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Browsing by Subject "kaksikielisyys"

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  • Finch, Susanna (2013)
    The study examined a bilingual child's agency in the context of a bilingual school. Previous research has shown that supporting a pupil's agency improves his or her motivation and engagement towards school and hence also enhances learning results. The traditional roles of teacher and pupil can be changed by encouraging pupils to agency. Bilingualism is a pervasive phenomenon in the world and affects the Finnish school worlds as well. The need for language proficiency and the demands for bilingual education increase perpetually. The study sees language as a base for human action and that it is used as a tool in the expressions of agency. The study strived to find out how children express agency and how they use their mother tongues if they have two mother tongues instead of just one. The goal of the study is to examine how the agency of an English?Finnish-bilingual child is expressed through verbal communication in a classroom. The study also strived to investigate what kinds of tasks the two mother tongues are used for in interaction. The case study centers on one 11-year-old American Finnish focus student who speaks English and Finnish as her mother tongues. The data of the study were collected by videotaping in a fifth grade of a bilingual school. In addition, a semistructured interview was used to interview the focus student and her mother in order to find out what kind of language choices the child makes and how was the development of the child's bilingualism and two mother tongues supported. The data consisted of approximately 8 hours of video material. Agency and language were examined from the viewpoint of the sociocultural framework. The results were interpreted using qualitative discourse analysis. The main result of the study is that the focus student's agency was expressed in verbal communication in a classroom through three different ways: through expertise, providing humor, and playing with institutional roles. Another finding was that agency was created partly through language. The focus student used her two mother tongues consistently for different tasks, of which communicating with family, friends, and teachers was the most significant one.
  • Cimili, Dorentina (2021)
    The aim of this research is to clarify experiences of six teachers with different qualifications about Language awareness in a simultaneous teaching -pilot program. This program has been implemented in schools in Helsinki. My objective in this research is to sort out teachers’ experiences about planning, implementation, possible effects, or changes within this program and how translanguaging has been used in teaching. Important theoretical concepts of this research are language awareness and translanguaging. In addition, I examine mother tongue teaching, Finnish as a second language teaching, preparatory teaching for newly arrived students and multilingualism in Finnish schools from the perspectives of Finnish school system and Finnish primary school curriculum. The character of this research is qualitative content analysis. In this research I will specify the material which I have collected by using semi-structured interviews and I will present themes that were established from the material. The material contains interviews of six teachers which have been part of the pilot program. In the material we can hear experiences of mother tongue teachers, class teacher, subject teacher, and Finnish as a second language -teacher, from the middle and elementary school point of view. The results of my research give indication about capabilities of language awareness simultaneous teaching in practice and what types of thoughts teachers have about multilingual, language awareness and translanguaging utilised in teaching during this pilot program. The main results of my research indicate that middle and elementary schools have differences between teachers pedagogical planning which depend on the qualifications of the teachers. In planning, structural challenges and difficulties occurred during scheduling. In the implementation there were differences in using different languages, for example the languages were centre of the teaching or part of teaching to support learning. Experiences of possible effects of the pilot program were developed in language skills, changes in motivation, individual and peer attitude in language skills, learning and support in work, knowing students, interests of teachers outside of the pilot program and parents’ varying feedback. Utilizing translanguaging and various types of languages in classes appeared dissimilar and the teacher’s role in multilingual interaction differed based on the qualifications of the teacher. The teachers experienced the pilot program overall as a positive, useful, and necessary matter. The need for this kind of language awareness simultaneous teaching in which mother tongue teachers work together with other teachers were reflected within the teachers’ experiences. There were many advantages which display that there might be a lack or shortage in linguistic support and in multilingualism becoming a norm in the Finnish comprehensive school.
