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Browsing by Subject "dual decarboxylase inhibition"

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  • Paakkunainen, Jonna (2023)
    Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is commonly treated with Levodopa (L-dopa) and Dopa Decarboxylase (DDC)/ Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors. The main problem with this treatment is the intestinal conversion of L-dopa to dopamine despite DDC and COMT inhibition which probably occurs by the Tyrosine Decarboxylase (TyrDC) of intestinal bacteria. This study aims to find new inhibitor molecules that would have dual inhibitory effects towards both DDC and TyrDC enzymes. Currently, available DDC inhibitors cannot inhibit the bacterial TyrDC enzyme. A recently found TyrDC inhibitor (S)-α-Fluoromethyltyrosine (AFMT) is not able to inhibit the human DDC enzyme, respectively. The dual inhibition of both decarboxylases could reduce the dosing frequency and side effects related to L-dopa. In addition, the object of this study is to produce the human DDC enzyme by DNA recombinant technique as well as develop and optimize a biochemical DDC inhibition assay to study the effect of selected small molecule compounds towards inhibition of DDC and L-dopa conversion in E. faecalis model by previously developed cell-based assay. The human DDC was successfully produced in a TB medium with a yield of 1.8 mg/mL. The Km value of DDC for L-dopa was found to be 34 μM which indicates a high affinity for L-dopa. In the optimization of the DDC inhibition assay, the sample volume of 80 μL and incubation time of 3 h with detection reagent was found to give the highest fluorometric signal with sufficient robustness. In the initial screening of test compounds, 14 % of the compounds (n=59) were classified as active towards human DDC, while 31 % of the compounds were active towards L-dopa conversion in the E. faecalis model. Of those compounds, five were having dose-dependent dual inhibitory effects, but the IC50 values of them were higher compared to either carbidopa or AFMT. The most effective compounds were 8009-2501 (IC50 37 μM in E. faecalis model and 19 % inhibition at 1000 μM towards DDC enzyme) and 8012-3386 (IC50 248 μM in E. faecalis model and 37 % inhibition at 1000 μM towards DDC enzyme). However, this study confirms the possibility to find dual decarboxylase inhibitors. By optimizing the structures as well as investigating the mechanism of action, selectivity, and structure-activity relationships of the most active compounds, it is possible to find more effective dual inhibitors in the future.