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Browsing by Subject "rotknölsbildning"

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  • Klingenberg, Daniela (2011)
    The bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas comprises 12 species. They are widely found throughout the environment and particularly S. maltophilia, S. rhizophila and S. pavanii are closely associated with plants. Strains of the most common Stenotrophomonas species, S. maltophilia, promote plant growth and health, degrade natural and man-made pollutants and produce biomolecules of biotechnological and economical value. Many S. maltophilia –strains are also multidrug resistant and can act as opportunistic human pathogens. During an INCO-project (1998-2002) rhizobia were collected from root nodules of the tropical leguminous tree Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn. from several countries in Central America, Africa and New Caledonia. The strains were identified by the N2-group (Helsinki university) and some strains turned out to be members of the genus Stenotrophomonas. Several Stenotrophomonas strains induced white tumor- or nodule-like structures on Calliandra?s roots in plant experiments. The strains could, besides from root nodules, also be isolated from surface sterilized roots and stems. The purpose of my work was to investigate if the Stenotrophomonas strains i) belong to a new Stenotrophomonas species, ii) have the same origin, iii) if there are other differences than colony morphology between phase variations of the same strain, iv) have plant growth-promoting (PGP) activity or other advantageous effects on plants, and v) like rhizobia have ability to induce root nodule formation. The genetic diversity and clustering of the Stenotrophomonas strains were analyzed with AFLP fingerprinting to get indications about their geographical origin. Differences in enzymatic properties and ability to use different carbon and energy sources were tested between the two phases of each strain with commercial API tests for bacterial identification. The ability to infect root hairs and induce root nodule formation was investigated both using plant tests with the host plant Calliandra and PCR amplification of nodA and nodC genes for nodulation. The PGP activity of the strains was tested in vitro mainly with plate methods. The impact on growth, nitrogen content and nodulation in vivo was investigated through greenhouse experiments with the legumes Phaseolus vulgaris and Galega orientalis. Both the genetic and phenotypic diversity among the Stenotrophomonas strains was small, which proposes that they have the same origin. The strains brought about changes on the root hairs of Calliandra and they also increased the amount of root hairs. However, no root nodules were detected. The strains produced IAA, protease and lipase in vitro. They also showed plant a growth-promoting effect on G. orientalis, both alone and together with R. galegae HAMBI 540, and also activated nodulation among efficient rhizobia on P. vulgaris in greenhouse. It requires further research to get a better picture about the mechanisms behind the positive effects. The results in this thesis, however, confirm earlier studies concerning Stenotrophomonas positive impact on plants.