Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Subject "executive functioning"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Immonen, Satu (2016)
    Objectives: The present study examines everyday executive functioning in adults who have had perinatal risks related ADHD in childhood. ADHD symptoms often persist from childhood to adulthood but the long-term developmental course of ADHD beyond young adulthood is still poorly understood. The present study focuses on adults around 40 years of age who have had perinatal risk factors with subsequent onset of ADHD in childhood. The present study may advance understanding of the long-term impact of perinatal risks and childhood ADHD in adulthood. Methods: The present study is part of a larger longitudinal birth cohort research project examining long-term effects of perinatal risk factors. The cohort has been followed since 1970's. The present sample includes individuals with perinatal risks associated childhood ADHD (n = 32), individuals with perinatal risk factors without childhood ADHD (n = 158) and control individuals without perinatal risks or childhood ADHD (n = 38). Experienced everyday executive functioning was compared between these three groups using Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning – Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Executive functioning was compared between the three groups using analysis of variance (ANOVAs) and non-paramentric Kruskal-Wallis test. Results and conclusions: Adults with perinatal risks related childhood ADHD reported more cognitive and behavioral executive difficulties than control adults or adults with perinatal risks without childhood ADHD. The group with perinatal risks related childhood ADHD reported executive difficulties in domains of working memory, planning, inhibition and self-monitoring. Executive problems were mild in group level, although a small proportion reported more severe clinically significant dysfunction. Adults with perinatal risks but without childhood ADHD did not differ from controls in experienced executive functioning which suggests that perinatal risks alone without early ADHD symptoms do not affect executive functioning in adulthood. It appears that childhood ADHD with perceding perinatal risk factors can have long-term but mostly mild consequences for daily executive functioning extending to mid-adulthood.
  • Kaisto, Soila (2020)
    Objectives. This study examines the effects of low birth weight (LBW) and perinatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB) on interference control in adulthood. The study questions are whether LBW and HB are associated with interference control difficulties in adulthood, and whether increasing cognitive load affects the association. Based on previous research on perinatal risk factors and executive functioning, the hypotheses were that individuals with LBW and HB would show a greater change in reaction times from congruent to incongruent stimuli in the Flanker task than controls and that adding a dual-task would slow the performance more in the risk groups than in controls. Methods. The participants (N = 274) in this study were collected from a large longitudinal cohort study of Finnish children with perinatal risk factors and their healthy peers. Those with purely one perinatal risk factor (LBW or HB) and completion of the Flanker task at the 40-year neuropsychological assessment were included in this study. The controls (N = 78) had completed the Flanker task but had no perinatal risk factors. The repeated measures of analyses of variances was used to examine the relationship between risk groups and the Flanker task. Results and conclusions. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the changes in reaction times from congruent to incongruent stimuli in the Flanker task. However, the LBW group performed overall slower compared to controls. In Dual Flanker task, LBW group’s performance was poorer compared to controls, especially in reaction times to incongruent stimuli, indicating difficulties in cognitive flexibility. In Dual Flanker task, the difference in reaction times from congruent to incongruent stimuli decreased in all groups. There were no differences between HB group and control group. All differences became nonsignificant when general intelligence (FSIQ) was considered. This could be due to the fact that performance in both FSIQ and Flanker task require cognitive flexibility and speed.
  • Syrjälä, Iina (2020)
    Objectives: This study examines the association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms with executive functions (EF) in adulthood by using Boston Qualitative Scoring System (BQSS) analysis of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF). In addition, correlations between the BQSS EF scores and self-reported EF difficulties on the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function- Adult version (BRIEF-A) are explored. ADHD is a developmental disorder diagnostically defined by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, in addition to which it has a component related to EF. The symptoms can persist into adulthood and they can affect daily functioning even if the full diagnostic criteria are no longer met. Methods: This study is part of a larger longitudinal cohort study of children with perinatal risk factors and their healthy peers. The children have been studied at multiple points during their lives since their birth. Those participants with sufficient information on their childhood ADHD symptoms, and a completed ROCF from the 40-year neuropsychological assessment (n=445) were chosen for this study. The perinatal risk group (n=376) was divided into three groups according to their childhood ADHD symptoms: no symptoms, a medium level of symptoms, and a high level of symptoms. The controls (n=69) had no reported history of ADHD. The association between symptom group and BQSS sub-scales was examined using logistic regression. Results: The following ROCF attributes predicted ADHD symptom group membership: Fragmented drawing style in the copying phase, a horizontally expanded reproduction with more perseveration in immediate recall, and a less neat reproduction in both immediate and delayed recall. The differences, barring immediate perseveration, became nonsignificant when gender, level of education and general intelligence (FSIQ) were considered. The correlations between BQSS and BRIEF-A scores were modest, and mostly statistically nonsignificant. Conclusions: Based on the findings, those with childhood ADHD symptoms in addition to perinatal risk factors show a slight tendency for less organized and precise performance in the ROCF, albeit one masked by variables such as education and IQ. In line with earlier literature, the correlations between performance-based EF tests and self-reports were mostly slim.