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  • Piispanen, Lotta (2022)
    Based on previous research, the development of consumer and financial education in basic education is topical and necessary. One of the teaching methods in accordance with the objectives of the curriculum is problem–based learning. The aim of this study was to investigate problem-based learning in home economics consumer and financial education. The aim was also to find ways to develop consumer and financial education in home economics. The perspective of this study were home economics teachers and their students whose involvement in the development of teaching is important. Answer to the research problem was sought with the main research question: How is problem–based learning feasible in the teaching experiment in consumer and financial education in primary school education? Sub-questions were used to discover benefits and challenges of the teaching method and also experiences of the target group during teaching experiment. The study was conducted as an ethnographic study. Research strategy was a combination of school ethnography and action research. Research material has been collected during the teaching experiment organized for the research using participatory observation, thematic interview and a questionnaire. Research material was collected in 7th grade home economics education classes in a school in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The target group of the study was 109 students and two full time home economics teachers of the school. The material of the study was analyzed thematically using theory-based content analysis. Based on the results of the study, problem-based learning is excellently feasible in consumer and financial education in home economics. The advantages of the teaching method were the commendable fulfillment of the goals during the teaching experiment and the increased motivation of the students. Problem–based learning was an inspiring and interactive way for students to learn, enabling students to learn actively and self-directedly and to apply critical thinking and knowledge. The biggest challenges in problem–based learning was related to the limited resources of home economics teachers, the lack of interaction and reflection skills in the target group, and the workload of the teaching method. The experience of both students and home economics teachers of problem-based learning during the teaching experiment was positive. Home economics teachers evaluate that the teaching method works in consumer and financial education of the target group beyond expectations. Based on the results of research, problem–based learning could be suitable teaching method in the development of consumer and financial education in home economics.
  • Selin-Patel, Miivi (2022)
    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to investigate if an intervention in positive psychology can im-prove students’ subjective well-being and cultivate a growth mindset. The health in school study has shown that students experienced more school fatigue, difficulties with school as-signments and more anxiety and depression than before (THL, 2017; 2019; 2021). The pro-ject Study with Strength has developed an intervention course to support students in their everyday lives and my dissertation is written within this project. The study is based on two theories, positive psychology, and Mindset theory. Methods: The thesis is based on interviews of upper secondary students who participated in the Study with Strength intervention. Six students from different locations in Finland partici-pated in the study. The participants were between 16 and 19 years old. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews conducted via video. These interviews were transcribed and then analyzed with a thematic analysis. Results and conclusions. The results in my research showed that all the students felt that their conscious presence and their relationships had improved after the intervention. Fur-thermore, the students found methods to deal with their negative feelings. The students felt that finding out their strengths had improved their well-being as well as given them more self-confidence. This shows that the intervention has a positive effect on how students perceive their subjective well-being. Further results showed that the students’ belief in themselves and ability to develop had a positive change. They also viewed setbacks differently and were less scared to fail. All the students had also learnt how to manage their stress differently which lead to them feeling less stressed. Some of the students felt that they had a more positive view on challenges. Half the students had a more positive view on feedback after the intervention. The results show that the students perceived that their mindset had changed towards a more growth mindset.
  • Nikitin, Noora (2022)
    The purpose of this research was to figure out how COVID-19 has affected food purchases, making everyday meals, and using restaurant services amongst families with kids. The theoretical framework consists of execution of everyday dining and planning, formation of food choices and food shopping and also importance of eating out. According to previous studies, everyday dining is usually quite a busy and it demands quick solutions. Eating with family in peace is more common at weekends than on weekdays and planning has been shown as important factor in everyday life. In addition, the theoretical framework deals with eating out and the importance of school or work catering to Finnish food culture. Although COVID-19 is quite new as a research topic, theory of this research consists also of some of the most important effects of the Corona pandemic, for example from the perspective of consumption. The need for this research is the topicality and importance of this topic. The research questions were: What kind of effects the Corona pandemic and its limitations have had on eating in everyday life? What kind of effects the Corona pandemic and its limitations have had on food purchasing on everyday life? What kind of effects the Corona pandemic and its limitations have had on the usage of restaurant services? This study was carried out with qualitative research and the data was collected using a thematic and stimulus interview. The respondents were mainly found from a Facebook group, that is targeted for families living in the center of Helsinki. The interviews were carried out using Zoom and there were five mothers and one father in the study. The research data was first transcribed and then analyzed with thematizing and content analysis. According to results of this research, there was need for making everyday life easier during the Corona pandemic. Food planning has increased, as well as food preparation and its demands. There were also new methods for buying food and motives for usage of restaurant services. Increased planning and cooking were experienced as burdensome. To make everyday life easier, families typically used semi-processed food products and food delivery services, especially at the beginning of the pandemic. Motives for eating out were different than before COVID-19, because eating out was more likely to make everyday life easier. Results shows that ordering groceries was more common among the studied families but demands for cooking have also increased during the pandemic. These effects require important skills, for examples planning, control of everyday life and craftsmanship which are taught in home economics lessons. The changes in food purchases and food choices in unexpected situations, like the Corona pandemic, may also gain more value in the future’s home economics teaching.
