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Browsing by Subject "Cancer"

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  • Hiltunen, Anukka (2010)
    The major problem in cancer treatment is toxic side effects of the chemotherapy. Typically less than 1 % of the administered free drug reaches target cells while the rest damages non-diseased cells. Toxic side effects often limit dose escalation of anticancer drugs which leads to incomplete tumor response, early disease relapse and possible the development of drug resistance. Liposomes can be targeted in cancer tissue with passive or active targeting. In passive targeting the liposomes accumulate in abnormally formed cancer tissue through the process of extravasation and enhance the concentration of liposomal drug in solid tumor. To further improve the anticancer efficiency of passive targeted liposomes is to couple a targeting ligand to the surface of the drug carrier (i.e. active targeting). The ligand specifically binds to a surface epitope on the target cell leading to the accumulation of the liposomal drug inside the tumor cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of targeted immunoliposomes. In experimental part the liposomes were constructed using cetuximab (C225, Erbitux®) antibody and evaluated for specific cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in vitro. Cetuximab antibody is specific and selective inhibitor of HER-1 -protein (ErbB-1, EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor). HER1 -protein is frequently expressed in high levels in human carcinomas (for example in lung and colorectal cancers, head, neck and breast cancers and in pancreatic, ovarian, prostate and bladder carcinomas). Specific immunoliposome uptake and cytotoxicity were studied in SKOV-3cells (ovarian adenocarsinoma cell line) which overexpress the EGF -receptor. Monkey kidney epithelial cells (CV-1) were used as a control cell line which represents non-diseased cells. Active targeting and cellular uptake of liposomes were investigated in cell uptake studies. Non-targeted pegylated liposomes were used as control liposomes. Specific binding of the cetuximab antibody to EGF -receptor was noticed in competition studies. The in vitro cytotoxicity of doxorubicin containing immunoliposomes was studied with Alamar Blue® cell viability assay. Liposome size was determined at intervals of about two weeks during the experimental part. In conclusions, antibody targeted immunoliposomes showed greater cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in EGFRoverexpressing target cells (SKOV-3) than the corresponding non-targeted liposomal drug. Immunoliposomes showed greater cytotoxicity after five days incubation, which can be a consequence of liposome formulation and slow rate of release of doxorubicin. In contrast, antibody targeted liposomes did not show specific cellular uptake or cytotoxicity in CV-1 control cell line. In clinical cancer therapy actively targeted liposomes could improve the therapeutic effectiveness of the liposomal preparations. Many studies have shown that ligand-bearing liposomes will selectively bind to target cells in vitro, but only few studies have shown the possibility in vivo.