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Browsing by Subject "työkuormitus"

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  • Pekurinen, Jere (2015)
    The aim of this study was to test the associations between job satisfaction and job strain, defined according to Karasek's Job Demands-Control Model, as well as type D personality traits. Previous studies have mainly focused on job characteristics and other external circumstances when studying wellbeing at work. The relationship between occupational wellbeing and individual factors such as personality traits has received less attention. Based on previous studies five hypotheses were set: 1) type D personality is associated with lower job satisfaction, 2) type D personality is associated with higher job strain, 3) job strain is negatively associated with job satisfaction, 4) job control moderates the association between job demands and job satisfaction, and 5) the association between type D personality and job satisfaction is mediated by job strain. The data consisted of 1117 participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. All participants were full-time employed Finns aged 30 to 45. Type D personality was measured with a modified questionnaire based on DS14 (Denollet, 2005), job control was measured using items from the Job Content Questionnaire (Karasek, 1985) and job demands was measured using items from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo et al, 1990). Job satisfaction was measured with a single-item scale. The hypotheses were tested using linear regression analyses. The effects of gender and education level were controlled for. Employees with type D personality were found to experience lower job satisfaction and higher job strain when compared to non-type D counterparts. Of the two type D traits, only negative affectivity was a statistically significant predictor of job satisfaction. Job strain was associated with lower job satisfaction. The association between negative affectivity and job satisfaction was partly mediated by job strain. Based on these results it seems that type D personality, especially negative affectivity and job strain may be risk factors for lower occupational well-being.
  • Vihma, Kalle (2015)
    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of type D personality and its components with effort-reward imbalance based work stress and its components. Previously it has been found that both type D personality and effort-reward based work stress are associated with poorer health status and also to be a risk factor for numerous negative health outcomes. The association of Type D personality with effort-reward imbalance hasn't been previously studied. Based on the previous research, we set the following three hypotheses : 1) Higher effort-reward imbalance is associated with type D personality 2) Higher effort and lower rewards are associated with type D personality 3) Higher negative affectivity and higher social inhibition are associated with higher effort-reward imbalance. There were 1285 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, who were working full time when the study was conducted and didn't have missing values in the study variables. Work stress was measured with a questionnaire based on effort-reward imbalance model (ERI, Siegrist, 1996). Type D personality was measured with a questionnaire based on DS14-measure (Denollet, 2005). Age of the participants varied between 30-45 years. The hypotheses were tested with logistic and linear regression analyses controlling for age, gender, education and occupational status. In the study type D personality was associated with higher effort-reward imbalance, higher efforts lower rewards. Of the components of type D personality negative affectivity predicted higher work stress but social inhibition was not related to perceptions work stress. The results imply that type D personality is a risk factor for high work stress.
  • Kinos-Järvinen, Anne (2019)
    The research task of this Master's thesis is to describe, analyze and interpret how the principals of Finnish elementary schools and high schools experience their workload and their job satisfaction. These are examined by the workload and resource factors of principal’s job. In addition, the ways of how the workload appears and ways of recovery are discussed. The thesis is a qualitative pilot study for a broader welfare research conducted by the Finnish Principals Association, which will be implemented during 2019. Previous studies on the work of a Finnish principal have shown that his job description is extensive, that the workload is high and job satisfaction is put to the test every day. This research was guided by the following research questions: How do principals experience their workload and work satisfaction? What are the factors that the principals feel stressing them on their work and how does the workload show? What do the principals feel are resource factors in their work and how and by what means do they recover? The material consists of interviews with sixteen Finnish principals of elementary schools and high schools. The interviews were conducted as a semi-structured theme interview. The interview questions related to the principal’s own experience of their job satisfaction, workload, the ways in which the workload appears, their experience of the resources of their work, and how they feel they success to recover, and how do they recover. The material was analyzed phenomenographically because the subject of the research were the subjective perceptions and experiences of the principals. According to the material, the Finnish principals are very satisfied with their work, despite its relatively high workload. The experience of satisfaction arises especially through the independence, significance and influence of the work. The principal's experience and attitude also seemed to be relevant to how the workload was experienced. Generally, the workload was described high and the load was described to appear as typical stress-induced warning signs, but the principals, however, judged the workload as being reasonable. The workload was considered to be a natural part of the principal's work and the respondents tended to have a constructive attitude towards it. The principals also reported that their own recovery was generally successful, which according to respondents was of great importance to coping with work.