  • Laaksonen, Julia (2022)
    International policy documents (FN (UN), 1989; WHO & BZgA, 2010, 2013; WAS, 2014; UNESCO, 2018) recommend that children should receive age-appropriate sexuality education, but it is unclear whether this is fulfilled in practice. There is relatively little research on sexuality education for younger students. Therefore, it is relevant to research how sexuality education for younger students is delivered. The purpose of this study is to describe how sexuality education is delivered in grades 1-2 in Finland and to examine teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality education for younger students. In this study I would like to draw attention to the potential of the Finnish curriculum when it comes to sexuality education. Five teachers, who at the time of the study taught grades 1-2 in Finnish primary schools, participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews that were recorded, transcribed, and analysed with thematic analysis. The results found that teachers had difficulties defining sexuality education. Teachers taught sexuality education across subjects, spontaneously and sometimes also unconsciously. Teachers need help defining what sexuality education is and what themes are to be addressed. Sexuality education should be made an evident part of the subject environmental studies in the Finnish curriculum. This can hopefully encourage teachers to teach sexuality education. The sexuality education was not really planned, evaluated, or developed in any of the schools. This is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. Local plans for sexuality education should be written. The teachers had generally positive attitudes towards sexuality education for younger students, but in some situations sexuality education could be perceived as a difficult subject. Several of the teachers showed interest in promoting diversity and equal treatment in their teaching. This study failed in providing any deeper insight into how teachers work with norms in sexuality education.
  • Nenonen, Mirka (2022)
    Objectives. The purpose of this thesis was to study the experiences of former lower secondary school pupils related to their school attendance problems (SAPs). The research seeks to provide information related to the phenomenon and the role of school-related factors in the Finnish context. Previous research has shown that teachers and other school personnel highlight the role of individual and family factors when explaining the reasons for school attendance problems and the pupils emphasize the importance of school-related factors. As such, the research questions are 1. How did school-related factors influence the pupils’ SAPs? 2. What kind of support was offered to the pupils when they were having SAPs? 3. What kind of support the pupils would have wished to get from the school personnel when having SAPs? Methods. Five former lower-secondary school pupils were interviewed during October and November 2021. The youth were 15-17 years old and had completed their basic education in a middle-sized southern city in Finland in 2020 or 2021. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the phenomenological interview method and analyzed by interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Results and conclusions. All the pupils had lower academic achievement because of being absent from school. The participants considered their pupil-teacher relationships important. They highlighted the importance of being supported and seen as an individual. Some thought that their teachers did not believe them and their explanations for SAPs. Peer relationships were important for all the youth but there was also bullying and discrimination from peers. Some pupils were absent together with their peers, while for some the support gotten from the peers was important. The pupils would have wanted
  • Lehtoniemi, Katja (2022)
    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the discourses of early childhood education staff enabling the participation of children with special education needs (SEN). The research questions were which interpretive repertoires can be identified in the reports describing the activities of early childhood education staff about children with SEN, what interpretive repertoires can be identified in the reports describing the own activities of early childhood education about enabling the participation of children with SEN in the reports. Previous research has shown that early childhood education staff play a key role in enabling participation. Methods. The study involved 28 volunteer early childhood professionals from different professional groups. The research request was presented in Facebook's groups for early childhood education professionals and on the researcher's own Facebook page. Participants were asked to write about a situation in which they had enabled the participation of a child in need of support. The writings were called reports. The research was based on social constructionism and the method was discourse analysis. The discourse analysis was used to interpret how the early childhood education staff talked about participation, children with SEN, and their own and other workers` subject positions. Results and conclusions. Various interpretive repertoires of children with special education needs could be identified in the reports of early childhood education staff. These were the repertoire of diagnosis, descriptive support, proportionality of challenges, neutral, supportive- interpretation repertoire. Repertoires of early childhood education staff about participation were partly tense. So, while describing ways to enable participation, they also describe other employees’ ways to enable participation which may be different. Strong repertoires of participation interpreted in early childhood education staff reports included the right to participation vs. exclusion, special pedagogy vs. non-use of special pedagogical methods, child-orientation vs. adult-orientation, multidimensionality vs. one-dimensionality. Children received different subject positions in these interpretive repertoires, which were the subject positions of the assisted vs. independent actor, the participant vs. the outsider, the successful vs. the unsuccessful. In conclusion, the need for continuing education of ECE- staff, which has emerged in previous studies, is still relevant. The multi-professional discussion on the involvement of early childhood education staff should increase in the daily life of early childhood education in order to better enable the equal participation of all children.
