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Browsing by Subject "juvenile delinquency"

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  • Tiainen, Outi (2015)
    Study goal: The goal of this study was to examine the association between psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquents and developmental factors. In previous studies the focus has been mainly on neurobiological etiological factors predicting psychopathic traits. Based on the limited amount of developmental research it was adequate to examine the impact of the affective tone in the parental-child relationship and especially mother's hostile parenting style to psychopathic traits. Additionally it was examined if socio-emotional development linking to early states of psychological development and affection, and emotional reactivity were linking to psychopathy. Methods: The original sample consisted of North American juvenile delinquents boys aged 14-19 years (k=1354) which was part of large a Pathways to Desistance survey. In this study the sample consisted of 1123 boys. Associations between psychopathic traits and other variables were first examined through correlational study and univariate analysis of variance. Secondly stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted and finally discrimination analysis. For the discrimination analysis the sample was divided in two based on persons scored low and high in psychopathic traits (low<25, high=>25) for testing the strength of predictive variables emerged with regression analysis to discriminate persons accurately into classes low or high in psychopathy. Results and conclusions: Results showed that mother's hostile parenting style was significantly associated with psychopathic traits. Additionally socio-emotional development was significantly associated with psychopathic traits. Findings highlight that the more hostile is the mother-child relationship the higher will psychopathic traits be. Additionally low temperance with problems in impulse control and suppression of aggression predicted prevalence of high psychopathic traits. The hypothesis based on previous studies about associations between emotional reactivity and psychopathy didn't gain any significant relevance based on present study. Neither did emotional self-regulation connect to psychopathy with this sample in this study.
  • Valkonen, Teemu (2016)
    Objectives. A relatively small group of people are responsible for disproportionate amount of offenses which cause significant monetary and societal costs. It has been important to recognize different risk and protective factors for chronic offending in youth to develop effective treatment and preventive strategies. One subgroup of offenders who commit many offenses are individuals with high psychopathic traits. However, not all psychopathic individuals commit crimes and some seem well adjusted to society. High intelligence is considered as a protective factor from chronic offending. This study examines the relationship of psychopathic traits and intelligence on juvenile delinquency with seven-year long follow up design. Methods. The data of the study was employed from the Pathways to Desistance longitudinal study which material was collected in between 2000 - 2010. The sample included all male juvenile offenders (n=1170) from the cities of Phoenix and Philadelphia in the United States of America. The participants were 14 - 19 of age at the beginning of the study and 21 - 26 at the end. Psychopathic traits were assessed with PCL:YV and intelligence with WASI. The relationship of psychopathic traits and intelligence on delinquency was examined with binary logistic regression analysis. As well as the moderating effect of intelligence on the relationship between psychopathic traits and delinquency. Delinquency was assessed separately for violent and income related crimes based on the self-report of the participants with SRO method. Results and conclusions. High psychopathic traits were related to a higher risk for both violent and income offending in every measurement year of the seven year follow up. In addition, high psychopathic traits were related to a higher risk for faster rate of recidivism and to the continuity of criminal activity. Intelligence did not have either increasing or decreasing effect on delinquency and it did not have any moderating effect on the relationship between psychopathic traits and delinquency. However, further studies are needed to examine more closely the observed relationships, possible mediating factors and other risk and protective factors for crime. The results indicate that the risk and protective factors for delinquency in youth with high psychopathic traits needs to be intervened as early as possible to achieve effective treatment and preventive results.