from a public health perspective, not only for researchers but also in everyday life. In particular, this study focused on university students since more and more students have been limiting their animal-based foods intake. At the same time, there has been a global trend of increasing mental disorders and distress among university students. Poor mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, could associate with students' academic achievement. This study examined the connections between diet choice, mental health, and academic achievement. This study used cross-sectional data from the Student Health Survey 2016 by the Finnish Student Health Service (FSHS). Among 3029 participants (aged 18 to 35 years) from either academic universities or universities of applied sciences in Finland, the questions from the Index of Diet Quality (IDQ) were used to construct four different diet types: 67 vegans (2.2%), 281 vegetarians (9.3%), 291 semi-vegetarians (9.6%), and 2390 omnivores (78.9%). Mental health status was measured by using two indicators: self-reported diagnosed mental disorders (depression and/or anxiety) and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), which screened minor psychiatric disorders. Academic achievement was measured by asking about perceived academic success. The logistic regression models were used in the main analyses. The two different mental health status were analysed with adjustment for potential confounding variables such as sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviour, BMI, and disease conditions. The academic achievement was analysed with adjustment for potential confounding variables such as sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviour, BMI, disease conditions, enrolment period, and right field of study. Also, this study further examined the association between food groups and academic achievement. The results showed that compared to the omnivorous diet, the vegetarian diet was associated with higher odds of diagnosed mental disorders (OR [95% CI]: 2.74 [1.80–4.16], p<0.001) and minor psychiatric disorders screened by GHQ-12 (OR [95% CI]: 1.68[1.22–2.30], p<0.001) after adjustment for all potential confounders. Although a positive relationship between fish consumption and academic achievement was found (OR [95% CI]: .88[.80–.96], p<0.01), there was no statistically significant association between diet types and academic achievement. In addition, higher sweets consumption was related to higher odds of being less successful than students had expected (OR [95% CI]: 1.08 [1.01–1.15], p<0.05). The results indicate that vegetarian university students are more likely to have lower mental health status than non-vegetarian students on average. In addition, academic achievement is associated with the consumption of specific food items rather than diet types. Overall, the findings suggest that vegetarian students should carefully monitor their mental health status. Also, students should be supported to improve their food choice and dietary quality for their academic achievement. The study results can be implicated in public health interventions to improve students' well-being among higher education students. In future research, it may be beneficial to apply more various classifications and measures of diet types and academic achievement and examine the temporal relationship between diagnosed mental disorders and the diet chosen.
  • Maskulin, Viivi (2022)
    Tavoitteet. Ilmaston lämpeneminen on yksi suurimpia tulevaisuuden haasteita, jonka ehkäise-miseksi muutokset kulutuskäyttäytymisessä, yhteiskuntarakenteissa sekä yritystoiminnassa ovat tutkimustiedon mukaan välttämättömiä. Ruoka sekä ruoantuotanto ovat yksi merkittävim-mistä maapallon kantokykyä kuormittavista tekijöistä. Muutokset päästöjen vähentämisessä tai vaihtoehtoisesti seuraukset, joita ilmaston lämpeneminen aiheuttaa, tulevat koskettamaan erityi-sesti nuorten sukupolvia. Tässä tutkielmassa tavoitteena on pyrkiä ymmärtämään nuorten nä-kemyksiä ruoan valintaan vaikuttavista tekijöistä etenkin kestävyyden näkökulmasta. Samalla tavoitteena on tutkia, miten nuoret kokevat erilaiset keinot ja niiden vaikuttavuuden osana il-mastonmuutosta ehkäiseviä toimia. Tämän tutkimuksen tutkimuskysymykset ovat: millä tavoin ruoanvalintaan ja -käyttöön liittyvät tekijät jäsentyvät nuorten mielipiteissä sekä mitkä ovat ne tekijät, jotka nuoret kokevat edistävän tai estävän kestävyyttä ruoan tai syömisen näkökulmas-ta? Ruokavalintoja käsitellään yksilön valintojen, kuten poliittisen kulutuksen teorisointien sekä yhteiskunnallisten ohjauskeinojen ja -rakenteiden näkökulmasta. Menetelmät. Tutkimusasetelmassa hyödynnetään sekä laadullisia että määrällisiä menetelmiä. Kyselyllä kerättyä aineistoa analysoidaan pääosin laadullisin menetelmin, eli aineistolähtöisellä sisällönanalyysilla ja teemoittelulla. Analyysia täydennetään aineiston mahdollistaman määrälli-sen tarkastelun keinoin. Kyselyaineisto koostuu 44 nuoren aikuisen (15–29-vuotiaan) vastauk-sista. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Tämän tutkimuksen tuloksina ruoan valintaan vaikuttavina yksittäi-sinä tekijöinä määritti erityisesti elämäntilanne, ruoan hinta sekä kotimaisen ruoan suosiminen mahdollisuuksien mukaan. Ruokaan liittyvät ympäristöä kuormittavat tekijät nähtiin erityisesti rakenteellisena ongelmana, mutta omilla kulutusvalinnoilla koettiin olevan yhtä lailla merkitystä tulevaisuuden haasteita ratkottaessa. Ilmastonmuutoksen sekä ruokavalintojen yhteys koettiin olemassa olevana ongelmana, johon nuorten mielestä tulisi löytää ratkaisu. Nuoret kokevat ruo-kaan ja kulutukseen liittyvät tekijät moniulotteisena kokonaisuutena ja miettivät tulevaisuutta. Nuoret tiedostavat ruoan yhteyden ilmastokriisiin ja tahtoisivat oppia lisää ruokaan liittyvistä tekijöistä, jotta kestävämpien kulutusvalintojen tekeminen olisi helpompaa. Nuoret ovat valmiita muuttamaan omaa kulutustaan, mutta odottavat aktiivisia toimia myös vallanpitäjiltä.
  • Piipponen, Anna-Maria (2021)
    Some diets strain the environment more than others and have disadvantageous effects on population health. Ecological impact of animal protein production is often particularly high; it bears about three quarters of the greenhouse gas emissions of food. Consequently, ecological impact of plant-based protein sources, pulses and nuts, is generally considered small. The food consumption varies between different sociodemographic groups, and unhealthy diets, that are significant exposers for many lifestyle diseases, are more common in certain population groups. To improve the population health and reduce the ecological impacts of food consumption, it is important to recognize the population groups whose diets reveal disadvantageous food consumption. Utilizing Finnish loyalty card data (LoCard-data), this study investigates the sociodemographic variables related to daily consumption of three separate protein sources: meat, milk products and plant proteins. Customer responses to a questionnaire on their food consumption preferences and demographics were used. The probability of consuming different protein sources on daily basis was obtained using logistic regression model. In other words, daily consumption of meat, milk products and plant-based protein sources was explained by the following independent variables: age, sex, education, income, household size and place of residence. Statistically significant association was found between the daily meat consumption and all the independent variables in both unstandardized and standardized models. In the unstandardized model, sex was not associated with daily consumption of milk products, and income was not associated with daily consumption of plant-based protein sources. However, in the standardized model, the association of the daily milk product consumption and sex became significant, whereas the association with education and urbanization level was not statistically significant. Association of the daily plant protein consumption with income and region was insignificant. In the standardized model, the probability of daily meat consumption increased with age, income and household size or when the respondent was male or had a low level of education. The probability of daily milk product consumption increased with age, income and household size or if the respondent was female. The probability to consume plant proteins on daily basis was in association with female sex, older age, having a higher education and a bigger household. The results are largely in line with other studies. However, contrary to most of the studies, the greater age was associated with daily consumption of all the examined protein sources. Future studies are needed to examine sociodemographic factors related to consumption of milk products and plant protein sources in total, but also related to consumption of different meat and milk products. Moreover, it is important to investigate the motives, attitudes and cultural meanings of the food choices as those cannot be captured with this approach. Differences in food cultures may impact on the results as well, which increases the need for additional research.
