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Browsing by Subject "mutation prevention concentration"

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  • Järvi, Iiro (2023)
    Antibiotic resistance is a global crisis causing increasing number of infections that cannot be treated with conventional antibiotics. The main reasons for the resistance crisis include overuse and misuse of antibiotics, use in agriculture, and decreased interest of pharmaceutical companies to discover and develop new antibiotics. Apart from mortality, antibiotic resistance causes large economical costs due to longer hospitalizations and more expensive treatments. Bacteria can acquire resistance via multiple pathways. Main path for spread of resistance in bacterial populations is horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in which bacteria receive genetic material that contain resistance genes. Bacteria can acquire new resistance traits via mutations in their genome. The emergence of resistance is a natural feature of bacteria and therefore many bacteria and bacteria can quickly acquire resistance towards novel antibiotics. The resistance properties of potential new antibiotics should be studied already during drug discovery and development. This study determined resistance properties of diazaborine compounds, which have been shown to have antibacterial activity especially against Gram-negative bacteria. The studied properties were mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and spontaneous mutation frequency. MPC measures the antimicrobial compound concentrations in which single-step resistant mutants arise. MPC values can be compared to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values to determine range of mutant selection window (MSW) in which single-step resistant mutants are selectively amplified. Spontaneous mutation frequency is a feature for bacteria in presence of antimicrobials. Spontaneous mutation frequencies demonstrate the proportion of emerged resistant mutants from a bacterial population in each antimicrobial concentration. Four diazaborine compounds were studied with Escherichia coli ATCC25922 and the results were compared with ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin had the lowest MPC at 16xMIC, diazaborine compounds 1, 2 and 3 at 32xMIC and diazaborine compound 4 at 64xMIC. Spontaneous mutation frequency of E. coli was on a normal level with each compound.