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Browsing by Subject "durra"

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  • Palsola, Mira (2022)
    African crops are sustainable and healthy alternative ingredients for potential use in various gluten-free products among traditional African foods. In this thesis maise-based, gluten-free crackers with 50% cereal (amaranth, sorghum and teff) and 50% and 75% legume (Bambara groundnut and cowpea) replacements were produced, and their baking performance and technological properties were examined. The effect of sorghum and cowpea flour's bioprocessing and mechanical raw material modifications on cracker technological and sensory properties was studied. The thesis aimed to solve whether maise and African crop flours could be used in gluten-free crackers and how would they affect nutritional values, baking performance and technological and sensory properties in gluten-free crackers. The nutritional calculations indicated that African crop replacement increased fibre content at least by 2.4% and protein by 1.9 E% compared to 100% maise cracker. Crop replacements improved the dough elasticity and bakability and darkened the cracker surface. African crops and higher protein content increased cracker hardness and improved the rising ability. The highest hardness rate was measured with protein fractionated cowpea (31.55 ± 3.17 N, maise 4.02 ± 1.79%) and puffiness with Bambara groundnut 75% (43.57 ± 3.29%, maise 21.93 ± 0.002%). Raw material modifications changed the sensory profile of sorghum and cowpea crackers significantly by decreasing graininess in sorghum and beaniness in cowpea.
  • Ala-Kurikka, Enni (2023)
    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has high contents of phenolic compounds which have both beneficial and antinutritional health effects, including forming insoluble complexes with proteins. This is significant because sorghum has low protein digestibility. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation has been found to decrease and modify sorghum phenolic compounds and condensed tannins. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of LAB fermentation on the phenolic compounds in white and red sorghum using a metabolomics approach. The hypothesis was that fermentation would degrade phenolic compounds into smaller metabolites. Free phenolic compounds were extracted from sorghum using 80% ethanol. The samples were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-Q-TOF). In order to identify phenolic compounds, both targeted and untargeted metabolomics approaches were used. Multivariate analysis was employed to determine compounds with different abundances between sample groups. The study confirmed the identification of 40 compounds, 37 of which were phenolic compounds, and 23 were distinct between sample groups. Red sorghum contained more flavonoids and condensed tannins compared to white sorghum. Native samples were statistically different from fermented samples, with most changes involving the release of phenolic acids from their conjugated forms and an increase in phenolamines. The metabolomics approach effectively covered the wide range of phenolic compound analysis in sorghum.