  • Pullinen, Lotta (2022)
    Abstract The theoretical framework for this study comes from Carol Dweck’s (2000, 2006) theory of mindsets. Mindsets impact on core beliefs that individuals hold about the malleability of qualities of the human condition. A person with a growth mindset believes that abilities can be developed. A person a with fixed mindset believes that people have a certain amount of abilities, such as talent and intelligence. Mindsets have an impact on learning results, persistence and goals. Mindset also affects on how person reacts to challenges. Whilst theory of mindsets is internationally known and well researched, there has been less research regarding young children’s mindsets. The aim of this study is to examine what are the school subjects third grade pupils like and which factors influence that. In addition, study aims to examine what factors in learning motivates third grade pupils and how mindsets are presented in pupil’s answers. This study examined third grade students from two primary schools in Helsinki. The data of this study was collected as a part of Kirsi Tirri’s Copernicus research project’s intervention which utilized growth mindset pedagogy. The data of this study was gathered before intervention. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods. The analysis was performed using inductive and deductive content analysis. Statistical methods were used to examine how two factors, gender and school, impact on pupils answers. The results of this study showed that mathematics was clearly the most popular subject, which differs from the previous study. Results suggest that subject-specific motivation was most often affected by a factor inherent in the nature of the subject, such as calculation. Factors behind learning motivation highlighted learning environment, especially it’s social dimensions. Mindsets were one of the factors that affected subject-specific motivation and learning motivation. Most pupils reflected a fixed mindset. Mindsets were presented in many ways. Pupils answers highlighted attitudes towards challenge. The results also implicate that mindset can differ in different subjects.
  • Kantanen, Tiina (2022)
    Continuous learning, identity and ecology are strong phenomena in our time. They are also quite wide-ranging. Previous research has shown an interaction between learning and identity. However, there is just little research on the link between learning and identity and there has been a need for it. Previous research has found that, for example, individual-relevant learning subjects has influenced his or her willingness to learn. Thus, the meanings contained in identity affect in its own way continuous learning. The aim of this research was to study continuous learning and the meanings of learning subjects in the context of coloring with natural dyes. The aim of this research is to determine, analyze and construe the learning and the meanings contained in identity that take place in the learning process related to natural coloring. Research material consisted of 26 interviews, which were interviewed as part of the BioColour research project led by Riikka Räisänen. Interviews were transcribed by an outside party. The research material was analyzed by content analysis. The research material was coded, classified and themed. The classifications were made based on previous research, but the subcategories come from the research material. The themed was done through themes that come from the research material. Using content analysis, it was possible to create a wide picture of the topic under this research. Those, who dye with natural colorants, learn in many ways. They learn especially through oblique knowledge transfer, where different courses were the largest class in the learning process. The interviewees described also that they learned, among other things, through their experiments. Those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the learning subject. They experienced personal meanings: related to health, self and emotions, as well as ethical meanings: environmental and traditional meanings. Based on the results, it could be said that the those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the subject that they were during their lifetime, but the connection between this experienced meaningful subject and their learning cannot be studied with this research.
