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Browsing by Subject "luonnonvarainen pölyttäjä"

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  • Toratti, Sanni (2018)
    The quantity and quality of buckwheat yield are highly dependent on insect mediated cross-pollination. While buckwheat flowers are visited by a diverse pollinator guild, honey bees are often considered to be their most important pollinators. This study describes the effect of pollination by honey bees and wild pollinators on buckwheat yield quantity and quality (1000 seed weight, harvest index and proportion of empty achenes). The composition of the pollinator guild was also monitored. The study was conducted in Southern Finland, 2017. Pollination cages with four pollination treatments were used to study insect pollination. The treatments were as follows: closed cage with honey bee colony, closed cage (excluding all pollinators), open cage and free pollination. The open cage and free pollination treatments were accessible to both honey bees and wild pollinators. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with four blocks. A honey bee colony was placed next to the research field to carry out free pollination. Pollinator composition was surveyed by transect walks, with special attention paid to the beginning of flowering, which is when the main yield is formed. The highest yields were obtained in the free pollination (822 kg/ha) and open cage (718 kg/ha) treatments. The yield of plants pollinated exclusively by honey bees was 427 kg/ha. The lowest yield was obtained from closed cages (37 kg/ha). The difference in yield was significant for all treatments except open cage and free pollination. The treatments did not affect the 1000 seed weight. The absence of insect pollination decreased the harvest index by approximately 92% and the proportion of filled seeds by approximately 30 percentage points. At the beginning of flowering, honey bees were the dominant pollinators. Insect pollination is essential for the quantity and quality of buckwheat yield. Pollination service by honey bees increases the yield, but is not solely sufficient. The highest yield was obtained when both honey bees and wild pollinators were present. This study focused on honey bees, but the role and efficiency of specific wild pollinators as pollinators of buckwheat should also be studied.