  • Sirkjärvi, Tiina (2021)
    Background. The interest in plant-based protein sources has increased due to environmental and health concerns. The ScenoProt intervention study was a 12-week controlled study consisting of three different omnivorous diet groups. Study group’s diets ANIMAL, 50/50 and PLANT consisted of 30%, 50% and 70% plant-based protein, respectively, with rest of the protein coming from animal-based sources. Objectives. The aim of this study was to see whether amino acid intakes differed between the diets and whether the indispensable amino acid requirements were met. The focus was to concentrate on studying the amino acids that were most limited in comparison to the requirement levels in the most plant-based group. Also, the main sources of amino acids were analysed from different food categories. Materials and methods. The ScenoProt randomised controlled intervention was performed in spring 2017. Altogether 136 healthy adult participants completed the 12-week study. Meat and dairy were partly replaced with cereals, nuts, seeds, and legumes in the PLANT and 50/50 groups. Fish and eggs were provided with equal amounts in each group. Amino acid compositions of food items were provided from different databases and combined with 4-day food records from the baseline and the end of the 12-week intervention. Differences between the diets were analysed with ANOVA. The amino acid sources were calculated from 17 different categories. Results. The intakes of protein and indispensable amino acids were highest in the ANIMAL group compared to the PLANT group (P<0.01). The requirements of indispensable amino acids were met, apart from the methionine intake in two participants (5%) in the PLANT group, who also had protein intake below the safe intake level. In the PLANT group, cereals became the main source of protein and all amino acids, and legumes the main source of lysine, whereas in the ANIMAL, meat was the main source of protein, methionine, lysine, and threonine, and milk the main source of valine and leucine. Considering all indispensable amino acids, the intake of valine in the ANIMAL and methionine in the PLANT and 50/50 groups were closest to the reference value. Conclusions. When plant-based protein sources were increased with the expense of animal-based sources, the main sources of protein and amino acids changed, but the sufficient indispensable amino acid intakes were mostly met. The sufficient protein intake could be considered somewhat more carefully in diets resembling Planetary Health diet to ensure methionine requirement. As the indispensable amino acid requirements were met in all the study diets when protein intake was above the safe intake level (0.83 g/kg), it is safe to replace animal-based sources with more plant-based sources.
  • Kalliomäki, Ville (2022)
    Abstract Background: Excessive consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases. Finnish men consume too much red and processed meat compared to the recommendations. In contrast, legumes account for only about one percent of total daily energy intake. Because legumes are rich in protein, they are well suited as meat substitutes in the diet. Replacing some of animal-sourced protein in the diet with plant-based sources can shift the diet in a healthier and more sustainable direction. Aim: The aim of the thesis was to investigate how the partial replacement of red and processed meat with non-soy legumes affects the intake of energy nutrients, energy, and fiber in healthy working-age men. It was also investigated how the sources of nutrient intakes in the diet change when meat is replaced by legumes. Methods: Material from the Papumies (“bean man”) intervention study was used in this thesis. The subjects were healthy Finnish men aged 20–65 years (n = 102) who were randomized into two different intervention groups for six weeks. The meat group received red and processed meat and meat products 760 g / week (25% of daily protein intake). The legume group received legumes and legume products (including peas and fava beans) corresponding to 20% of daily protein intake and red and processed meat 200 g / week (5% of daily protein intake). Subjects’ energy, energy nutrient, and fiber intakes were analyzed from food records kept by subjects before the beginning of the intervention period and during the last week of the intervention on three weekdays and one weekend day. Energy and energy nutrient intakes were analyzed from food records using CGI’s Aromi Diet program. Results: At the endpoint the intake of fiber (p <0.001) was higher, and the intake of cholesterol (p = 0.013) was lower in the legume group compared to the meat group. The percentages of energy intake of polyunsaturated (p <0.001) fatty acids and n-3- (p <0.001) and n-6- (p <0.001) fatty acids were higher in the legume group than in the meat group. In contrast, the percentage of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.012) of energy intake was higher in the meat group compared to the legume group. Conclusions: The partial replacement of red and processed meat with legumes improves the fatty acid composition of the diet and increases fiber intake. Through these favorable changes, even the partial replacement of animal protein with plant protein may reduce the risk of developing chronic lifestyle diseases. The study highlights the diet-improving effects of legumes (peas and fava beans) grown in Finland, which is important when considering ways to change eating habits in a healthier and more ecological direction.