  • Harjama, Heli (2022)
    Objectives. This thesis examines the European Union higher education governance. Previous research has shown that political steering of higher education institutions has strengthened over the recent decades, and growing convergence between the education policies of European states. The purpose of the thesis is to examine the kinds of thinking according to which the Union governance seeks to shape the space it governs, and what kind of position the higher education occupies in the picture. The European Union hasn´t got educational policy competences for steering educational institutions, but previous research has shown that the Union nevertheless does practice education policy steering. Methods. In this thesis, the European Union higher education governance was scrutinized by analytics of governing with the data consisting of Higher Education for Smart Specialization manual, produced by the European Commission. The HESS Manual is directed to the Union Member States regional administrators with a higher education policy competence and responsible for regional development. The manual instructs regional administrators to carry out such regional governance and higher education steering model reforms that serve the political objectives of the Union. The analysis of HESS Manual was carried out by Peter Millers and Niklas Roses analytics of government, according to which the HESS Manual was scrutinized as a technology of government, with the aim of specifying characteristic thinking of Manual and therefore of governing. Results and conclusions. The thesis demonstrates that the characteristic thinking of the Union values economic and technological progress and seeks to harness both the governed space and the higher education towards this ambition. The thesis also shows that according to the characteristic thinking of the Union, existence must be earned through contributing to political objectives. The thesis shows the Union governs by setting prerequisites to resources in an environment which requires economic resources.
  • Vakkilainen, Anni (2022)
    The purpose of this thesis was to study and analyze teachers` experiences of distance teach- ing in crafts and their views of its future. It is important to acknowledge the unique nature of crafts also in distance teaching, and by sharing experiences and thoughts, the maintenance of quality and equality in teaching and learning can be enhanced. This study examines and analyzes craft teachers` and craft teacher students` groupdiscus- sion notes from “Kässää etänä” webinar, which was organized by craft teacher educators from the University of Helsinki in spring 2020. The data was collected with semi-structured group conversation applying the methods of the- matic interview. In total, 49 persons participated in the group conversations, in groups of 4-7. The groups` notes were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The results of this study show that the participants` experiences of distance teaching in crafts and views of its future included both positive and negative attributes. Teachers experienced that distance teaching increased students` inequality and teachers` workload. The flexibility of time and place of teaching and learning was considered positive, as well as the new devel- opment possibilities for students. The participants experienced that in the future, technology has a significant role in distance teaching of crafts. Technology, digital tools and apps offer various possibilities for teaching and learning, but they also include features that might in- crease inequality. Craft teachers saw that distance teaching has its place in schools, although the unique features of craft were considered challenging to transfer into distance teaching.
  • Boström, Linda (2022)
    The aim of this study was to explore parental perspectives on home-school collaboration when the child often expresses a dislike towards going to school. Further the study will bring forth the parent’s perspective on how they want to support well-being in school and how they would evaluate the forms of support for learning provided by the school. The study was executed by analyzing three of the questions in the questionary made by Förbundet Hem och skola and Suomen Vanhempainliitto. The number of respondents in this study was n=80. The material was limited to respondents who´s children rarely or never want to go to school and further to a Swedish speaking school. The answers regarding parents view on collaboration between home and the school was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics and the following research questions regarding support of wellbeing and the value of support measures were answered by qualitative content analysis. The result regarding the analysis for the collaboration through the view of the parents shows that the parents do not always feel that the collaboration meets their expectations. The school does emphasize the weight of collaboration and encourages parents to be in contact with the school. The parents however do not always feel welcome to visit the school during school hours, and they feel that they are not heard. The parents furthermore wish that the support of the child’s wellbeing also should be done in collaboration with the school and the other parents. Regarding forms of support for learning the majority (77%) of the respondents say their child had not received intensified or added support. The study shows that parents who´s child had been offered support for learning experienced some dissatisfaction in how it was done. The parents feel that the support measures were insufficient and late. The reason for this can be seen in lack of resources. Some parents also expressed dissatisfaction regarding how the school communicated about possible learning support and if measures resulted in progress.
