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Browsing by Subject "Early Maladaptive Schemas"

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  • Sarparanta, Saana (2015)
    Objective: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are serious psychiatric disorders highly prevalent in clinical settings, characterized by multiple forms of distress, functional decline, and increased risk of suicide. MDD and BPD often co-occur and the co-occurrence of the disorders is associated with the course of MDD. Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) refer to maladaptive internalized representations of the self in relation to others that develop early in life. EMSs are associated with depressive and BPD symptomatology and symptom severity. However, the associations between EMSs and psychiatric comorbidity have rarely been studied. The aim of the present study was to provide new insight into the comorbidity of BPD and MDD by focusing on the associations between EMSs and BPD symptomatology among depressed inpatient population. Methods: The sample consisted of 43 adult inpatients (29 women and 14 men). BPD symptomatology was measured via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and EMSs via Young Schema Questionnaire-S2-Extended self-report questionnaires. A three-level linear regression model was created to predict self-reported BPD symptomatology: In level 1, linear regression analysis was conducted for each individual EMS separately, EMSs entered as predictors for BPD symptomatology. In level 2, gender, age, education level and employment status were added to the model as covariates. In level 3, also current level of depressive symptoms measured via Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale was added to the model as a covariate. Results and conclusions: Higher scores on 10 of the 18 EMSs were significantly positively associated with elevated self-reported BPD symptomatology. However, only one EMS, Unrelenting Standards and Hypercriticalness, was independently positively associated with self-reported BPD symptomatology and explained variance over the effect of current depressive symptom state, gender, age, education level and employment status. According to the findings of the present study, Unrelenting Standards and Hypercriticalness may act a specific cognitive risk factor for elevated BPD symptomatology and symptom severity among depressed individuals.