  • Pitkäranta, Jenni (2016)
    In order to manage in Finnish environment of daycare and school, it is crucial that a child from a different linguistic and cultural background masters Finnish in addition to his/her own mother tongue. Finnish is a way to make friends and to participate to his/her community. There are many methods to support language development of a children from a different linguistic backgrounds in early childhood education. This study focuses on one method: literature education. Main purpose of this study is to discover kindergarten teacher's and Finnish as a secondary language kindergarten teacher's experiences and views related to literature usage in Finnish development with children from a different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This research discovers what sort of literature teachers use with children from a different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Teachers were asked what objectives they set for literature usage. In addition, research explores how literature usage has been supporting children from a different linguistic and cultural backgrounds to learn Finnish and how teachers evaluate learning process of the secondary language. Qualitative research was conducted by using content analysis and theme interviews as a research method. Four kindergarten teachers and four Finnish as a secondary language kindergarten teachers of Helsinki attended to interviews. Interviewees' answers revealed that literature is very usable tool for language development. Interviewees use literature daily in daycare in different situations and compositions. In particular reading with smaller groups are recommended because it supports small language learner better. Interviewees try to utilize literature versatile and to expand the story by drama or drawing. Discussion of story are highlighted so that a child from different linguistic and cultural background understands the story and learns essential concepts. Interviewees told that they choose literature for Finnish learning that are from the topic that children are interested about, language is versatile and literature includes pictures. Only auditative acceptance demanded a lot from a child from a different linguistic and cultural background. Interviewees aim for literature usage was richening child's vocabulary, improving listening skills and sentence structure. Interviewees used "Kettu-test" and language follow-up form for evaluating children language development. Also using observation and evaluation results as a base for child's language learning plan was mentioned.
  • Vataja, Anita Kristiina (2016)
    The objectives: The number of children under three years of age with an immigrant back-ground has increased in early childhood education. Most children are in all-day childcare, which may cause that the Finnish language overtakes the native language of the child. For the child, his / her native language is also the language for feeling and thinking. Maintaining the native language is a precondition for the parent-child interaction. According to studies on the subject, strong skills in the native language also facilitate the learning of another language. The purpose of this study is to chart out how parents maintain and enrich the native language of their child in the new home country, how they value their own native language and what kind of guidance they have received in supporting bilingualism. My questions for this research are: How do parents maintain and enrich the native language of their child in their new home country? How important do the parents experience maintaining the native language of their child to be? What kind of guidance / information have the parents received in supporting the native language from the early childhood education personnel, from the school, and / or the child welfare clinic? Eight parents with an immigrant background, part of whom have lived in Finland already for a long period of time, were chosen to participate in this research. Methods: The research was carried out as a qualitative research. The method of the research was thematic interview. The data was analyzed by means of content analysis. Results and conclusions: As a rule, the parents spoke to their children their own native language, and preserving the native language was considered important. A general rule in the families was that at home only the native language was to be spoken. However, the parents experienced maintaining the native language as a challenge in the new home country. The parents had received very little support from the professional personnel to the means of maintaining the native language.
  • Karsandi, Esra (2023)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa käsitellään lapsen kielen kehitystä ja sen tukemista varhaiskasvatuksessa. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää millaisia kokemuksia varhaiskasvatuksenopettajilla, kas- vattajilla ja hoitajilla on lasten kielen kehityksen tukemisesta päiväkotiryhmässä, jossa on myös suomea vieraana kielenä puhuvia monikielisiä lapsia. Lisäksi tarkoituksena oli selvittää var- haiskasvatuksen ammattilaisten kokemuksia siitä, millaisia työkaluja Varhaiskasvatussuunni- telma antaa kasvattajille lasten kielen kehityksen tukemiseksi. Tutkimus toteutettiin laadullisena tutkimuksena, haastattelemalla neljää varhaiskasvatuksen ammattilaista, puolistrukturoitua teemahaastattelurunkoa käyttäen. Haastattelut olivat yksilö- haastatteluja ja toteutuivat haastateltavien työaikojen ulkopuolella. Haastatteluaineisto litteroi- tiin ja aineiston analysoinnissa käytettiin sisällönanalyysia. Aineistosta nousi esiin tärkeäksi kielen kehityksen tukemisessa erityisesti positiivinen vuoro- vaikutus lasten kanssa, yhteistyö huoltajien kanssa sekä kannustus ja rakentava palaute. Lisäksi kasvattajat pitivät oman äidinkielen kehityksen tukemista tärkeänä yleisesti lapsen kielen kehi- tyksessä ja uusien kielten oppimisessa.
