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  • Saari, Kiia (2022)
    The aim of the study was to find out how the thickening of fish oil affects the total digestibility of fat in dog food. The study used solid fat paste compared to liquid salmon oil. Both fat preparations were studied as a supplement to complete dog food. The research hypothesis is that the thickening treatment of oil for dogs does not affect its digestibility. The study was carried out in collaboration with the University of Helsinki and Olini Oy, and the test fats were produced in Olini Oy's own experimental kitchen. The experimental group of the study was 12 volunteer dogs, which were fed with pre-calculated and weighed experimental feed. The dogs lived with their owners at home and were fed experimental feed twice daily. The total duration of the experiment was three weeks. The acclimatization period of the experimental feed lasted for 7 days, after which the dogs were given a paste-like fat supplement. During the first 5-day collection period, faecal samples were collected in plastic bags from the experimental dogs. There was a two-day break between treatments when no faecal samples were collected. In the second collection period, the dogs were fed an oil supplement, and the feces were collected for 5 days. Every dog was performed with both treatments. Dry matter, ash, organic matter, crude protein, crude fat, gross energy and AIA tracer were analyzed from the feed and faecal samples used in the experiment. The apparent digestibility of the fat paste diet was numerically lower for all the nutrients than that of the oil diet. There was a statistically significant difference in the apparent digestibility of crude protein and crude fat. Although the difference was statistically significant, it was not very biologically significant in practice. In practice, the total digestibility of fat paste is almost as good in dog digestion as that of liquid oil. Artificial thickening alters the molecular structure of the oil, which can have effects on the absorption of fatty acids into the bloodstream. A product completely similar to that used in this study, has not previously been prepared for animal feed, so further research would be needed.
  • Hentilä, Annukka (2022)
    Background and objectives: It is important for human’s health and environment that red meat consumption decreases, and legume consumption increases in diet. To develop more tailored and effective interventions, it needs to be studied which food motives affect red meat and legume consumption across different population groups. Our aim was to study the associations between food motives and red meat and legume consumption and whether these associations differ between men and women and age groups. Material and methods: Ten food motives (health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price-cheap, price-value, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern as measured using the Food Choice Questionnaire) were studied among 3 079 adults who participated in the DILGOM 2014 study. Red meat and legume consumption was assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire. The associations between food motives and red meat and legume consumption were tested with linear regression analyses. The interactions between gender/age groups and food motives were studied by linear regression analyses and when the interaction was statistically significant the gender and age group stratified analyses were done. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The research protocol of the DILGOM 2014 were approved by the Ethics Committee of Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District. This study was part of the Leg4Life (Legumes for Sustainable Food System and Healthy Life) project. Results: The highest relative importance was for price-value, sensory appeal and health motives and the lowest for weight control, ethical concern and familiarity motives. Higher importance of health (std. β=-0.052), natural content (std. β=-0.071) and ethical concern (std. β=-0.088) were associated with lower red meat consumption. In contrast, rating mood (std. β=0.039), convenience (std. β=0.042,), sensory appeal (std. β=0.106), price-cheap (std. β=0.061) and price-value (std. β=0.035) motives as more important were associated with higher red meat consumption. The size of the association between food motives and red meat consumption was the most prominent, but small, for sensory appeal, natural content, price-cheap and ethical concern. Regarding legume consumption, higher importance of health (std. β=0.093), natural content (std. β=0.048), weight control (std. β=0.039) and ethical concern (std. β=0.054) were associated with higher legume consumption. On the contrary, higher appreciation of convenience (std. β=-0.112), price-value (std. β=-0.070) and familiarity (std. β=-0.084) were associated with lower legume consumption. The size of the association between food motives and legume consumption was the most prominent, but small, for health, convenience, price-value and familiarity. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that people with higher red meat consumption are more appreciative of convenience, taste and monetary aspects of food while people with higher legume consumption value more health and ethic related aspects of food. Based on our results the food motives that should be in the center when developing and implementing actions to decrease red meat consumption and increase legume consumption are convenience, sensory appeal, price-cheap and familiarity. Knowledge on the most valued food motives regarding red meat and legume consumption, may help alter individuals’ food consumption towards healthier and more sustainable direction.