  • Hurmeranta, Emmi (2020)
    The aim of this article-type master's thesis was to examine the stress, coping, and metacognitive perspectives of special education teachers working in primary school during the remote teaching and learning period caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to examine what kind of stress and coping experiences the teachers had during the remote learning period, as well as what kind of mindset the teachers had when facing the workload. In addition, the dissertation examined the connection between teachers' ways of thinking and experiencing the intensity of workload. Experiences were examined using the Coping-Competence-Context (3C)-model. The data of the study was collected by thematic interviews with special education teachers (n = 11) working in different parts of Finland. Teachers were working in primary schools during the remote teaching and learning period. In these interviews conducted remotely, respondents were asked to describe their experiences of workload, recovery from work, and mindset and attitudes towards work. The data were analyzed using theoretical content analysis. Qualitative analysis program ATLAS.ti version 8 was used to organize the data. The workload experienced by special education teachers was mainly emotional, and often related to daily work changes. The coping strategies were used in a variety of ways, and their use was increased and new means were introduced during the remote learning period. The part of the 3C model focusing on recovery received support from teachers’ experiences, suggesting that teacher workload and recovery are directly related. The link between metacognitive perspectives and intensity of the workload was only partially supported: two teachers who had a stress-is-debilitating mindset experienced a higher-than-average workload. Instead, nine teachers who had a stress-is-enhancing mindset experienced both light and intense workload. The article ”Laaja-alaisten erityisopettajien työn kuormitus ja palautuminen sekä ajattelutavat COVID-19-pandemian aiheuttaman etäopetusjakson aikana: kokemusten tarkastelua Coping-Competence-Context-mallin avulla” is to be published in the NMI Bulletin.
  • Pensola, Tiina (2016)
    Objectives. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the contribution of the character traits to the association of work stress and over-commitment with common mental health problems. Primary school teachers are a large, homogenous occupational group that has been related to higher work stress levels and common mental health problems, although to a lesser amount of actual mental disorders. The aim of the study is to examine the extent to which the association between work stress, over-commitment and their interaction with common mental health problems can be attributed to the character traits among primary school teachers. Methods. The data consists of 76 (87% females) primary school teachers from 34 schools randomly selected to a study taking part in the capital area of Finland in 2013-14. There were 1-6 teachers who responded from each school (participation rate 4-33%). Common mental health problems were measured by GHQ-12 (psychological distress) and cognitive anxiety from a state anxiety scale of EMAS (highest tertile vs. two lowest). Work stress and over-commitment (the upper tertile vs. the rest) were measured according to original Siegrist's Effort-Reward-Imbalance Questionnaire. Character traits Self-directness, Cooperativeness, and Self-Transcendence were measured by Cloninger's TCI-questionnaire and each character was dichotomized at median to indicate a higher and lower category of the trait. The control variables were age, working hours and job contract type. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression (prevalence ratios, PR, and 90% confidence intervals) and relative rates. Results. Of teachers 30% had common mental health problems. The teachers with high over-commitment in comparison with those with low over-commitment had more often psychological distress (PR=2.5, p=0.018) and cognitive anxiety (PR=2.8, p=0.004). Although work stress was not independently associated with common mental health problems, it was related to the increased psychological distress among those with high over-commitment. Controlling for self-directedness attenuated the association of over-commitment with psychological distress and cognitive anxiety by 29% and 47%, respectively. After all adjustments, an independent association of Self-Directness with cognitive anxiety remained (PR=0.3, p=0.024). The other two character traits didn't have an independent impact on common mental health problems among the primary school teachers, but with the concurrent low self-directedness, low cooperativeness and low Self-Transcendence were related to over-commitment and increased level of cognitive anxiety. Both low cooperativeness and low self-transcendence were related to psychological symptoms. Conclusions: The primary school teachers had higher prevalence of common mental health problems, if they had low self-directedness and were over-committed to their work. Enhancing self-directedness may help in decreasing common mental health problems among overcommitted teachers. In the future the associations of the trait profiles with over-commitment and mental health symptoms should be studied with the larger longitudinal data.