  • Bagrova, Julia (2022)
    Objectives. The purpose of the dissertation was to study the basic psychological needs and positive mental health of employees in a Finnish financial sector organization. The research task was to examine the current state of the basic psychological needs of the theory of authenticity, benevolence and self-determination among the employees of the target organization and their connection to the perceived positive mental health. The study examined the construction of a new model and its relationship to positive mental health using linear regression analysis. Methods. For the study, I constructed a research questionnaire utilizing several validated measures of positive mental health, authenticity, benevolence, and SDT theory’s basic psychological needs. The questionnaire was administered to the employees of the target group by e-mail. Participation was voluntary and 395 responses were received. Correlation, cluster analysis, and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The study involved using linear regression analysis for modelling relations between basic psychological needs of self-determination theory across authenticity, benevolence and self-determination, and examining its relationship to positive mental health. Results and conclusions. Satisfaction with the basic psychological needs of the employees of the target organization was quite strong. On the other hand, the perceived positive mental health of the employees was somewhat lower than the average of the Finnish population in general. The study revealed that the basic psychological needs of self-determination theory, benevolence, and authenticity are associated with perceived positive mental health. The model called as a Calling and model of Calling obtained in the study explained a total of 49% of the variation in positive mental health. The results show that high satisfaction with the basic psychological needs of workers in the financial sector predicts a higher perceived positive mental health.
  • Laine, Hanna (2022)
    The purpose of this thesis is to examine classroom teacher’s views on participation and agency in primary school’s visual arts education. The study aims to find out how classroom teachers define the concepts of participation and agency and in what ways it is found possible to promote these things in school in general, and visual arts classes in particular. The theoretical framework of participation and agency is based on the socio-pedagogical approach of participation. The promotion of participation and agency is viewed in social and political contexts and examined through the concept of engaged pedagogy. The study was conducted as a qualitative interview survey. A total of six people were interviewed for the study and the interviews were conducted as semi-structured thematic interviews. Interviews were conducted both by using online connections and in person. All the interviewees were working as classroom teachers or special class teachers that had taught visual arts to primary school students. According to the study, classroom teacher’s views in participation and agency could be categorized as opportunities to influence, personal experiences of meaningfulness and active acts. The views in promoting participation and agency in school and in visual arts education adapted the above-mentioned categories. Participation and agency were promoted via social and political means. The opportunities to impact were associated to both political and everyday decision-making. Promoting student’s identities and internal motivation were emphasized in the personal experiences of meaningfulness. Active acts consisted of dialogical and interactive working methods that emphasized responsibility among students.
  • Huttunen, Anette (2022)
    Objectives. The aim of the study is to describe students’ perceptions of themselves and to provide information on the impact of a positivie pedagogy course on perceptions. The goal of positive pedagogy is to positively influence a child’s wellbeing in the school context and help them utilize their own strengths. Central to my own research are the dimensions of students’ perception of the self and the changes that take place in them. Methods. 1 fifth grade and 1 sixth grade participated in the study. There was a total of 35 students in the study. My study was a data-driven qualitative development study. The material was collected with a questionnaire and analyzed using the analysis steps of the phenomenographic research tradition. Results and conclusions. According to the study, students described themselves mostly positively. Different dimensions emerged from the material related to students ’perceptions of themselves. I described these dimensions as categories that were 1) my skill and area of interest, 2) me as a learner, 3) I as creative, 4) people relevant to me, 5) my external qualities, 6) I am life-affirming, 7) I am conscientious, 8) I am as an active actor, 9) as an insane, 10) as a friend, 11) as an empathetic, 12) as a profound thinker, and 13) the negative aspects of the self. The most important changes I observed were three changes, which were the lengthening of the answers and the increase in the vocabulary of strength, the change in perceptions to be more positive, and the focus of the answers more on oneself and one's own characteristics. Based on my research, I conclude that by utilizing the methods of positive pedagogy, one can influence the development of students ’positive self-perceptions.
