Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Subject "kaakaon flavanolit"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Kahila, Paula (2016)
    Term cocoa flavanols refers to all flavanolbased compounds found in cocoa including procyanidins. Procyanidins are polymerized compounds formed from cathecin and epicathecin flavanols. Cocoa flavanols contribute to the bitterness in chocolate but they are also proven to be heart and vascular health promoting. In autumn 2013 after EFSA’s positive scientific opinion European commission approved Barry Callebaut’s health claim ”cocoa flavanols help maintain endothelium vasodilation, which contributes to normal blood flow” considering ACTICOA™ cocoa powder. Because cocoa flavanols can contribute to human health it is important to know how chocolate manufacturing process affects them. The aim of the study was to define which processing steps in chocolate manufacturing are mostly responsible of the reduction of cocoa flavanols. Both dark and milk chocolate making processes were examined. In addition, raw chocolate manufacturing was compared to a standard chocolate manufacturing by analysing samples of raw chocolate made from the same Arriba Nacional-cocoa bean variety. The effect of alkalising process was also evaluated by comparing two chocolate samples that differ only in the cocoa powder used, which was either alkalised or non-alkalised. Additionally, these samples were compared with a sample, in which cocoa powder was enriched ACTICOA™-powder, in order to detect its beneficial effects on the flavanol content of the end product. The samples were collected throughout the manufacturing process of chocolate, ranging from fermented cocoa beans to milk chocolate. Samples included differently processed chocolates (dark chocolates containing 70 % and 47 % of cocoa and 35 % milk chocolate) and their conching, refining and cocoa mass samples. Two other 70 % chocolate samples with altered recipes and two raw chocolate samples were also analysed. NIST SRM 2384-baking chocolate was analysed to check the reliability of the results. In addition the amount of cocoa flavanols in Crump-powder was determined. According to the results the greatest loss in the amount of cocoa flavanols occurs at refining step, when almost half of the remaining flavanols were lost. In processing fermented beans to cocoa mass as well as in conching step, the losses are around 20 percent. Processes (tempering etc.) after conching doesn’t seem to have major effects on cocoa flavanols. By replacing 10 % of the chocolate’s cocoa (the cocoa powder fraction) with ACTICOA™-powder the total flavanol amount increased 150 % compared to chocolate containing alkalized powder. The effect of non-alkalized powder wasn’t as remarkable, the increase was only 16 %. The most critical prosessing step for cocoa flavanols in traditional chocolate manufacturing is refining, during which particularly trimers and larger procyanidins are lost. Instead of changing the chocolate manufacturing process more flavanol preserving, it would be more efficient to use cocoa ingredients that are processed in flavanol preserving manner, such as ACTICOA™-powder to ensure the health beneficially sufficient amount of flavanols in chocolate.