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Browsing by Subject "Doppler lidar"

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  • Le, Viet (2021)
    Atmospheric aerosol particles absorb and scatter solar radiation, directly altering the Earth’s radiation budget. These particles also have a complex role in weather and climate by changing cloud physical properties such as reflectivity by acting as cloud condensation nuclei or ice nuclei. Aerosol particles in the boundary layer are important because they pose a negative impact on air quality and human health. In addition, elevated aerosol from volcanic dust or desert dust present an imminent threat to aviation safety. To improve our understanding of the role of aerosol in influencing climate and the capability to detect volcanic ash, a ground-based network of Halo Doppler lidars at a wavelength of 1565 nm is used to collect data of atmospheric vertical profiles across Finland. By comparing the theoretical values of depolarization ratio of liquid clouds with the observed values, bleed through of each lidar is detected and corrected to improve data quality. The background noise levels of these lidars are also collected to assess their stability and durability. A robust classification algorithm is created to extract aerosol depolarization ratios from the data to calculate overall statistics. This study finds that bleed through is at 0.017 ± 0.0072 for the Uto-32 lidar and 0.0121 ± 0.0071 for the Uto-32XR lidar. By examining the time series of background noise level, these instruments are also found to be stable and durable. The results from the classification algorithm show that it successfully classified aerosol, cloud, and precipitation even on days with high turbulence. Depolarization ratios of aerosol across all the sites are extracted and their means are found to be at 0.055 ± 0.076 in Uto, 0.076 ± 0.090 in Hyytiala, 0.076 ± 0.071 in Vehmasmaki and 0.041 ± 0.089 in Sodankyla. These mean depolarization ratios are found to vary by season and location. They peak during summer, when pollen is abundant, but they remain at the lowest in the winter. As Sodankylä is located in the Artic, it has aerosols with lower depolarization ratio than other sites in most years. This study found that in summer, aerosol depolarization ratio is positively correlated with relative humidity and negatively correlated with height. No conclusion was drawn as to what processes play a more important role in these correlations. This study offers an overview of depolarization ratio for aerosol at a wavelength of 1565 nm, which is not commonly reported in literature. This opens a new possibility of using Doppler lidars for aerosol measurements to support air quality and the safety of aviation. Further research can be done test the capability of depolarization ratio at this wavelength to differentiate elevated aerosol such as dust, pollution, volcanic ash from boundary layer aerosol.
  • Lobo, Hannah (2021)
    The lidar depolarisation ratio is used for aerosol categorisation as it is indicative of aerosol shape. Commonly, depolarisation ratio is measured in short term studies at short wavelengths such as 355 nm and 532 nm. The depolarisation ratio has a spectral dependency and so exploring values at longer wavelengths could be valuable for future studies. Here, aerosol depolarisation ratio at 1565 nm is measured across Finland’s ground based remote sensing network over a four year period. The Halo Photonics StreamLine Doppler lidars instruments were found to be stable over long time periods and cloud based calibration was used to correct for the bleed though. The depolarisation ratio of elevated aerosol layers was compared to boundary layer aerosol. A higher average depolarisation ratio was found for elevated aerosol with the exception of boreal forest sites in the summer months where values were similar. Elevated aerosols over Finland were found to originate mostly from the Arctic, Europe, Russia and North America using aerosol transport models. Four case studies were looked at in more detail: Saharan dust with a depolarisation ratio of 0.249 ± 0.018, pollen with a depolarisation ratio of 0.207 ± 0.013, anthropogenic pollution with a depolarisation ratio of 0.067 ± 0.009, and a mixed layer with a depolarisation ratio of 0.152 ± 0.019 thought to be pollen and smoke. Based on this study, Halo Doppler Lidar can be used to measure elevated aerosol at 1565 nm in the long term. Future studies could use 1565 nm depolarisation ratio alongside commonly used shorter wavelengths to aid aerosol categorisation.