  • Hyppönen, Niko (2022)
    Maatalouteen tehtävät investoinnit ovat yhteydessä sen rakennekehitykseen. Ne ovat välttämättömiä vapautuvan tuotantokapasiteetin hyödyntämiseksi. Investointituen piirissä olevien hankkeiden määrä ja arvo on hieman kasvanut. Maatilat investoivat muun muassa yksikkökustannusten pienentämiseksi, mutta muitakin syitä investoinneille on. Investoinnit sisältävät riskejä ja niihin kohdistuu etenkin rahoituksen kautta merkittäviä riskitekijöitä. Riskitekijät jakautuvat usealle vuodelle ja tuotantosyklille, jolloin investointien suunnitteluun on kiinnitettävä erityistä huomiota. Toisaalta investoinneilla voidaan hallita riskejä: pienentää, siirtää, poistaa tai välttää. Tässä tutkimuksessa etsittiin investointisuunnitelman käyttöön yhtäaikaisesti johtaneita riskejä ja muita tekijöitä. Tätä varten kokonaisvaltaisen riskienhallinnan ja maatalouden investointien kirjallisuudesta muodostettiin synteesi. Siinä investointisuunnitelma on lähtökohtaisesti maatilan kokonaisvaltaisen riskienhallinnan väline. Toisaalta kokonaisvaltaisen riskienhallinnan tekniikoita voidaan soveltaa investointisuunnitelmassa. Empiirisessä osassa tehty tilastollinen analyysi koostui neljästä vaiheesta, joissa hyödynnettiin ristiintaulukointia ja porrastettua logistista regressioanalyysia. Analyysissä käytetty aineisto oli kerätty keväällä 2021 Luonnonvarakeskuksen Fasari-hankkeessa. Regressioanalyysin avulla aineistosta investointisuunnitelman käyttöä ennustava malli. Mallin mukaan investointisuunnitelma on todennäköisesti tehtynä, jos kotieläimiin kohdistunut riski oli vähintään kohtalainen. Jos maatalousyrittäjä oli kokenut liiallista henkistä kuormitusta, se vähensi investointisuunnitelman käyttöä. Maatalousyrittäjän maatalousalan korkeakoulututkinto ja maatilan suurempi peltopinta-ala lisäsivät investointisuunnitelman käyttöä. Investointisuunnitelma oli käytössä, jos maatilalla oli sukupolvenvaihdos- tai luopumissuunnitelmat tehtynä. Työmäärän ja työvoimaresurssien välinen tasapaino oli investointisuunnitelman käyttöä lisäävä tekijä. Investointisuunnitelman käytöllä ei havaittu yhteyttä virheinvestointeihin. Työmäärän ja työvoimaresurssien tasapaino yhdessä maatalousyrittäjän hyvinvoinnin kanssa luovat edellytyksen investointien suunnittelulle. Maatalousalan korkeakoulututkinto tarjoaa osaamista investointisuunnitelmien tulkintaan ja tekemiseen, mikä on niiden käytölle olennaista. Yleisesti maatalousyrittäjältä vaaditaan laajasti johtamiskykyjä, jonka on aiemminkin havaittu olevan maatilan menestystekijä. Investointisuunnittelu on tämän yksi ilmentymä. Investointisuunnitelmat ovat tärkeitä maatilan elinkaaren kriittisissä vaiheissa, jotta maatila ei pääse taantumaan, vaan kehittää toimintaansa. Jotta maatalouden pienetkin investoinnit suunniteltaisiin osana maatilan strategista johtamista, nämä tunnistetut tekijät ovat tarpeen tiedostaa. Suunnittelussa kannattaa hyödyntää kokonaisvaltaisen riskienhallinnan tekniikoita. Näin on mahdollista, että tulevien maatalouden investointien riskit ovat paremmin hallinnassa. Se tukisi maatalouden rakennekehitystä ja parantaisi ruoantuotannon resilienssiä Suomessa.