  • Rintala, Eero (2022)
    Work related exhaustion is widely known phenomenon in the field of teaching. It is stated to be negatively correlated with teachers work results, the well-being of the work community and the quality of ones personal well-being and private life. Previous study indicates sicnifigant amount of teachers to be exhausted due to the factors in work. This exhaustion leads to absence and even to change of career. The goal of this research is to study the amount and quality of experienced exhaustion in terms of teachers’ age and work experience. The data was gathered from 163 teachers from six different schools from the Helsinki metropolitan area between March 2019 and February 2020. The group of respondents consisted of subject-, primary- and class teachers working primary schools. The data was collected with a survey which included an open ended question: ”What are the factors in your work that make you exhausted?” In addition teachers’ age and the amount of years in duty were sorted out. The quality and quantity of workload were measured with data-driven content analysis, theme design and scoring. For the analysis respondents were divided into three different groups based on their age and to five different groups based on their work experience. The quality and the quantity of work related stress in terms of teachers’ age and work experience were analysed reviewing correlations, running regression- and variance analysis and finally with crosstabulation. Age and work experience were noted to measure the same thing and therefore the analysis concentrated on age as a factor. The results show that age and the amount of experienced exhaustion are correlating negatively. In other words generally younger teachers were more exhausted whereas older teachers were not as exhausted. In addition the differences between age groups were significant in terms of the amount of exhaustion From the exhaustion themes ”students”, work-enviroment”, ”uncontrollability” and co-operation with parents” correlated negatively with teachers’ age. The age groups differed in terms of the quality of the workload, with younger teachers perceiving students, the amount of workload, resources, uncontrollability, the work environment and co-operation with parents as the most burdensome issues in their work. Middle-aged teachers found the lack of time and co-operation with professionals the most stressful factors in their work. The oldest teachers found additional non-core tasks/issues and poor management to be the most burdensome factors in their work. The results were largely in line with the previous study. Lack of time was the biggest exhaustion theme experienced regardless of the group. It is possible that the research results were partly explained by the demands placed on teachers by the change in society, the disregard for the needs of the individual in education policy, the harmful structures of the school for an individual and the individual's lack of influential opportunities. In further research, it would be important to consider the cause-and-effect relation-ships of different work load themes more profoundly and to include a broader and thus more generalized sample of respondents in the research. The research can be utilized in the development of teachers' well-being at work and as a tool in further research.
  • Sandell, Lia (2015)
    Previous results concerning the association between high blood pressure and work-related stress have been inconsistent, although both high blood pressure and work-related stress independently have adverse effects on health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the personality trait conscientiousness reduces the adverse effects of work-related stress on blood pressure. Work-related stress was measured by Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance model (ERI-model). The hypotheses were: 1) High effort-reward imbalance is associated with high systolic and high diastolic blood pressure and 2) Conscientiousness reduces the adverse effects of effort-reward imbalance on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The study sample was from The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study and the data for the present study was collected in 2011 and 2012. The subjects (n = 998) were both women (n = 568) and men (n = 430) who worked full-time and did not take medication to reduce blood pressure. The mean age of the subjects was 43 years. Hierarchical linear regression was used for the statistical analyses. Effort-reward imbalance was not directly associated with blood pressure. However, conscientiousness did moderate the association between effort-reward imbalance and systolic blood pressure. Individuals high in conscientiousness had lower systolic blood pressure than individuals low in conscientiousness when effort-reward imbalance was high. Conscientiousness also moderated the association between effort and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, although the effect on the diastolic blood pressure was only moderately significant (p = .051). Conscientiousness did not moderate the association between reward and blood pressure, but higher reward was independently associated with lower diastolic blood pressure. Conscientiousness seems to reduce the adverse effect of both effort-reward imbalance and effort on systolic blood pressure. The results from the present study suggest that personality traits can affect the associations between work-related stress and blood pressure.