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Browsing by Subject "WAIS-IV"

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  • Vuori, Outi (2014)
    Test anxiety is related to impaired performance in different cognitive tasks. Relation between test anxiety and performance has been found mainly in mathematical, visual and working memory tasks but also in overall performance in WAIS-III -version. This Master's thesis examines the relation between test anxiety and cognitive task performance encompassing in WAIS-IV -test. Sample benefits WAIS-IV's Finnish standardization sample. The test anxiety estimation was taken in 599 cases by the researcher and in 611 cases by self evaluation. 262 (44 %) of those evaluated by the researcher experienced little, medium or a lot of anxiety. 299 (49 %) of the self evaluation examinees experienced little, medium or a lot of anxiety. Test anxiety was noticed to be related to cognitive performance in subtests, indices and overall performance. Test anxiety was evaluated by the researcher and was noticed to be related to subtests that measure working memory, perceptual reasoning and processing speed negatively. Test anxiety evaluated by the researcher was related to all indices where as self reported test anxiety was related to only working memory index and perceptual reasoning index. As evaluated by the researcher more differences were found both in subtests and in the indices than the results of self reported test anxiety. Regardless of the evaluation (by the researcher or self reported) test anxiety was related to both Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI). Based on this Master's thesis it can be said that test anxiety has a comprehensively negative relation to cognitive test performance. Test anxiety weakens individual's test performance and abilities to adduce thoroughly which sets a risk to misinterpretation and underestimation of one's abilities in evaluating cognitive capacity in clinical work. Therefore attention should be paid to test anxiety in test situations.
  • Viertola, Hannele (2015)
    Concentration as a cognitive function is closely related to attention which has many definitions. Functional subsystems of attention are crucial in cognitive processing and attention is related to cognitive performance. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is a test designed to measure cognitive performance and the newest, fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV) has also been standardized in Finland. Because attention is crucial in cognitive processing it is relevant to examine the association between concentration difficulties and cognitive task performance in WAIS-IV –test. This Master's thesis is based on WAIS-IV's Finnish standardization sample. Observation of concentration difficulties by the examiner was available in 600 cases and self-evaluation by the examinee in 607 cases. In 580 cases both evaluations were available. Based on examiner observation 358 (59,7%) of subjects experienced little, medium or a lot of concentration difficulties. Based on self-evaluation 419 (69%) of the examinees experienced little, medium or a lot of concentration difficulties. Differences between the evaluations were found in distributions of concentration difficulties groups and in relations between concentration difficulties and cognitive task performance in WAIS-IV –test. Concentration difficulties evaluated by the researcher were related to almost all subtests, all indices, General Ability Index (GAI) and to Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) where as self reported concentration difficulties were not related to cognitive task performance in WAIS-IV –test. The results show that concentration difficulties are common and they may have an overall negative relation to cognitive test performance. One of the main purposes in clinical neuropsychological examination is to evaluate the optimal cognitive performance level of the examinee. For this reason it is crucial to pay attention to negative relation of concentration difficulties to cognitive test performance. This improves the reliability of the clinical evaluation of cognitive performance.
  • Salo, Micaela (2015)
    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common among the elderly. People experiencing SMC have been shown to be at a greater risk of suffering cognitive decline and potentially developing dementia. Studies have shown that SMC is associated with poorer performance in e.g. perceptual reasoning -tasks and tasks of delayed memory. This Masters' thesis aims to study the prevalence of SMC in a sample of healthy Finnish adults aged 50 to 80 years, and the association between SMC and other than directly memory related cognitive performance on the WAIS-IV -test. Based on earlier research, we hypothesized that individuals who reported SMC would perform worse on WAIS-IV perceptual reasoning subtests and verbal comprehension subtest related to memory retrieval. The data consisted of a subsample of healthy 50-80 year old adults in the Finnish WAIS-IV standardization sample. Twenty-five adults reported SMC (10.2 %). The control group consisted of 220 persons from the same sample without memory complaints. We used regression analysis to study the association between SMC and WAIS-IV indexes and profile analysis to study the association between SMC and individual subtests. The results did not support the hypothesis. People reporting SMC performed significantly better at Matrix Reasoning, a subtest belonging to the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI). No differences in performance were found between the SMC-group and the control group in any of the verbal comprehension subtests or any other WAIS-IV subtests. This is the first study in Finland that examines SMC by using the WAIS-test. Not even in the English literature has the SMC previously been reportedly studied in such a comprehensive manner regarding other than directly memory related cognitive performance. The results indicate, that SMC reported in this study corresponds to the current definition of SMC: people experienced a decline in memory, but the study did not reveal objective cognitive impairment. The challenge for future research is further detailing the SMC neuropsychological profile regarding other than memory related cognitive performance, as well as recognising the need for longitudinal research of the middle-aged and older Finnish population.