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Faculty of Educational Sciences


Recent Submissions

  • Alatulkkila, Saara (2021)
    Research on adolescents’ life satisfaction has increased only in recent years. Previous research has indicated that many variables are in association with life satisfaction. However, there has been need for more research on variables that affect adolescents’ life satisfaction and overall subjective well-being. In this thesis, it is researched how positive emotions, sense of belonging at school, self-efficacy, gender, and socioeconomic status affect life satisfaction of Finnish adolescents by way of the PISA 2018 research data. In addition, the differences between girls and boys in life satisfaction, positive emotions, sense of belonging at school, and self-efficacy are examined. The data used in this study were the answers to the PISA 2018 student questionnaire. The data represented the entire Finland, and the sample size was large (n = 5649). Analyses of the data were carried out with IBM SPSS 27 and the IEA International Database Analyzer (version 4.0.39). Analytical methods used in this study were linear regression analysis and independent samples t-test. According to the regression analysis, independent variables explained 39 % of the variance of life satisfaction, in which case the effect size was quite large. All variables, except socioeconomic status, had statistically significant effects on life satisfaction. The most predictive of all independent variables seemed to be positive emotions (β = .42, p < .001). As for the t-tests, they showed statistically significant differences between girls and boys’ mean values in both life satisfaction and sense of belonging at school. However, effect sizes were quite small. According to the results, positive emotions, sense of belonging at school, self-efficacy and gender affect adolescents’ life satisfaction. There are also differences in life satisfaction and sense of belonging at school between genders.
  • Tarkamo, Iida (2021)
    Objectives. The aim of this thesis is to chart teachers’ views on sex education, the challenges and goals of sex education and to obtain more information about the supply of sex education materials. The objective is to get information about how sex education shows in primary school and what type of teaching material is needed. Through this, the aim is to obtain information on how sex education could be developed. Sex education has been studied quite a lot in the context of upper secondary education, which is why the study focuses on the development of sex education in primary schools. Methods. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study. The case in this study was elementary school sex education. The data was collected through a semi-structured thematic interview. Four primary school teachers were selected for the study who shared their experiences regarding sex education. The interviewees were scouted based on their skills to tell about sex education. The data was collected through a semi-structured thematic interview between July–October 2020. The interview data was transcribed and it was analyzed by content analysis. The aim of the analysis was to summarize the interview data and increase understanding of the case study. Results and conclusions. Teachers defined sex education to be tied to everyday situations and teacher was inevitably seen as a sex educator. Sexuality was determined by a person’s personality, culture and activity, it showed in infatuations and discussions at school. The challenges of sex education were related to resources, the school’s sex education culture, students’ actions and teachers’ own insecurities. Its aim was to provide students with adequate information about sexuality, the ability to apply knowledge and an attitude of tolerance towards diversity. The teachers felt that the curriculum did not provide concreteness for sex education. However, the goals of the curriculum and the goals of sex education were seen to be in line with each other. The teachers experienced that there was not enough material for sex education and that the information was fragmented or surface level. Functional and age-appropriate material was needed for sex education. The conclusion was that lack of knowledge prevents the teacher from implementing sex education and that material is needed for sex education. The research results will be utilized in the development of sexual education material for primary schools.
  • Mansikka, Laura (2021)
    According to the Pisa assessments, the number of students with poor reading skills has increased in Finland in recent years. Because of the poor reading skills, approximately one in ten students will struggle with their upper secondary studies and will not achieve an active social status. However, international studies have shown that reading comprehension interventions can improve students’ reading skills even in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to explore how the upper secondary school teachers experienced the teaching of reading comprehension skills for students with reading comprehension difficulties. The study focused on the teachers’ views concerning support of learning Finnish language and social studies. The study answers in three research questions: first, how theory-based reading comprehension support is organized, second, how do the reading comprehension difficulties affect Finnish language studies and social studies, and third, how the reading comprehension support could be improved. The study was carried out by using qualitative methods and following the principles of phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. The data was collected by interviewing seven upper secondary school teachers. Three of them were Finnish language teachers and four of them were special education teachers. The data was analyzed by using theory-based con-tent analysis and data-based content analysis. Based on the results, teachers use theory-based reading comprehension methods, such as reading strategies. However, there were differences between the schools’ structures of sup-port systems. Reading comprehension difficulties were connected with other multidimensional problems. The reading comprehension support can be improved by offering further training for teachers and promoting their co-operation. Besides that, positive attitude might have an important role on reading comprehension support.
  • Dey, Mira (2021)
    Bullying victimization is a multidimensional phenomenon which can be explained by many risk factors. Youths in lower secondary school are particularly vulnerable and may have conflicts with peers which, in turn, can increase the risk of being bullied at school. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in lower secondary school and possible underlying factors in bullying victimization. In this study, the goal is to examine how sense of belonging at school, immigrant background, socioeconomic status and gender explain the variation in bullying victimization at school. In addition, the aim of this study is to observe the mean difference in bullying victimization between immigrant students and non-immigrant students. The data of this study is from a student answers to the questionnaire used in the PISA (2018) study. A total of 5649 students from different areas in Finland participated in the PISA study in 2018. The participants were mainly 15 to 16 years old lower secondary school students. To analyze the data, IBM Statistics SPSS -27 software and The IEA International Database Analyzer (version 4.0.39) were used. A linear regression analysis and an independent samples t-test were used as the analysis methods. The results from this study indicated that the sense of belonging at school was the strongest and statistically significant explanatory variable of bullying victimization at school. Immigrant background and socioeconomic status were also statistically significant but their explanatory powers were very small. The results from the t-test showed that the mean difference in bullying victimization between immigrant and non-immigrant students was statistically significant but the effect size was weak. The analysis also revealed that verbal and social bullying experiences were more common than physical bullying experiences. Boys were more likely than girls to experience physical bullying and girls were more likely than boys to experience social bullying. It is crucial to pay attention to the social bonds and climate at school to decrease the risk of bullying victimization.
  • Kivistö, Iina (2021)
    According to the National core curriculum for basic education (2014), schools should guide students towards a sustainable lifestyle, as well as understanding that people are part of na-ture and completely dependent on the surrounding ecosystem. Schools should also address emotions related to climate change, as children have experienced, for example, sadness, fear, and helplessness. Studies suggest that climate education in schools is very fragmented and variable and should be improved. Studies show that children’s books are a good way to deal with difficult issues and emotions among children. In this thesis, I examine what climate emotions occur in children’s books on climate change and how the books present climate change. Based on these questions, I evaluate how children's books on climate change could be used in climate education. This thesis is a qualitative study. Four Finnish children's books on climate change published during 2019 and 2020 were used as data. The books are aimed at children of primary school age. The books were analyzed by using content analysis. In the second research question, I used theory-guided content analysis, in which the guiding theory was the model of ecological literacy by Wong and Kumpulainen (2019). The characters in the books had a wide range of climate emotions: distressing emotions from fear to anxiety, worry, and joy and enthusiasm. The climate emotions in the books were simi-lar to emotions that people have related to climate change. The books described climate change and issues related to climate change in many ways. Children's books on climate change can be useful in climate education, as they can help children deal with difficult climate emotions, as well as understand climate change as a wider phenomenon. More research is needed on how books could improve children’s ecological literacy, and more specifically cli-mate literacy.