  • Kangasaho, Elisa (2014)
    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on kuvata suomi-venäjä –kaksikielisten ajatuksia kieli-identiteetistä. Tutkimuksessa on perehdytty kaksikielisyyden kehittymiseen, kaksikielisyyden etuihin ja haittoihin, venäjänkielisten kohtaamiin asenteisiin Suomessa sekä identiteetin rakentumiseen erityisesti kieltenoppimisen suhteen. Aikaisempia tutkimuksia kaksikielisten aikuisten suhteen on hyvin vähän. Tässä työssä perehdytään niihin tekijöihin, jotka vaikuttavat kieli-identiteetin kehittymiseen. Tutkimuskysymyksiä oli kaksi: minkälaisiksi kaksikieliset kokevat oman kieli-identiteetin ja miten tilannesidonnaisuus vaikuttaa kielen valintaan. Menetelmät. Tutkimusta varten on haastateltu yhtätoista kaksikielistä aikuista: neljää miestä ja seitsemää naista. Haastattelut toteutettiin teemahaastatteluna. Aineisto on analysoitu sisällön analyysillä ja se on teoriasidonnainen eli analyysiyksiköt on poimittu aineistoista, mutta niitä on ohjaa teoria. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Monelle vastaajalle kaksikielisyys oli enemmänkin identiteettikysymys kuin kielikysymys. Vastaajista vain neljä koki identifioituvansa yhteen kansallisuuteen. Kuusi vastaajaa koki kuuluvansa molempiin kansallisuuksiin: toimintapuolelta suomalaiseksi ja tunne- sekä ajattelupuolelta venäläiseksi. Ajattelun kieli määräytyi enemmin tilanteiden (puhutun kielen ja aiheen) mukaan, kuin kansallisen identiteetin kautta. Asenteet vaikuttivat kaksikielisyyteen kahdella tavalla: Suomessa monet vastaajista olivat joutuneet salailemaan kaksikielisyyttään negatiivisen asennoitumisen kautta. Venäjänkielisessä maassa kielitaito on yksi olennaisimpia identiteetin määrittäviä tekijöitä. Monet vastaajista kokivat, etteivät saa olla venäläisiä heikon kielitaidon takia, vaikka identiteetiltään kokivatkin näin. Tilannesidonnaisuus oli suurin tekijä kielen valintaan. Kaksikieliset usein ulkoistivat kielenvalinnan keskustelukumppanilleen. Näin ollen he pääsivät puhumaan suomea, joka valtaosalle oli helpompi tai venäjää ja näin myös ylläpitämään ja kehittämään sitä.
  • Koivusalo, Nelli (2022)
    Multilingualism is a phenomenon which is increasingly visible in society. The number of persons who speak so called foreign languages in Finland has been clearly increasing every year and this can also be seen in the school institution. The demand and need for teaching students’ own languages has increased. The Finnish national curriculum (2014) for comprehensive schools emphasizes multilingualism, language awareness and importance of students’ mother tongue. The aim of this research is to clarify what is the situation of teaching mother tongue in the early 2020s. I examine teaching from the mother tongue teachers’ point of view. I am interested in how teachers teach the language and what things are important to the teachers in the teaching. This research is qualitative content analysis. The research material consisted of nine interviews from mother tongue language teachers. The interviews were semi-structural thematic interviews. The interviewees were four Russian teachers, a Japanese teacher, a Thai teacher, a Bulgarian teacher, a Dari teacher, and a Finnish teacher. The research material has been collected both from Finland and abroad. The material analysis method was content analysis. The interviews were transcribed and after that transcribed material was coded. As a result, I found four themes that teachers saw important in teaching mother tongue languages and five themes which seem to be otherwise important to the teachers in their job. The results of this research indicate that mother tongue language classes are usually based on the national curriculum, but it is sometimes hard to adapt same curriculum to all languages. Teaching is strongly influenced by learning material and there are huge differences in the availability between languages. According to this study teachers emphasize literacy skills, writing and master the letters of the language in their teaching. In the classes students are studying mostly independently because studying groups are strongly heterogeneous. Functional teaching methods have important place in classes because they are applicable for all the students regardless their age or language proficiency. Most of the teachers experience that it is challenging to evaluate the learning outcome in mother tongue language. In addition, the results of this research indicate that mother tongue teachers experience that important things in teaching are meaning of culture and identity, benefits of be able to use mother tongue, family’s support in studying mother tongue and valuation to their job. All in all, mother tongue language classes need assistance and resources in the early 2020s.