  • Heikkilä, Aada (2022)
    Objectives. The purpose of this article- based master´s thesis is to study the connection between the years children spent in early childhood education and care (ECEC) and their social behaviour. The research problems were formed based on the fourfold table of social orientations by Jyrki Reunamo (2020) and the research material. In this research I decided to concentrate on the years children spent in ECEC because earlier research concerning children´s social behaviour is often focused on the quality of ECEC. This research presents one perspective to the social debate about how ECEC affects children´s growth and development by describing how the years spent in ECEC affect children´s social orientations and their main object of attention and contact. Methods. The data used in this research is a part of already existing research material collected within the Progressive Feedback project. The data was collected by observing children in ECEC units in 2017- 2021. About 200 specially trained ECEC professionals performed the observations. The research data includes 20 457 observations of 972 six-year-olds from 360 child groups in 18 municipalities in Finland. The material was analysed with IBM SPSS Statistics 27 programme with crosstabulation function using the years of attendance in ECEC, social orientation, child´s main object of attention and contact, closest social child contact and child´s gender as variables. Results and conclusions. According to this research, the years children spent in ECEC have a connection to their social orientations and their main object of attention and contact. The longer the children had been in ECEC, the less adaptive behaviour was observed. The children that had been in ECEC for under a year were observed to be less participative than other children. Dominant orientation increased the longer the children had been in ECEC. The children that had been in ECEC for over four years aimed their attention more rarely to non-social objects and adults. These same children aimed their attention more often to several children than their peers that had spent fewer years in ECEC. The years spent in ECEC seem to affect girls´ and boys´ social orientations and main object of attention and contact differently. The results could be useful when political decisions concerning ECEC, for example the two year-long pre-primary education, are made. The article The years children spent in early education in relation to their social relations and objects of attention is supposed to be published in European Early Childhood Education Research Journal (EECERJ)
  • Kaloniemi, Ada (2022)
    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to produce information on the appearance of children’s fear and anxiety in the context of early childhood education and care (ECEC). By drawing attention to the daily actions and situations where fear and anxiety typically take place, it is possible to gather valuable information about children’s wellbeing in the various situations of ECEC. This study examines the situations in which children experience fear and anxiety and how these emotions reflect the children’s behavior. In addition, the study aims to find out how the ECEC personnel relates to the fear or anxiousness of the child. The study was conducted using the Finnish nationwide Progressive Feedback method. The research data was gathered during 2017–2021. A total of 2653 ECEC groups from 18 municipalities participated in the study. The research method used was systematic random sample observation, which included all activities in ECEC between 8 AM to 4 PM. Quantitative methods were used to analyse the data. The observations of fear and anxiety were cross-tabulated with the observations of the general frame of activity, the child’s social orientation, and the actions of the nearest adult. It was found that children show highlighted levels of fear and anxiety when being outdoors or participating in indoor guided activities. Withdrawn and independent social orientations were highlighted among children experiencing fear and anxiety. When examining adults’ reactions to children’s fear and anxiety receptive and negative attitudes were overrepresented. However, negative attitudes should be considered with caution due to the limitations of the data. A closer inspection into the matter revealed that both children’s and personnel’s attitude towards fear and anxiety was context-related. Article manuscript “Children’s observed fear and anxiety in early childhood education” is to be published in the Finnish journal of Psychology.
  • Rantala, Meri (2022)
    Teachers find it difficult to teach sex education. Gender and sexual minorities in particular are perceived as difficult teaching content. According to research, the sections of the textbooks on sexual and gender minorities have shortcomings: sexual and gender minorities are often presented as external groups to which students are not presumed to belong. The purpose of this study is to determine whether family-themed children's picture books can be used in school-based sex education to address gender and sexual minorities and other content in sexual education. The aim of the research questions is to determine how sexual and gender minorities are depicted in children's picture books, and how children's picture books can be utilized in school sex education. The material of this study was four Finnish children's picture books on family topics, which featured sexual and gender minorities: Ikioma perheeni, Meidän pihan perhesoppa, Poika ja hame and Sulon ja Elsin uudet naapurit. The texts of the books selected as material were analyzed using content analysis methods. Children's picture books, selected as material, can be utilized in school sexual education when dealing with gender and sexual minorities in three different ways. They can be used to provide age-appropriate information about a child's sexuality, norm-critical sex education and on an emotional level facing sex education. In addition, the books can be used to address six topics in body-emotion education. These topics are body and development; feelings; intimacy, well-being, and self-esteem; environment and other people; increase and rights.
