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Faculty of Medicine

 

Recent Submissions

  • Siltanen, Ilona (2021)
    Objectives. Semantic verbal fluency task is a naming task in which a participant produces words from a certain semantic category during limited time frame. Currently there is only a little research where the verbal fluency performance of young children, especially with hearing impairment has been studied, and findings have not been consistent. The question whether singing is associated with verbal fluency performance has not been studied much. The aim of this thesis was to compare verbal fluency performance of children with hearing impairment and normal hearing children. In addition, the aim was to investigate the association of singing with the semantic verbal fluency performance. Methods. This study sample contained 14 children with hearing impairment and 12 children with normal hearing. Participants performed two semantic verbal fluency tasks where they produced words from categories of animals and clothes for 60 seconds. The number of produced words and accepted words and semantic strategies (number of clusters, switches, semantic subcategories, the use of semantic strategy and the number of words in clusters) were examined. Amount of singing was investigated by means of questionnaire. Statistical methods were used to investigate differences between study groups and to investigate connection of singing and verbal fluency performance. Results and conclusions. The differences between the groups of children with hearing impairment and normal hearing children were not significant. Singing was associated with verbal fluency performance only in the group of children with hearing impairment and only in the animal task. Hearing impaired children who sang daily produced more words and used more word finding strategies than hearing impaired children who sang more seldom. The findings of previous studies are partly parallel to the findings of this thesis. However more research is needed for getting more consistent findings and more comprehensive research literature of the subject.
  • Aakko, Iida (2021)
    Tavoitteet. Kasvavan tutkimusnäytön perusteella ultraäänilaitteen visuaalista palautetta voidaan hyödyntää äännevirhekuntoutuksessa. Ultraäänikuva voi auttaa asiakkaita havaitsemaan kielen sijainnin ja liikkeet äänteen tuoton aikana edistäen äänteen motorisen tuottotavan oppimista. Aiempien utkimuksien mukaan visuaalisesta palautteesta voivat hyötyä erityisesti ne asiakkaat, jotka ovat saaneet aiempaa äännevirhekuntoutusta mutta eivät ole oppineet tavoiteäännettä. Tutkimusta on toistaiseksi tehty vähän muilla kuin englannin kielellä. Tässä tutkimuksessa kehitetään perkeptuaalisen arvioinnin verkkosovellus, jolla voidaan arvioida ultraäänikuntoutuksen vaikutusta [r]-äänteen tuottotapaan. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan perkeptuaalisen arvioinnin yhdenmukaisuutta, sen soveltuvuutta äännevirheiden arviointimenetelmäksi sekä arvioijan kokemuksen vaikutusta arviointituloksiin. Tutkimuksessa arvioidaan myös alustavasti ultraäänilaitteen soveltuvuutta [r]-äännevirhekuntoutukseen. Menetelmät. Tutkimus on monitapaustutkimus, johon osallistui neljä 10–11-vuotiasta poikaa. Kaikilla osallistujilla oli primaari [r]-äännevirhe. Tutkimusaineisto lasten [r]-äänteistä ja niiden varianteista kerättiin interventiossa kolmena ajankohtana: intervention alussa, puolessa välissä ja lopussa. 11 arvioijaa (6 puheterapeuttia ja 5 logopedian opiskelijaa) ja arvioi kuulonvaraisesti 181 sanoista eristettyä äännenäytettä verkkosovelluksella. 12 näytettä arvioitiin kategorisesti ja 169 jatkuvan muuttujan asteikolla. Perkeptuaalisen arvioinnin aineisto analysoitiin tilastollisin menetelmin, ja lasten äänteiden arviointituloksia tarkasteltiin ryhmä- ja yksilötasolla. Tulokset. Arvioijien yhdenmukaisuus (ICC2) oli intervention alun arviointituloksissa 0,83 (p<0,001), intervention puolivälissä 0,89 (p<0,001) ja intervention lopussa 0.92 (p<0,001). [r]-äänteen tuottotavassa oli tilastollisesti merkitsevä ero intervention alun ja lopun mittausten välillä ryhmä ja yksilötasolla (Wilcoxonin järjestettyjen sijalukujen testi, p<0,001). Äänteen tuottotavoissa oli tilastollisesti merkitsevä ero myös intervention alun ja puolivälin sekä puolivälin ja lopun mittausten välillä ryhmä- ja yksilötasolla (p<0,001), paitsi puolivälin ja lopun mittauksien välillä lapsilla 1 (p ≈ 0,78) ja 3 (p ≈ 0,62). Puheterapeuttien ja logopedian opiskelijoiden arviointituloksien välillä oli tilastollisesti merkitsevä ero intervention alun arviointituloksissa (Mann-Whitneyn U-testi, p ≈ 0,0036), mutta eroa ei ollut intervention puolivälin (p ≈ 0,067) eikä lopun arviointituloksissa (p ≈ 0,80). Johtopäätökset. Perkeptuaalisen arvioinnin verkkosovellus vas-janaa käyttämällä osoittautui luotettavaksi menetelmäksi suomen kielen [r]-äännevirhekuntoutuksen vaikutuksen arvioimisessa, sillä arvioijien antamien arviointituloksien yhdenmukaisuus oli hyvää tai erinomaista tasoa. Arviointitulokset vas-janalla kuvastivat [r]-äänteen ja sen varianttien tuottotapaa. Alustavien tuloksien perusteella kaikki neljä lasta vaikuttivat hyötyneen [r]-äännevirheen ultraääni-interventiosta. Perkeptuaalisen arvioinnin tuloksia tulisi verrata jatkossa akustisiin analyyseihin tai ultraäänikuvien kvantitatiivisiin analyyseihin suuremmalla otoskoolla intervention laajemman vaikuttavuuden selvittämiseksi. Perkeptuaalisen arvioinnin verkkosovellus on sellaisenaan valmis jatkotutkimuksessa käytettäväksi.
  • Jokela, Katri (2021)
    Aim. Compared to spoken conversations, achieving mutual understanding may be more at risk when one or more participants use aided communication. An aided communicator may take a passive role in conversations and may not have adequate strategies to repair conversational breakdowns when they occur. The aim of this study was to describe how an aided communicator may attempt to solve the problems he encounters in conversations with his speaking communication partners. Aided communicator’s repair strategies, causes of breakdowns and partners’ influence on repair phenomena were studied. This study may help professionals to acknowledge the threats that compromise achieving mutual understanding in aided conversations and recognize some of the strategies in overcoming potential communication disrupts. Method. Within the framework of data driven qualitative analysis this case study examined videotaped conversations, where an 11-year-old boy using communication book communicated with his mom, teacher and peer. The data was originally videotaped as a part of the international research project