  • Närvä, Sini (2021)
    Tiedekunta/Osasto: Maatalous-metsätieteellinen tiedekunta Laitos: Elintarvike- ja ravitsemustieteiden osasto Tekijä: Sini Maria Närvä Työn nimi: Punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan osittainen korvaaminen palkokasveilla: vaikutus veren rasva-arvoihin ja kehonkoostumukseen terveillä työikäisillä suomalaisilla miehillä Oppiaine: Ihmisen ravitsemus- ja ruokakäyttäytyminen (Opintosuunta: Ihmisen ravitsemus) Työn laji: Maisterintutkielma Aika: Huhtikuu 2021 Sivumäärä: 63 sivua + 1 liite Tiivistelmä: Tausta: Sydän- ja verisuonitaudit (SVT) ovat merkittävin syy sairastuvuuteen ja kuolleisuuteen länsimaissa. SVT:n riskitekijöitä ovat ruokavalion rasvan laatu, veren korkea kolesterolipitoisuus (erityisesti LDL-kolesteroli), ylipaino, tupakointi, diabetes ja kohonnut verenpaine. Miehillä riski sairastua SVT:hin on naisia suurempi. Lisäksi miesten ruokavalio on usein laadultaan naisia heikompi, ja miesten punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan kulutus on liian runsasta suosituksiin nähden. Korvaamalla eläinperäisiä proteiinin lähteitä kasviperäisillä lähteillä voidaan vaikuttaa suotuisasti sydän- ja verisuonitautien riskitekijöihin. Tavoite: Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia, onko veren rasva-arvoissa, kehon painossa ja kehonkoostumuksessa eroja, kun ruokavalion punaista ja prosessoitua lihaa korvataan osittain ei-soijaperäisillä palkokasveilla. Tutkimushypoteesina oli, että punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan korvaaminen osittain palkokasveilla pienentää kokonais- ja LDL-kolesterolipitoisuutta sekä kehon painoa ja rasvamassaa. Menetelmät: Tässä tutkimuksessa käytettiin Papumies-interventiotutkimuksen aineistoa. Tutkittavat olivat 20-65-vuotiaita terveitä suomalaisia miehiä (n=102). Heidät satunnaistettiin kahteen eri interventioryhmään kuuden viikon ajaksi. Toinen ryhmä (liharyhmä) sai punaista ja prosessoitua lihaa ja niistä valmistettuja tuotteita 760 g/vko (25 % päivittäisestä proteiinin saannista). Toinen ryhmä (palkokasviryhmä) sai palkokasveja ja palkokasvituotteita (pääosin herneitä ja härkäpapuja) 20 % päivittäisestä proteiinin saannista sekä punaista ja prosessoitua lihaa 200 g/vko (5 % päivittäisestä proteiinin saannista). Ennen intervention alkua ja sen lopussa kerätystä paastoverinäytteestä analysoitiin kokonais-, HDL- ja LDL-kolesteroli sekä triglyseridipitoisuudet, ja lisäksi mitattiin tutkittavien pituus, paino, vyötärön- ja lantionympärys sekä kehonkoostumus. Ryhmien välisiä eroja näissä muuttujissa intervention loppupisteessä tutkittiin kovarianssianalyysillä käyttäen alkupisteen arvoja kovariaatteina. Tulokset: Alkupisteessä ryhmien välillä ei ollut eroa kolesterolipitoisuuksissa (pois lukien HDL-kolesteroli), painossa, vyötärön- ja lantionympäryksessä tai kehonkoostumuksessa. Intervention lopussa plasman kokonais- ja LDL-kolesterolipitoisuudet (p<0,001 ja p=0,001), kehon paino ja painoindeksi (p=0,031 molemmissa) olivat pienemmät ja HDL-kolesterolipitoisuus suurempi (p=0,030) palkokasvi-ryhmässä liharyhmään verrattuna. Triglyseridipitoisuudessa, vyötärönympäryksessä, vyötärö-lantio-suhteessa, rasvaprosentissa, rasvamassassa, rasvattomassa