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Browsing by Subject "pro-environmental behaviour"

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  • Vainikka, Assi (2023)
    This study examines the relationship between wealth and environmental contributions at individual and country levels by using survey data from EVS, WVS and ISSP and panel data from OECD. For the analysis I use correlation tests, and in the case of panel data, pooled OLS regression and two-way fixed effects regression, and with survey data I use OLS regression and generalized ordered logit model. The aim of this study is to clarify if wealthier countries or individuals contribute more to environment than countries and individuals with lower wealth. Environmental contributions at country level are measured as environmental policy stringency, environmental protection expenditure and environmentally related tax revenues. At individual level environmental contributions are measured as willingness to pay for environmental protection. At country level a positive relationship between wealth and environmental contributions is found, but in individual level the relationship is weak. Also relationship between national wealth and individual willingness to pay is minor. On average individuals willingness to pay for environmental protection stayed standard regardless of wealth, but some differences in averages can be seen comparing the results of different surveys. Results suggests that in wealthier countries the environmental policy is more strict and environmental protection expenditure can be expect to be higher than in lower GDP per capita level countries. The relationship between wealth and environmentally related tax revenues differs from other two variables, because tax base for environmentally related taxes change whit economic development. Previous literature offers inconclusive findings and comprehensive theoretical framework is difficult to form. One of the biggest challenges of this study is the sparseness of suitable and comparable data and thus, results have to be interpreted with caution.