Becoming an Aided Communicator. Data driven analysis was considered as an appropriate method for studying a topic with limited previous research. Results and conclusion. Almost all of the aided communicator’s repairs were self-initiated self-repairs and the rest were other-initiated self-repairs. The former occurred mostly as responses to the partner’s misinterpretations and operational difficulties while the latter followed requests for clarifications. Aided communicator repaired by repeating or modifying his utterances or by adding new elements to the original utterance. For repairs he utilized nonverbal modalities: gaze, gestures and actions. In some exchanges, he changed modality. Reasons for the misinterpretations and requests for clarifications emerged from the linguistic limitations of the graphic communication system and partner’s difficulty in understanding the aided communicator’s nonverbal communicative acts. Operational challenges seemed to be related to partner’s experience with using communication aids that affected the fluency of communication. Partners’ varying familiarity with aided communication seemed to affect the need to repair and the effectivity of repair. In addition, the shared competence of the dyad influenced achieving mutual understanding. For the best results of support and guidance, speech and language therapists should emphasize finding out the communicator’s individual strategies in repair as well as effective practices to use a communication book. This could be implemented by video-based observations.
  • Morikawa, Merit (2021)
    Aims. Psychological determinants of work have become ever so relevant over the recent years. According to self-determination theory, the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs, i.e., the experiences of autonomy, relatedness, and competence, is paramount for occupational well-being and vigor. Regardless, psychological need satisfaction has but preliminary been studied from a person-centered perspective. This study aims to differentiate psychological need satisfaction subgroups from a working population, study potential membership predictors and examine the subgroup association with occupational well-being. Method. The participants of this study (n = 2 000) were from a sample of Finnish workers, collected as a part of a research project funded by the Finnish Work Environment Fund. Psychological need satisfaction scores were utilized in a bifactor form, formulated with confirmatory factor analysis. With them, psychological need satisfaction profiles were formed with latent profile analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was utilized for studying group membership predictors, including job crafting, workload, and demographic factors. Finally, the subgroups were compared with analyses of variance for work engagement and burnout as determinants of occupational well-being. Results and conclusions. Five distinct psychological need satisfaction profiles could be differentiated from the sample. As in previous studies, the most prevalent profile group was the Globally satisfied profile group, which had superior well-being in terms of work engagement and burnout. The profile group signified by least well-being was the Globally dissatisfied yet competent profile group. Demographic factors, job crafting, and workload all predicted membership to subgroups. The global level of need satisfaction was most clearly associated with occupational well-being measures. The results support the idea that practitioners should pay attention to the balanced satisfaction of the basic psychological needs in work organizations.
  • Linnankoski, Johanna (2021)
    The aim of the study. Maternal depression during pregnancy occurs in up to one in four women. It is a serious condition that can have long-term negative effects on the development of the foetus and the child through a harmful intrauterine environment. Maternal depression during pregnancy is for instance associated with internalizing mental health symptoms and temperament in children. However, there is little research evidence on the association of maternal depression during pregnancy with anxiety symptoms in school-aged children. Childhood anxiety symptoms can have serious and long-term consequences for an individual in terms of psychosocial, academic and professional functioning. This study examines whether maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy increases the risk of anxiety symptoms in school-age children. I also investigate whether infant negative emotionality mediates the association between maternal depression symptoms during pregnancy and anxiety symptoms in school-age children. Methods. The sample of this study, which consists of 1625 mother-child pairs, was part of a larger PREDO (The Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction) follow-up study. Data from 3-12 months infancy follow-up and follow-up at the age of 7 to 11 years were used in this study. Mothers rated depressive symptoms during pregnancy using a self-assessment questionnaire (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Mothers assessed their children's negative emotionality (Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire) in the infant follow-up and their children's anxiety symptoms (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, parent report version & The Short Form of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised) in the school-age follow-up. The associations between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and anxiety symptoms in school-age children were examined with linear regression analysis. Negative emotionality in infancy as a mediator of this relationship was examined with mediation analysis. Results and conclusions. According to this study, maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy increased the risk of anxiety symptoms in school-age children. The observed associations between maternal depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in children were independent of all the covariates selected for this study, such as maternal depression symptoms during follow-up at the age of 7 to 11. Preliminary research findings were also obtained on negative emotionality in infancy as partly mediating the association between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and anxiety symptoms in school-age children. This study helps to increase understanding of the early risk factors of anxiety symptoms in children and the importance of preventive measures during pregnancy. High negative emotionality in early childhood is also a justified target for interventions.