massassa tai rasvamassan ja rasvattoman massan indeksissä ei havaittu eroja ryhmien välillä intervention lopussa (p>0,05). Johtopäätökset: Punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan osittainen korvaaminen ei-soijaperäisillä palkokasveilla kuuden viikon ajan paransi veren rasva-arvoja ja vähensi painoa terveillä työikäisillä miehillä, mikä viittaa sydän- ja verisuonitautiriskin pienemiseen. Tätä tietoa voidaan hyödyntää suunniteltaessa toimenpiteitä terveellisemmän ja ympäristön kannalta kestävämmän ruokavaliosuosituksen laatimisessa väestötasolla. Avainsanat – Nyckelord – Keywords: Ravitsemus, ei-soijaperäiset palkokasvit, punainen liha, plasman lipidit, sydän- ja verisuonitaudit Säilytyspaikka – Förvaringställe – Where deposited: Maatalous-metsätieteellinen tiedekunta, Elintarvike- ja ravitsemustieteiden osasto, Helsingin yliopisto Muita tietoja – Övriga uppgifter – Additional information: Ohjaajat: Suvi Itkonen, ETT, dosentti; Anne-Maria Pajari, apulaisprofessori
  • Anttila, Johannes (2022)
    Tausta ja tavoitteet: Punaisen lihan kulutus on maailmanlaajuisesti liian runsasta, millä on merkittäviä epäsuotuisia ympäristö- ja terveysvaikutuksia. Suomessa erityisesti miehet syövät merkittävästi enemmän punaista lihaa kuin ravitsemussuosituksissa suositellaan. Punainen liha on kuitenkin suomalaisten miesten ruokavalioissa merkittävä B12-vitamiinin ja hyvin imeytyvän raudan lähde. Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan osittaisen korvaamisen palkokasveilla vaikutuksia suomalaisten miesten B12-vitamiinin ja raudan saantiin sekä niiden biomarkkereihin. Menetelmät: Tutkimusjaksoa edeltävän seulonnan läpäisyn jälkeen osallistujat (n=102) jaettiin kahteen rinnakkaisryhmään, liharyhmään ja palkokasviryhmään. Liharyhmä sisällytti ruokavalioonsa 760 grammaa punaista lihaa viikossa, kun palkokasviryhmä puolestaan sisällytti ruokavalioonsa 200 grammaa punaista lihaa ja loput punaisesta lihasta (560 g/vk) saatavasta proteiinimäärästä korvattiin palkokasveja sisältävillä elintarvikkeilla. Muu ruokavalio pyydettiin pitämään tavanomaisena, mutta muiden kuin tutkimuksessa jaettujen punaisen lihan ja palkokasvien käyttö kiellettiin. Tulokset: B12 vitamiinin saanti oli suurempaa (p<0,001) liharyhmässä (7,7±4,0 μg/vrk) kuin palkokasviryhmässä (5,0±2,7 μg/vrk). Raudan saanti oli puolestaan pienempää (p<0,001) liharyhmässä (14,0±3,1 mg/vrk) kuin palkokasviryhmässä (21,9±5,7 mg/vrk). Transkobalamiini II sitoutuneen B12-vitamiinin (holoTC) pitoisuus oli suurempi (p=0,022) liharyhmässä (120,4±47,3 pmol/l) kuin palkokasviryhmässä (107,1±45,1 pmol/l). Interventioryhmien välillä ei havaittu eroja veren hemoglobiinissa ja hematokriitissa sekä plasman transferriinireseptorissa, raudassa, ferritiinissä, transferriinissä eikä transferriinin rautakyllästeisyydessä. Johtopäätökset: Punaisen lihan osittainen korvaaminen palkokasveilla vähensi B12-vitamiinin saantia ja johti pienempään veren holoTC-pitoisuuteen. Raudan saanti puolestaan kasvoi palkokasviryhmässä mutta raudan biomarkkereissa ei ollut eroja interventioryhmien välillä.
