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Browsing by Subject "mitokondrio"

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  • Mustonen, Merja (2011)
    Drug induced liver injury is one of the frequent reasons for the drug removal from the market. During the recent years there has been a pressure to develop more cost efficient, faster and easier ways to investigate drug-induced toxicity in order to recognize hepatotoxic drugs in the earlier phases of drug development. High Content Screening (HCS) instrument is an automated microscope equipped with image analysis software. It makes the image analysis faster and decreases the risk for an error caused by a person by analyzing the images always in the same way. Because the amount of drug and time needed in the analysis are smaller and multiple parameters can be analyzed from the same cells, the method should be more sensitive, effective and cheaper than the conventional assays in cytotoxicity testing. Liver cells are rich in mitochondria and many drugs target their toxicity to hepatocyte mitochondria. Mitochondria produce the majority of the ATP in the cell through oxidative phosphorylation. They maintain biochemical homeostasis in the cell and participate in cell death. Mitochondria is divided into two compartments by inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. The oxidative phosphorylation happens in the inner mitochondrial membrane. A part of the respiratory chain, a protein called cytochrome c, activates caspase cascades when released. This leads to apoptosis. The aim of this study was to implement, optimize and compare mitochondrial toxicity HCS assays in live cells and fixed cells in two cellular models: human HepG2 hepatoma cell line and rat primary hepatocytes. Three different hepato- and mitochondriatoxic drugs (staurosporine, rotenone and tolcapone) were used. Cells were treated with the drugs, incubated with the fluorescent probes and then the images were analyzed using Cellomics ArrayScan VTI reader. Finally the results obtained after optimizing methods were compared to each other and to the results of the conventional cytotoxicity assays, ATP and LDH measurements. After optimization the live cell method and rat primary hepatocytes were selected to be used in the experiments. Staurosporine was the most toxic of the three drugs and caused most damage to the cells most quickly. Rotenone was not that toxic, but the results were more reproducible and thus it would serve as a good positive control in the screening. Tolcapone was the least toxic. So far the conventional analysis of cytotoxicity worked better than the HCS methods. More optimization needs to be done to get the HCS method more sensitive. This was not possible in this study due to time limit.