  • Perkinen, Annika (2022)
    Participation can be understood as a personal experience of belonging to something. The feeling of participation evolves within social interaction between people, and is a key factor in becoming a member of society. In environments where physical activity is being practiced, participation is generated by four different factors: feeling a sense of communality, giving a voice to everyone, having a hobby that suits oneself and having concrete factors of the environment supporting the feeling of participation. The aim of this thesis is to examine by using the viewpoint of participation, what factors contribute to teenagers continuing their organized club sports hobby. The subject is important: it is very typical to engage in a hobby via organized club sports in Finnish society. Nine out of ten children try club sports, but by the end of adolescence fewer and fewer youngsters are engaged in organized sports. As it is very common to participate in club sports, sports clubs contribute greatly to motivating children and youth to move and grow towards an active lifestyle. This study was conducted using a qualitative approach. The data used in the analysis was collected through theme interviews. Eight persons playing football in women’s football teams were interviewed. The interviews were implemented via remote accesses in fall of 2021. The data was analysed using qualitative content analysis, using the viewpoint of participation as guidance. The results of the study indicated that the factors that support teenagers in continuing their organized sports hobbies are the following: feeling a sense of communality, giving a voice to everyone, having a hobby that suits oneself, having concrete factors of the environment supporting the feeling of participation and recognizing the special features of sport and exercising. Of the previously listed factors, feeling a sense of communality, giving a voice to everyone, having a hobby that suits oneself and having concrete factors of the environment supporting the feeling of participation are associated with the feeling of participation. The results highlight the importance of participation as a factor that supports organized sports hobbies of the youth. By identifying the factors that enable the action to become meaningful for the youth and by adapting the action according to the factors, it is possible to support teenagers’ hobbies, the development of the feeling of belonging and hence the well-being of the youth. Based on this study, the viewpoint of participation could be used as a tool in developing sports clubs.
  • Mäkinen, Minja (2022)
    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of special needs teachers and classroom teachers in the integration of students with special needs into general education and the teachers' cooperation. The term integration is used from special needs students who studies partly in a general classroom with peers. The pre-integration form is segregation, where students are isolated from other students, and the post-integration form is inclusion, where the school adapts to the needs of the pupil. The aim of the study is to find out how integration is implemented in today's schools and how classroom teachers and special needs teachers perceive the benefits and challenges of integration in everyday school life, and thus the implementation of inclusion and related cooperation. The study was qualitative research. The interview was attended by three special classroom teacher and classroom teacher pairs who implemented integration. The data was collected as a semi-structured thematic interview and analyzed by theory-guided content analysis. According to the research teachers defined integration in more dimensions than in the previous definitions of integration. Integration was also thought as a transition from general education to special education. Teachers saw the benefits of integration as factors that can be utilized by the individual student in need of special support, while challenges were seen in organizing integration. According to the research as a benefit the teachers mentioned the increase in the pupil's social skills and as a challenge they mentioned physical learning spaces, as well as the teacher’s communication. Teachers attitudes for inclusion were mainly reserved as inclusion was seen as a means of saving. Some teachers felt that studying in general education was not suitable for everyone. Based on the results of the study, the teachers were pleased with their collaboration. The benefits of cooperation were mentioned more than the challenges. For integration or inclusion to take place, teachers should have a common understanding of teaching and a desire to develop their own activities. The school's resources also influence the organization of special needs education.
  • Lukkarinen, Vilja (2022)
    The aim of this study is to examine what kind of discourses can be found in the public expert debate in the news media and in the public lay discourse from the news media comment field regarding the Milk Myths campaign. Milk has a historically strong position in Finnish food culture, and because of this Milk Myths campaign has caused a stir. The theoretical framework of the dissertation is related to Finnish food culture, its tension and changes, food policy and food in media discussions. The topic is strongly connected to the Finnish food culture and its tensions. The changes and tensions in the food culture are notoriously discussed and may create confrontations between interlocutors. The research questions are: 1 What kind of discourses can be found in the expert speech related to Oatly’s Milk Myths campaign in the news media? 2 What kind of discourses can be found in the public debate about Oatly’s Milk Myths campaign? The material for the dissertation was three news articles and one news comment field based on Milk Myths campaign. The news articles were found in Helsingin Sanomat, Iltalehti and MTV. The comment field was related to Helsingin Sanomat’s news coverage Milk Myths campaign. The data was analyzed using discourse analysis. The discourses found in the news material were named health, environmental and economic discourses, as well as a discourse of confrontation. The discourses found in the public debate were named the discourses on the defense of milk and animal welfare, as well as the discourse on a boycott, the environment and Finnishness. In conclusion, the discourses found the research were tense both internally and with other discourses. The discourse was as polarized and dichotomous as the discourse found in previous studies regarding food wars.