  • Freudenthal, Ines (2022)
    The objective of the thesis is to review and characterize (i) typical agroforestry systems in the temperate zone, (ii) levels of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agroforestry and control plots, and (iii) identify the conditions under which agroforestry farming is most likely to enhance SOC. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of agroforestry farming systems on SOC stocks at soil depths of 0 – 20, 0 – 40 and 0 – 100 cm. Data was collected from 15 published studies and all sites are located in temperate climates. Studies had to report at least measurements on SOC concentration or stock for an agroforestry plot and a control plot (arable land, grassland, forest). Investigated treatment variables were soil depth, agroforestry system type, soil type, tree species and age. The results have shown significantly higher SOC stocks under agroforestry in comparison to controls in all three soil depth datasets. The largest amount of SOC in agroforestry was found in the first 20 cm of topsoil and at a soil depth of 60 – 100 cm. There were no significant differences found between alley cropping, silvopasture and shelterbelt systems. The most popular tree species in temperate agroforestry were Populus spp., M.domestica, Juglans regia and Picea. But no significant differences in C sequestration could be observed between tree species across all datasets. The assumption that systems with older trees have higher stocks of SOC could not be confirmed. Most common soil types of temperate agroforestry systems were Luvisol, Fluvisol and Chernozem. The meta-analysis did not verify results of other studies, which have shown that clay contents in the soil promote C sequestration. The wide variability and diversity of agroforestry systems has shown to be problematic in conducting a meta-analysis, indicated by a high heterogeneity. Furthermore, different types of study designs, lack of standardized sampling procedures and explanatory variables may have influenced the results. However, the study showed that agroforestry can be a promising carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation option, also for the temperate climate zone.
  • Tammivuori, Joonas (2022)
    Viherkäytävät mahdollistavat eläinten liikkumisen eri elinalueiden välillä ja luovat samalla monipuolisen elinympäristön laajalle lajikirjolle. Jatkuva kaupungistuminen ja maankäytön muutokset nakertavat nykyisiä pääkaupunkiseudun viherkäytäviä, lopulta katkaisten yhteyden elinalueiden välillä kokonaan. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää kahden erilaisen viherkäytävä -tyypin toimivuutta eri nisäkkäiden käytössä, sekä viherkäytävän ympäristön maankäytön vaikutusta nisäkkäiden esiintymiseen. Tutkimus toteutettiin riistakameraseurantana 20 kohteella pääkaupunkiseudulla. Tutkittavat kohteet jaoteltiin kahteen eri ryhmään; purokäytäviin ja kuivan maan viherkäytäviin. Jokaiselle kohteelle asennettiin kolme riistakameraa 1,5 km välein toisistaan siten, että koealan pituus oli kolme kilometriä. Hypoteesina oli, että purokäytävät ovat nisäkkäille parempia kulkuväyliä kuin viherkäytävät ilman minkäänlaista vesistöä. Riistakamerat asennettiin maastoon maalis-huhtikuussa 2018 ja niistä saatava kuvamateriaali käytiin taltioimassa noin kuukauden välein. Materiaalia kerättiin joulukuuhun 2018 asti. Kuvista otettiin tunnistetietoina koordinaatit, kellonaika ja päivämäärä, sekä lämpötila. Tiedot tallennettiin Exceliin ja saatua dataa käsiteltiin R-ohjelmistolla. Saatujen tulosten perusteella voidaan todeta, että lähellä luonnontilaa olevat puronvarsikäytävät toimivat erityisesti pienpetojen kulkureitteinä. Laajat metsäiset alueet ovat taas keskeisiä sorkkaeläinten kulku- ja elinalueita.
  • Pitkänen, Katriina (2022)
    Bacteria coordinate the virulence factor production and biofilm formation by activating the mechanism of intercellular communication called quorum sensing (QS). The biofilm matrix protects bacteria against variety of stress conditions, including e.g., effects of antibiotics and disinfectants. QS inhibitors (QSI) are molecules that can inhibit the QS mechanism. QQ is a QSI inhibitor that interrupts the cell-to-cell signaling already outside of the bacterial cell. Dairy propionic acid bacteria have known antimicrobial properties but their ability to produce anti-QS compounds have not yet been studied. Previous studies have shown positive results of the anti-QS activity exerted by lactobacilli, but more research is needed to uncover mechanistic details behind their QS-inhibitory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-QS and QQ activity of propionic bacteria and lactobacilli. The used method was an in-house optimized screening method based on using wild-type and mutant strains of Chromobacterium violaceum. This bioreporter produces a QS-mediated, measurable color pigment. Here, the limit of potential QSI and QQ inhibition was set to 50 % inhibition. Viability of bioreporter was analyzed by resazurin staining. Propionibacterium freudenreichii strains demonstrated both the QSI (64–71%) and QQ (52–60%) activities against the tested C. violaceum reporters. In the case of lactobacilli, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, Limosilactobacillus mucosae 2674, Lactobacillus acidophilus 80, Lactobacillus curvatus 453 and Lactobacillus kefiri 3070 inhibited the QS-activation of the wild-type bioreporter strain by 45 to 90 %. There was a great variability in the anti-QS screening assays involving the mutant strain, which may be explained by the possible sensitivity of the compounds to the analysis conditions used or more sensitive response of the mutant strain to the tested agents. In conclusion, the obtained results show that L. acidophilus 80 produced bactericidal compounds. L. reuteri 410 did not have any effect on the QS-indicator production in wild-type bioreporter but was able to inhibit QS-induction in the mutant reporter by 72% (QQ activity). This study showed that P. freudenreichii strains as well as certain lactobacilli have an ability to produce QSI and QQ activity against some gram-negative biofilm pathogens. Pathogens have different QS mechanisms and experiments with C. violaceum strains are only one way to screen for anti-QS compounds. Therefore, validation of the obtained findings requires complementary screening assays against other bacterial bioreporters, involving both gram-negative and gram-positive biofilm bacteria.
