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Browsing by Subject "dyslexia"

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  • Levänen, Tuuli (2015)
    Introduction. Previous studies suggest that dyslexic pupils have inordinate difficulties learning foreign languages at school. The present study examined the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses elicited by foreign language words and nonwords in dyslexic children compared to typically reading controls. MMN reflects early processing stages in auditory cortex. The aim of this study was to determine whether dyslexic pupils have impaired MMNs for foreign language words or speech stimuli in general, and whether word familiarity has a different effect on the two groups. In addition, the correlations between MMN differences and reading and cognitive skills were analysed. Methods. Participant groups consisted of 14 dyslexic school children, and 14 typically reading controls. Before brain recordings, literacy skills and cognitive functioning were tested. Brain responses to English words (she, shy) and nonwords (shoy), and Finnish words (sai, soi) and nonwords (sii) were measured with electroencephalography (EEG). Results and conclusions. The results suggested that compared to controls, dyslexic children's MMN responses to foreign language were impaired for a familiar word she, but only. However, the groups did not differ in processing speech-sounds in general. In addition, weak MMN responses to the foreign word were associated with poorer reading skills and slower rapid naming in mother language. The results of this study suggest that the establishment, access and activation of memory representations for foreign words is impaired in dyslexia. In addition, the finding that poor performance in native language reading is correlated with the strength of brain responses to foreign language suggests that there are common factors underlying literacy skills and foreign language learning.
  • Leppänen, Katri (2016)
    The importance of reading and writing skills in everyday life has increased continuously. Previous research has also shown that reading skills are associated with success in other school subjects. Three-tier model introduced in 2011 focuses on early intervention, identification and support. The main purpose of this study was to gather information about teacher's supporting methods at first school year. How they work with dyslectic students and struggling readers. What is the relevance of three-tier model and how three-tier model affects the support services. Attention is paid to evaluation, strategies, methods, tools and follow-up measures. The aim is to highlight concrete examples. The study was conducted by interviewing four special teachers. Teachers work in primary schools and teaching to read is a big part of their work. Data has been recorded and transcribed. Analysis was based on transcribed data and research questions. The study showed that all respondents evaluate student's basic reading skills soon after the start of school. Support is offered to those who need it the most. There were school-specific differences in evaluation methods, arrangements and group formation. All four teachers accomplished small-group teaching and part-time special education. Three teachers made flexible groupings. None of the respondents carried out individualized instruction. One respondent carried out co-teaching approach. Teachers used well known and research based tools and materials. They also made materials by their selves. Teachers were aware the important aspects of learning to read. They paid attention to phonological awareness, syllable awareness, letter knowledge and working memory. All four teachers made evaluation during the year. However the study reveals that 1-graders are rarely sent to psychological tests or moved to tier 2 even if their reading skills don't proceed.
  • Joensuu, Milka (2011)
    Goals. Immigrant pupils are over-represented in special education. Linguistic difficulties are the most pivotal reasons for social exclusion of immigrant pupils during their school career. Addedly reading, writing, and language development disorders are the most common reasons for both part-time and extensive special education. I studied class teachers' perceptions of the typical linguistic difficulties of pupils who speak Finnish as their second language and of those who have dyslexia, because I suspect that telling the difference between linguistic competency in progress and the symptoms of dyslexia isn't easy. I look for overlappings in the perceptions of linguistic difficulties, their causes and their support measures, which would reveal the challenges in recognizing linguistic difficulties, which in turn might partly explain why immigrant pupils are over-represented in special education. Methods. This study was carried out as structured individual interviews with nine class teachers from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. To increase reliability, complementary information was gathered about the same phenomenon with a questionnaire that each interviewee filled out at the end of the interview. It was required that the interviewees have experience of teaching both dyslexic pupils and pupils who speak Finnish as a second language. The material analysis was mainly deductive, but the material that wasn't in line with the theoretical frame of reference was analyzed inductively. Results and conclusions. There were overlappings in the class teachers' perceptions of the linguistic difficulties, support measures fitting them and, based on the questionnaire results, also of the causes of these difficulties. Additionally all the interviewees said it to be difficult to recognize dyslexia in a pupil who speaks Finnish as a second language. I came to the conclusion that distinguishing different linguistic difficulties from one another is a challenge to which class teachers don't always feel competent to rise, which is why they consider the assistance of special teachers and other professionals beneficial.