Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Subject "neprilysin (NEP)"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Suominen, Laura (2020)
    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a worldwide challenge for health care professionals and researchers. Every year, AD causes dementia for millions of patients. No preventive or curative medication is available despite continuous research. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposits in brain are one of the main pathological findings in AD. Accumulating Aβ peptides are thought to be the reason behind further disease progression. If the Aβ accumulation could be restricted or Aβ degradation increased their toxic effects would be prevented. Soluble oligomers and protofibrils are the most toxic species of Aβ. Most of the Aβ targeting drugs developed so far have not specifically targeted these toxic species. Neprilysin (NEP) is a major Aβ degrading enzyme that targets mostly the smallest species (monomers and dimers) of Aβ. Another common challenge for protein drugs has been passing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Different strategies, such as utilising transferrin receptor (TfR) mediated transcytosis, have been studied for drug transport. For example, a rat anti-mouse TfR antibody, 8D3, or its fragments can be used for drug transportation. Objectives: To produce a recombinant protein, sNEP-scFv8D3, combining soluble NEP and single chain variable fragment of 8D3. Testing its ability to degrade different species and isoforms of Aβ in vitro and study in vivo brain uptake. Evaluate whether it is a promising model for future AD treatments. Methods: The recombinant protein was expressed in Expi293 cells and purified with affinity chromatography. The TfR binding was studied with TfR ELISA and enzymatic activity with MCA assay. Aβ ELISA was used for determining the Aβ degradation. Recombinant protein was compared to sNEP. In in vivo studies the brain uptake and blood half-life of radiolabeled sNEP-scFv8D3 of were studied on NLGF mice. Immunohistochemical analyses of brain cryo sections were done to evaluate the co-localisation of Aβ aggregates and sNEP-scFv8D3. Results and discussion: sNEP-scFv8D3 bound to TfR and showed similar enzymatic activity as sNEP. Both sNEP-scFv8D3 and sNEP were able to degrade monomeric Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 but no significant effect was seen on larger aggregates. In mice brain, sNEP-scFv8D3 was detected in same areas as Aβ aggregates. Compared to sNEP, our recombinant protein had better brain uptake. The blood half-life of sNEP-scFv8D3 was approximately 9.5 h and it was cleared fast from the brain. Already 6 h post injection, levels in the brain had dropped more than by half. Further studies are needed to determine whether sNEP-scFv8D3 is effectively transported across the BBB and if it can reduce brain Aβ levels in vivo. Conclusions: In the future, sNEP-scFv8D3 or its improved version could be used at the earliest stages of AD to prevent disease progression. Since sNEP-scFv8D3 degrades only small Aβ aggregates it could be combined with another drug targeting larger oligomers. Together they would decrease the total Aβ deposition in brain.