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Browsing by Subject "food safety"

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  • Viitanen, Pauliina (2023)
    The field of food control is currently facing challenges due to phenomena such as climate change, globalization of food, and scarcity of official control resources. One important approach in improving efficient control of the safety and quality of food chains is risk-based food control. In this study, data-driven approaches were utilized to provide insights into some of the factors that have affected Finnish food business operators’ (FBOs’) compliance with food safety requirements in recent years. Qlik Sense, a data analytics solution built on the concept of visual analytics, and Python, a programming language suitable for data analysis, were used to analyze food inspection data recorded by local food safety authorities. Interactive data visualizations built in Qlik Sense aimed in supporting open government data (OGD) policies and risk-based control of the Finnish food chain, and so far, received good feedback from end-users. Additional insights into FBOs’ food safety compliance were gained by further analyzing the inspection data in Python along with municipal data. A logistic regression model fit to a subset of the study data found multiple statistically significant predictor variables from both datasets, but its performance was weak. The factors that affected food safety compliance most significantly were the number of years an FBO had operated and the basis for conducting an inspection. Operating years showed a positive correlation with compliance, while a negative relationship was observed with a variety of unplanned inspections, especially when they were conducted based on food poisoning suspects, inspection requests, or some other forms of contact. Out of all inspected food sectors, the one that increased the odds of compliance the most was the food transportation sector. The results of the study advocate for the potential of data-driven approaches in improving risk-based food control, as they are an effective way to gain insights into factors affecting the safety and quality of complex food chains.
  • Holtinkoski, Jaakko (2023)
    Active and intelligent packaging technologies, are emerging as innovations in the food industry, aimed at enhancing food quality, safety, and sustainability. However, research indicates that, consumer awareness and acceptance, of these new technologies remains limited. This study review examined current evidence on consumer perceptions and attitudes regarding active and intelligent food packaging. Active packaging interacts directly with food products to extend shelf-life, while intelligent packaging monitors conditions and conveys information about food quality. Studies reveal that consumer awareness is moderate, with higher recognition of intelligent versus active packaging functions and technologies. Consumers generally understand potential benefits like improved food safety, quality, and freshness, but lack in-depth technical knowledge of the specific active and intelligent packaging technologies being used. Attitudes are mixed, with concerns about increased costs to consumers, uncertain environmental sustainability impacts, and potential unintended interactions between packaging ingredients and food contents. Consumers expect high standards of safety, quality, environmental sustainability, and affordability from these new technologies. However, willingness to pay a premium for active and intelligent packaging remains uncertain, highlighting the need for more consumer education and transparent communication. Further evidence-based research into the cost-effectiveness, sustainability, and safety of these technologies is critically needed to increase consumer acceptance and adoption. Additional studies should explore effective educational approaches and innovative packaging designs that address consumers' informational needs, ethical concerns, and expectations. With strategic development and commercialization, active and intelligent packaging presents a promising opportunity to enhance food systems sustainability while better serving consumer interests.
  • Syvähuoko, Jenna (2015)
    The literature review focused on the chemical properties of Fusarium mycotoxins and their masked forms, analytical methods for their determination and the toxicological and legislative aspects. In the experimental study, a multi-method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of several Fusarium toxins and their masked forms in barley, oats and wheat using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. The simple “dilute-and-shoot” sample preparation procedure was applied, where the extraction was performed with a mixture of acetonitrile, water and acetic acid (79:20:1, v/v/v). Moreover, the aim was to obtain new data on the occurrence of the masked mycotoxins in barley, oats and wheat by analysing 95 cereal grain samples. The type A trichothecenes T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2) and the type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) as well as zearalenone (ZEN), together with 11 masked forms of them, were included based on their importance for the food safety in northern Europe. The analytes were separated on a reversed-phase column and detected in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Better peak shapes for the early eluting compounds and shorter analysis time were obtained with acetonitrile than methanol as the organic phase, thus it was chosen for the method. The method was validated according to the criteria set in the legislation. The limits of quantification varied from 0.3 to 15.9 ?g/kg. The recoveries were 92?115%, thus being within the tolerable ranges established in the legislation. The inter-day precisions (4?27%) were under the maximum permissible values. Therefore, the method proved to fit for the purpose. In this study, occurrence data on the masked mycotoxins in Finland were obtained for the first time. The presence of ZEN-16-glucoside (ZEN-16-G) and NIV-3-glucoside (NIV-3-G) were reported for the first time worldwide in some of the cereals. The most frequently found toxins were DON, NIV and HT-2. All of the masked mycotoxins included in the method were determined, the most common being DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), HT-2-glucoside (HT-2-G) and NIV-3-G.
  • Carlson, Mari (2016)
    Economic integration refers to the theoretical background which is based on the functioning of regional trade agree-ments (RTAs). Trade in context of economic integration embodies special characteristics in comparison to classical free trade. The special characteristics are contested whether they are welfare enhancing or diverting. RTAs are trade agree-ments between two or more countries and their number has been increasing during the last decades. Such agreements play an important role in international agro-food trade as already over 50% of agricultural products are traded within or between RTAs. The increase in number of RTAs and wider inclusion of agricultural trade in these agreements have revealed new agricultural trade policy measures which distort trade in agro-food products. These are so called non-tariff measures of which this study focuses on sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The legitimate intention of such measures is to protect plant, animal and human health and prevent the spreading of harmful pathogens through international trade. This study attempted to create a theoretical framework for analysis of trade effects caused by SPS measures. The ef-fects were found to depend first of all on the burden of compliance and the nature of a SPS measure. Burden of com-pliance was divided into three dimensions of specific, uniform or universal measures according to whom the costs are due. For the nature of the SPS measures three categories were identified: cost-increasing, quantity-restricting and combining SPS measures. The developed theoretical framework was applied to analyze the case of poultry meat trade between the EU and the US in a case where the SPS measure becomes ineffective. The SPS measure of pathogen reduction treatments (PRTs) applied by the EU was identified as a combining measure. After having analyzed the trade effects in partial equilibrium framework, the changes in economic welfare for the EU poultry meat market were quanti-fied. The quantification of the economic welfare measures was made by using partial equilibrium comparative static analysis combined with Marshallian economic surplus framework. Economic surplus measures were calculated by comparing the initial welfare levels with the corresponding levels after the policy change. The analysis concentrated on short-term effects and the base year used was 2013. The calculations proceeded by defining supply and demand equations to calculate equilibrium price and quantity in the present policy regime which enabled calculations of consumer and pro-ducer surpluses. Then, the new trade policy regime was introduced by manipulating producer price. Equations defined in the first stage were used to calculate new quantities for production and consumption in the EU. Then, consumer and producer surpluses were calculated in the new trade policy regime. Finally the obtained results were compared with each other. The results of the welfare analysis show that the SPS measure concerning the use of PRTs in poultry meat has impact on producer and consumer welfare in the EU. Consumer welfare increased after the SPS measure became ineffective. The explanation is the decrease in price which lead to increase in consumption. However, producer welfare decreased as a consequence of lower price. The production of poultry meat decreased which meant that the gap between the EU production and consumption increased. This indicated that the import demand for poultry meat increased for the EU. If the imports were not restricted from the US, consumers would be able to obtain the higher welfare level than before the change in policy regime.