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Browsing by Subject "jämlikhet"

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  • Klemola, Anni (2020)
    Goal: Inclusion is an increasingly popular and current theme within educational sciences. In earlier studies, inclusion as a term has evolved from a relatively narrow definition consisting primarily of pupils with special needs towards a wider spectrum taking all members of a school community into account. According to various theories and official documents used as sources for this thesis, inclusion additionally looks at a person from a primarily intersectional perspective. In this study, the primary goal is to look into how inclusion is percepted from the standpoint of teachers, investigate how inclusion takes its place in school on a daily basis and find out what teachers would need to be able to implement inclusion as part of their daily teaching methods. Another goal of this research is to compare the perception teachers have of inclusion to the inclusion that is presented in theories and official documents that are commonly used guidelines for inclusion implementation. Method: The methodology chosen for this qualitative research is phenomenology. Semi-structured interviews were used as the method and the interviews were supported with a predesigned interview guide. The structure of the interviews was built around the most significant themes in this research. A total of eight (8) Swedish-speaking comprehensive school teachers were interviewed. All of these interviewees were officially qualified teachers, and they were employed either in the region of Uusimaa or Pohjanmaa. The interviewees had different professional and academic backgrounds. Some of them had been active in the profession for up to 20 years, while others had less than five years of work experience. Some of these teachers had studied more special pedagogy that what is usually included in teacher studies. The research material was analyzed through a theme content analysis forming a result that was then divided into separate categories. Results: The perceptions on inclusion varied quite substantially, with some giving it quite a narrow definition and others percepted in as being a broader concept such defined by Ainscow & Booth (1998) in their book. Work experience and educational history had an impact on how the teachers defined inclusion in their schools. All participants considered inclusion as an important theme in the school world. Good co-operation and a culture of acceptance and participation were seen as important aspects to ensure successful inclusion. A lack of resources, the sense of diversity amongst pupils and their own skillset in inclusion were aspects that they felt hindered inclusion. The unified culture amongst Swedish-speaking Finns was also brought up as an example of a theme that can turn into a barrier for inclusion. In addition, some other specific features Finnish school culture were seen as problematic. Based on the research, it can be stated that the acceptance and commitment to diversity is crucial for the successful implementation of inclusion. Updating the skillset of teachers, building a stronger cooperation between various stakeholders and pushing for a cultural change in the school world are concrete examples of ways to strengthen the development of inclusion. This can be established based on both the research, but also on the theories and official documents used the build the theoretical background of this thesis.
  • Kullström, Emilia (2023)
    Goal. The purpose of the thesis is to identify, analyze and describe the underlying impact of digitalisation on equality and inequality between students in elementary schools. In addition, the relationship between democracy, participation and digitalisation is researched. Previous studies have shown that there are differences in teachers' and students' digital competence, technological equipment, digitalisation between different cities/schools. Studies have also shown that students' digital equipment and socio-economic background affect students’ academic success. Digital competence is a central part of the curriculum and relevant in today's changing society, as are equality matters. The remote-studies during the covid-19 pandemic and the number of digital tools in everyday life have also increased the need for digital tools in teaching. Methods. The study is a qualitative interview study within the framework of the research project "Digital literacy in development", DigiLi. The project started in the year 2021 and the research process is still active in 2022. The material received includes interviews with teachers in Swedish-speaking schools in Finland. The study uses ten semi-structured in-depth interviews with teachers in grades 5–9. In the interviews the topic of discussion was distance learning and digi-talisation, with a focus on digital resources, changes in teaching content and student participa-tion, student (in)equality, language awareness and collegial work. The audio recordings and transcriptions were analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The teachers feel that students have access to different digital tools among themselves. The economic situation of families can for example lead to weak internet connection and digital tools. The teachers also gave varying answers to questions about partici-pation in the digital environment; digitalisation and the use of digital tools can both promote democracy and participation in education as well as hinder or suppress it. The conclusions are that students have access to different teaching methods with digital tools between them, which is due to differences in the teachers' digital competence, the school's/municipality's resources and the student's (socio)economic status. The digitalisation of teaching can thus expand the already existing inequalities in society.
  • Mäkelä, Viola (2021)
    COVID-19 has had a large impact on education since schools around the world had to quickly move to distance learning. Consequently, this has possibly affected the equality of education. The main focus of this study is to find out how equality is constructed in Finnish teachers’ survey replies about their experiences during the state of emergency and to find out how these teachers in basic education have taken pupils from lower social classes into account according to their experiences when they have been distance teaching. This study was executed as a qualitative study. The research approach of this study was phenomenological. The study was conducted as a part of the project DISKO, digitalisation and distance education in Swedish-speaking school. The data collection was conducted through the E-lomake e-form. 17 teachers from basic education participated in the study from both Swedish-speaking and Finnish-speaking schools in Finland. The analysis in this study was conducted as a thematic analysis. The majority of teachers in basic education have experienced that schools have not been equal during the Corona spring of 2020. However, this study shows that there are teachers that have experienced this period as equal. The way distance education has been organised has varied between schools. Support measures have also not been organised according to guidelines. Living circumstances and digital equipment in relation to equality were also highlighted during this period. Teachers in basic education have taken pupils from lower social classes into account by lending computers and calling the pupils. Distance education has also been planned out so that pupils who do not get any support from their homes are able to do the exercises by themselves. However, it emerged that there were teachers and schools that had not taken pupils’ socioeconomic status into account. Results in this study indicate that education has not been equal for all children during the state of emergency in the spring of 2020 according to teachers’ experiences. The future holds, how severe the effects of COVID-19 have been on children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds.
  • Lundberg, Victoria (2021)
    Goal. The purpose of this study is to provide a research-based insight into pupils' thoughts and experiences about gender identity and gender stereotypes. Studies have shown that it is no longer possible to simply divide children into girls and boys, and that children who do not fit into these compartments suffer in school. Gender stereotypes also have an impact on children’s success in school. To be able to create a safe school for everyone, education and research into the topic is required, which is the aim of this dissertation. Methods. The dissertation was performed as an interview study in which students in years 5 and 6 participated. All in all, 18 students participated from a Swedish-language primary school. Of these, half were 5th year students and the other half 6th year. 12 students identified themselves as girls and 6 as boys. The interview data was analyzed with thematic analysis. Results and conclusions. The students were all comfortable and happy with their gender identity, and they had a positive attitude towards children with other gender identities. Their stereotypes were based quite far on dividing the world into two, where hobbies, interests and clothes are either "boyish" or "girly". However, they had strong views on individual freedom, that everyone should be allowed to do as they wished, regardless of gender. The students had a great deal of confidence in their teachers but described strong negative feelings in case the teacher did not approve of their gender identity. However, many felt that teachers treated boys and girls differently, but that their school was still a relatively equal place where you could be yourself. The results indicate that primary school students are dependent on their teachers for the development of gender stereotypes and the creation of equality in school. If a student feels insecure with their teacher, school success and the student's well-being suffer. Teachers must be familiar with research on gender and stereotypes to counteract these preconceived notions and create a school where everyone can be themselves. Future research could investigate the impact of different types of education on both students' and teachers' gender stereotypes, as well as the development of practical methods for creating an inclusive school for everyone.