  • Bredehorst, Swantje (2022)
    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is among the most potent carcinogens and mutagens known and significantly contributes to liver cancer. Mycotoxin contaminated crops, such as maize, groundnuts, or cocoa beans, are often destroyed, leading to a waste of resources. Recently, biotransformation of AFB1 by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been receiving growing attention. Biotransformation refers to structural change induced by enzymes or bacteria and can yield modified compounds of lower toxicity or non-toxicity compared to their precursors. Despite this growing interest, previous studies have primarily focused on the AFB1-reduction potential of LAB and biotransformation products have not been studied extensively. Therefore, this work aimed to screen twelve LAB for AFB1 biotransformation properties and analyze its degradation products. LAB were incubated in growth media for 24, 48, or 72 hours and ultra-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UPLC-FL) was employed to measure AFB1-reduction and determine whether new fluorescent compounds appeared. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) was used to assess the structure of the degradation products. The highest biotransformation was achieved by Lactobacillus helveticus FAM22155 (28.9 % after 72 h) and Lactobacillus helveticus FAM19191 (19.7% after 72 h). Two new peaks at 2.0 and 3.3 min retention time were observed with UPLC-FL and considered as possible degradation products. As the amount of the latter compound was very low, it could not be further analyzed. The peak at 2.0 min had a mass-to-charge ratio of 207. Two possible structures for this compound were proposed, but due to low intensities, further studies to confirm the structure are needed. This study showed that Lactobacillus helveticus can reduce almost a third of the AFB1 concentration. However, this study highlighted the challenges of identifying degradation products, and it was concluded that the extraction prior to MS should be optimized to identify degradation products. Determining the structure of the degradation products is necessary in order to evaluate whether the biotransformation results in less toxic products. In addition to evaluating the biotransformation efficacy in complex food matrices, it should be studied to determine whether biotransformation represents a promising means of reducing AFB1.
  • Pulkkinen, Elli (2022)
    There is a growing demand for new, environmentally sustainable, clean label food additives driven by consumers’ desire for healthier and sensorially appealing food products. The aim of this thesis is to study a novel, “clean label” food additive called fibrillated microcrystalline cellulose (fMCC) in the formation of emulsions, elucidate its stabilization mechanism, as well as emulsion storage stability at room temperature over time. To this aim, oil-in-water emulsions with fMCC and vegetable oil were formed via mechanical treatment. It was found that the oil droplets anchor on the surface of the fibrils attached to the microcrystalline cellulose. After homogenization fMCC formed large, entangled aggregates that were located in the continuous phase of the emulsion. This increased the viscosity of the emulsion, which contributed to the stability of the system. During storage, further aggregation was observed. High oil content emulsions exhibit some coalescence, while oil droplets in low oil content emulsions remained unchanged. In this thesis, it was shown that fMCC can be used as a suitable and environmentally sustainable ingredient for emulsion formation and stabilization, with the added benefit of increasing the fiber content of many processed foods and thus increasing their nutritional value.