  • Leppäkoski, Leena (2016)
    In The United States there has been developed a system to divide immigrant generations into different categories to clarify the statistics and to provide information about integration and language skills. Generations are divided into seven different categories. The second generation is divided into generations 2,0 and 2,5. The 2,5 generation, children of international partnerships are in my special interest and my research subject. In studies it have been found that the 2,5 generation's position is weaker in their own mother tongue teaching than the 2,0 generation's position. Finnish as a second language seem to be not so important for generation 2,5. Parents' language choices and the child's mother tongue registration was instead in a crucial role in supporting multilingualism and multicultural identity both at home and at school. The aim of my Master's Thesis was to study the language choices of families and the reasons for these choices, different mother tongue education participation and the role of the school and the kindergarten in supporting the multilingual and multicultural identity. I carried out the Master's Thesis as a qualitative case study. I interviewed five international family's mothers by the theme interview method. The purpose was to obtain information on children's lingual pathways from early childhood to the present day and how the parents' language choices impact to these pathways as well as how the school and day care center offer support in this process. I analyzed the data by narrative analysis method. The family language choices were affected by the family's own decisions, activity of the relatives and environmental attitudes. In this casestudy especially mothers were active in supporting multilingualism. Finnish skills were quite good, so there was no need to the Finnish as a second language teaching. There was only one family, whose children had participated from the beginning to the teaching of the mother tongue and they were also the only one whose mother tongues were equally strong and who felt that the school and the kindergarten have been actively supporting multilingualism. 2,5-generation children's language resources are valuable capital for both the individual and society in general. Parents also need more support and encouragement in order to use the valuable language resources. The simplest would be the registration of all native languages instead of one and if the teaching of the mother tongue would be compulsory.
  • Niemi, Miia (2015)
    Background and aim. Bilingualism is a worldwide and old phenomenon. It is also a current topic in speech therapy. Bilingualism can be defined in many ways, for example by the age when a person has been exposed to his/her languages. Bilingual children are common clients in Finnish speech therapy field due to increased immigration. When evaluating the linguistic skills of a bilingual child the speech therapist might need to co-operate with an interpreter. In this research the aim was to identify how the SLT's feel the co-operance with the interpreters in evaluation situations. There is only few former studies about this subject, especially in Finland. Some studies have been made to examine the co-operation of the interpreter and another healthcare provider. In this study we also asked if there are some typical challenges in the co-operation and could something be done to develop this liaison. Methods. In this study 12 SLT's were interviewed. They worked in the capital area of Finland. I contacted the leading SLT's to recruit the examinees. The SLT's had been working 2-34 years and they all had evaluated bilingual children in co-operation with an interpreter. The semistructured interview material was gathered and transcribed in the autumn 2014. After transcribing the material was separated into four main themes for reporting the results. Results and discussion. Co-operation between SLT and interpreter shows out to be working mainly fine. Typical challenge mentioned is for example achieving a natural interaction. There are still some lacks in the language skills of the interpreters and the SLT's hope to develop the co-operation with a better guidance (also in the training program of logopedics) and diverse co-operation opportunities. The SLT's seem to appreciate interpreters' social skills, language proficiency, natural interaction with children and flexibility in diverse therapy situations.