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Browsing by Subject "päätöksenteko"

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  • Orenius, Olli (2015)
    People tend to first look evenly at both objects when they are making a decision between them. Gaze starts to get directed more to the object which is eventually chosen before selecting it consciously. One explanation for the phenomenon is the gaze cascade model, which states, that directing of gaze is related to making decisions based on preference. It also states that the gaze bias is influenced by cognitive models people have about the perceived stimulus. Gaze bias should be greater the less one has previous experience, i.e. cognitive models about the objects. This study evaluates these two assumptions by the gaze cascade model. 64 subjects participated in the experiment from which 54 subjects' data was used in the final analysis (average age 27.7, range 18–47 years). Stimuli consisted from images of cheese packages which are sold in Finland, images of cheese packages sold abroad and abstract images. The assumption was that the subjects would have most cognitive models about the packages sold in Finland, the second most about the packages sold abroad and least about the abstract images. Subjects made choices about the stimuli by preference, size and ecology. Direction of gaze during decision making was recorded with gaze tracking goggles. Likelihood that the subjects were looking at the stimulus which they chose was estimated for 53 sampling points, 1.77 seconds before the conscious decision. Likelihood scores were fitted to sigmoid functions by least square method. The amount of gaze bias during different decision making instructions and stimuli was compared with a two sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Gaze bias was greater the less subjects had previous experience about the stimuli. Large gaze bias was perceived also in other tasks than preference selection. For this reason gaze cascade model does not seem to provide a good explanation for gaze bias during decision making. There was also found an interaction between the used decision criteria and stimulus type. Earlier studies have usually focused on examining either the effect of the decision criteria or the used stimulus type to the gaze bias. This study shows that the interaction between decision criteria and stimulus type should be taken into consideration when examining the gaze bias during decision making. One possible explanation for the interaction might be the difficultness of the choice. Gaze bias during decision making might be especially related to situations where the difference between two stimuli evaluated by given criteria is very small.
  • Wilenius, Iiris (2022)
    The aim of my thesis was to find out how the tray of the optional subjects was shaped in the upper secondary school and what things influenced to the process of making the tray of the optional subjects. The second aim of this thesis was to find out which reasons pupils had for choosing or not choosing home economics as an optional subject. Home economics is a subject that typically ends as a common subject in the spring of year 7. At the end of this the development of household skills at school is left to the optional home economics’ hands. The aim of this work is to help home economics teachers to find ways to motivate students to con-tinue studying home economics more often. My research questions in this thesis were: 1. How are the tray of optional subjects formed in the upper secondary school? 2. How do pupils justify their choices to choose or not to choose home economics as an optional subject in secondary school? For the first research question, I interviewed the headmaster of a school in southern Finland, who brought an education provider’s perspective to the topic. On the basis of head-master’s answers, I outlined the process of creating the tray of the optional subjects. To answer the second research question, I interviewed ten pupils from the same school. They had made elective choices in secondary school. I analysed the interview data using content analysis by making reduced expressions from the quotations and gathering different categories from them. Finally, I examined the differences between the responses of students who had chosen home economics and those who had chosen something else than home economics. The process of forming the tray of optional subjects was initiated by the need to make changes which were caused by the reform of the national curriculum. National curriculum, local policies, pupils’ interests and future competence needs guided the develop-ment process of optional subjects’ tray. Pupils’ choices of optional subjects were most influ-enced by their own interest in learning and their experience of subjects they liked. Differences between those who chose home economics and those who chose something else than home economics were found in how stressful or easy they found home economics lessons and how good they perceived their own home economics skills to be. Pupils wanted optional subjects to be relaxing and meaningful for themselves.