  • Petäjä, Pirita (2020)
    Johdanto: Fitnessurheilijoiden kilpailuihin valmistavan kausi kestää noin 2–6kk, jonka aikana he pyrkivät vähentämään kehon rasvamassan määrää ja ylläpitämään lihasmassaa. Ravitsemuksella on merkittävä rooli paitsi näiden kehonkoostumustavoitteiden saavuttamisessa myös urheilijan terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin ylläpitämisessä. Pitkään jatkuva energiavajeen seurauksena elimistö pyrkii saavuttamaan uuden homeostasian vähentämällä energiankulutusta muun muassa kilpirauhashormonipitoisuuksia säätelemällä. Tavoitteet: Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tarkastella fitnessurheilijoiden ravinnon saantia ja kehonkoostumuksen muutoksia kilpailuihin valmistavalla kaudella sekä siitä palauttavalla kaudella. Lisäksi tarkasteltiin kilpailuihin valmistavan kauden vaikutusta kilpirauhashormonipitoisuuksiin. Menetelmät: Tutkimuksessa seurattiin 9 nais- ja 12 mieskilpailijan valmistautumista syksyn 2019 suomenmestaruuskilpailuihin. Heidän kilpailuihin valmistava kausi kesti keskimäärin 21 viikkoa, jota seurasi keskimäärin yhtä pitkä palauttava kausi. Verrokkiryhmässä oli 22 tavoitteellisesti harjoittelevaa miestä ja naista, jotka eivät laihduttaneet. Tutkittavilta mitattiin veren kilpirauhashormonipitoisuudet (T3 ja T4) ja kehonkoostumus (DXA) ennen kilpailuihin valmistavan kauden alkua, sen lopussa sekä 21 viikon palauttavan kauden jälkeen. Lisäksi tutkittavat täyttivät ruokapäiväkirjaa, jonka avulla arvioitiin energian- ja ravintoaineiden saantia. Ryhmien väliseen vertailuun käytettiin riippumattomien otosten t-testiä ja ajallisia muutoksia arvioitiin toistomittausten varianssianalyysillä. Lineaarisella regressioanalyysillä arvioitiin kilpailuihin valmistavan kauden lopun T3-pitoisuuksiin vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Tulokset: Kilpailuihin valmistavan kauden aikana tutkittavien energian- ja hiilihydraattien saanti sekä rasvamassan määrä ja T3-pitoisuudet laskivat merkittävästi (p-arvot <0,001). Kaikki arvot palautuivat keskimäärin ennalleen palauttavan kauden aikana rasvamassan nousun myötä. Regressioanalyysi osoitti, että kilpailukauden lopun T3-pitoisuutta selitti vahvimmin rasvamassan määrä (p-arvo <0,001). Lisäksi hiilihydraattien osuus oli naisilla, mutta ei miehillä, merkittävä tekijä (p-arvo 0,002). Johtopäätökset: Kilpailuissa vaaditun kehonkoostumuksen saavuttaminen tapahtui energian ja hiilihydraattien saannin laskemisella alle urheilijoille laadittujen suositusten. Painonpudotuksen myötä myös T3-pitoisuudet laskivat merkitsevästi. Hormonipitoisuudet näyttävät kuitenkin palautuvan 21 viikkoa kestäneen palauttavan kauden aikana, kun kehon rasvamassa palautuu lähtötasolle.