Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Author "Brune, Tuomas"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Brune, Tuomas (2023)
    The opioid antagonist naloxone is a lifesaving medication used to treat opioid overdose. Non-invasive methods of administration for community use need to be developed further to fight the opioid crisis. An animal trial conducted in 2022 shows promising pharmacokinetic properties for ophthalmically administered naloxone. This review updates existing data on known non-invasive administration routes with a special focus on the novel idea of using the ophthalmic administration route. The literature search was limited to the Medline database and included human trials with pharmacokinetic data for select non-invasive administration routes of naloxone (ophthalmic, intranasal, buccal, and sublingual). Where pharmacokinetic data were unavailable, all human trials were included for that administration route. The intranasal administration route is by far the most studied of these. Pharmacokinetic trials show consistently good bioavailability and absorption with high-concentration intranasal formulations. For the ophthalmic route, only trials intending to achieve local effects were found although some unintentional systemic effects were observed. Data on the sublingual route are minimal, and no data for the buccal route were found. The ophthalmic administration route for naloxone has been dismissed in past research, shows pharmacokinetic viability and several other potential benefits, and should therefore be further investigated in humans. The FDA-approved intranasal products are the gold standard, and future research should be benchmarked against them.