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Browsing by Subject "DSTI"

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  • Tiililä, Nea (2019)
    The regulatory framework for financial regulation has developed much in the Europe after the financial crisis. The use of borrower based macroprudential instruments as regulatory tools has become popular among the European Economic Area -countries. Already 21 out of 31 EEA-countries have at least one borrower based macroprudential instrument in use. The most commonly used borrower based instruments are Loan to Value (LTV) limit, Loan to Income (LTI) limit, Debt to Income (DTI) limit, Loan Service to Income (LSTI) limit, Debt Service to Income (DSTI) limit, amortisation requirement and maturity limit. As these instruments are only recently introduced as regulatory tools in Europe, their effectiveness and transmission channels are still under discussion. The aim of this master's thesis is to contribute to the ongoing discussion of the effectiveness of the instruments. This thesis provides a broad literature review in order to understand the transmission of each of the borrower based instruments and to explore previous findings of the impacts of the instruments. Further, an empirical analysis is formed by using a panel vector autoregression (PVAR) model in order to study whether borrower based macroprudential instruments have any effect on housing market stability and real economy in the Europe. The data that is used to answer this question consists of growth rates of mortgage stock, house price index, construction index, household consumption and GDP. According to the literature review, the borrower based macroprudential instruments function through four different transmission channels. These are the credit demand channel, expectations channel, resilience channel and anti-default channel. The empirical analysis provides evidence that tightening the borrower based instruments reduces mortgage growth. House prices react negatively to a policy shock in the short run but positively in the long run. Construction reacts negatively to a policy shock. Household consumption on its behalf responds to a policy shock positively in the short run but negatively in the long run. Finally, GDP responds to a policy shock negatively. However, the result concerning construction growth is the only one which is statistically significant in a 95% confidence level and all the other results lack statistical significance. Overall, the empirical results of this thesis provide slight evidence that regulating borrower based macroprudential instruments restrain the growth of mortgage stock, which for its part should enhance the stability of housing markets in Europe. Further, the impact on economic growth is likely negative. However, the results are not statistically significant in a 95% significance level. The difficulties in fitting the model and the lack of significance may implicate that the chosen model might not be the most suitable one for studying the efficiency of borrower based macroprudential instruments.