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Browsing by Subject "tyloforiini"

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  • Gruzdaitis, Päivi (2011)
    Complications of atherosclerosis such as myocardial infarction and stroke are the primary cause of death in Western societies. The development of atherosclerotic lesions is a complex process, including endothelial cell dysfunction, inflammation, extracellular matrix alteration and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Various cell cycle regulatory proteins control VSMC proliferation. Protein kinases called cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) play a major role in regulation of cell cycle progression. At specific phases of the cell cycle, CDKs pair with cyclins to become catalytically active and phosphorylate numerous substrates contributing to cell cycle progression. CDKs are also regulated by cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, activating and inhibitory phosphorylation, proteolysis and transcription factors. This tight regulation of cell cycle is essential; thus its deregulation is connected to the development of cancer and other proliferative disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Proteins of the cell cycle provide potential and attractive targets for drug development. Consequently, various low molecular weight CDK inhibitors have been identified and are in clinical development. Tylophorine is a phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of several human cancer cell lines. It was used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tylophorine on human umbilical vein smooth muscle cell (HUVSMC) proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of various cell cycle regulatory proteins in order to confirm the findings made with tylophorine in rat cells. We used several methods to determine our hypothesis, including cell proliferation assay, western blot and flow cytometric cell cycle distribution analysis. We demonstrated by cell proliferation assay that tylophorine inhibits HUVSMC proliferation dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 164 nM ± 50. Western blot analysis was used to determine the effect of tylophorine on expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Tylophorine downregulates cyclin D1 and p21 expression levels. The results of tylophorine's effect on phosphorylation sites of p53 were not consistent. More sensitive methods are required in order to completely determine this effect. We used flow cytometric cell cycle analysis to investigate whether tylophorine interferes with cell cycle progression and arrests cells in a specific cell cycle phase. Tylophorine was shown to induce the accumulation of asynchronized HUVSMCs in S phase. Tylophorine has a significant effect on cell cycle, but its role as cell cycle regulator in treatment of vascular proliferative diseases and cancer requires more experiments in vitro and in vivo.