  • Muhonen, Matias Erkki Olavi (2022)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli rakentaa asiantuntijayritys Envitecpolis Oy:n asiakkaista benchmarking-taulukko. Muodostettua aineistoa analysoitiin erilaisin menetelmin. Tässä tutkimuksessa keskityttiin maidontuotantoon ja sen kannattavuuteen. Keskimäärin suomalaisen maatalouden kannattavuus on heikolla tasolla. Kannattavuuskerroin tarkastelee maatalousyrityksen palkka- ja oman pääoman korkotavoitteen täyttymistä samanaikaisesti painottaen yhtä paljon molempia. Luvun ollessa alle yhden, ei yrittäjän palkkavaatimus ja oman pääoman korkotavoite täyty. Suomalaisilla maatiloilla kannattavuuskerroin on jo pitkään ollut keskimäärin alle yhden. Tässä tutkimuksessa kannattavuutta tarkasteltiin nettotulokseen asti. Maitotilayritysten tunnuslukuja tarkasteltiin kolmessa eri ryhmässä: lypsytavan, liikevaihdon ja lehmien keskituotoksen mukaan. Lypsytavan mukaan tarkasteltuna automaattilypsyä käyttävät tilat osoittautuivat tehokkuudeltaan ja kannattavuudeltaan parhaiksi. Yleisesti suurempi yrityskoko tarkoitti parempaa kannattavuutta sekä tehokkuutta samoin korkeampi keskituotos. Huomioitavaa on, ettei automaattisesti tietty lypsytapa, keskimääräistä korkeampi liikevaihto tai lehmien keskituotos tarkoita parempaa kannattavuutta tai tuotannon tehokkuutta. Maitotilayritysten tuotantoa tutkittiin lisäksi Cobb-Douglas tuotantofunktion avulla sekä DEA-menetelmällä. Cobb-Douglas tuotantofunktiosta muodostettiin korjatun pienimmän neliösumman (COLS) menetelmällä maitotilayritysten tekninen tehokkuusluku. Tekninen tehokkuus määritettiin myös DEA:n muuttuvien skaalatuottojen (VRS) menetelmällä. DEA-mallin tuotosorientoitunut tekninen tehokkuus korreloi tilastollisesti merkitsevästi muun muassa nettotuloksen, maidon litrakohtaisen tuotantokustannuksen ja liikevaihdon kanssa. COLS-tehokkuusluku korreloi tilastollisesti merkitsevästi maidon litrakohtaisen tuotantokustannuksen, nettotuloksen sekä ostorehukustannuksen kanssa. COLS-mallissa yksi yritys on teknisesti tehokas muihin nähden, mutta DEA-mallissa tehokkaita yrityksiä voi olla useita. Toisaalta pienessä aineistossa DEA erottelee tehokkaimpia yrityksiä heikosti toisistaan. Aineiston maitotilayritykset olivat sekä taloudellisesti että peltopinta-alaltaan isompia ja nettotulosta verrattaessa kannattavampia kuin Luonnonvarakeskuksen aineiston yritykset. Tutkimuksen aineisto oli pieni (36 maitotilaa), joten luotettavuus jää alhaiseksi, jolloin tuloksista ei voi tehdä yleistyksiä Suomen tasolla. Benchmarking-taulukko helpottaa yritysten tuotannon sekä kannattavuuden analysointia. Tuotannon vertaaminen ja oppiminen esikuvayrityksiltä voi auttaa tuotannon kehittämisessä. Jatkossa tekninen tehokkuusluku voisi olla osa yritysten analysointia perinteisten osatuottavuusmittareiden yhteydessä.
  • Närhi, Lotta (2022)
    Boreal forests fulfil a myriad of ecological, social and economic functions in modern society, which is why it is crucial to manage them in the best way possible. The prevailing forest management strategy in Finland has been rotation forestry, but a Finnish citizens’ initiative and the new EU forest strategy for 2030 have for ecological reasons been calling for a reduction in clearcuts and a switch to continuous cover forestry. While a growing number of economic-ecological optimization studies illustrate the economic aspects of optimal management regime choice in Nordic conditions, the understanding remains incomplete. To contribute to this line of research, this thesis studies the economically optimal management regime and species composition of mixed-species boreal forests with a previously unexamined species combination: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). The analysis is based on a theoretically sound and generalized stand-level economic-ecological model that maximizes the net present value of forestry income. In this setup, the optimal management regime is determined endogenously and flexibly, by dynamically optimizing both the rotation period and the timing and intensity of thinnings in a tri-level structure. All model details are empirically estimated. Forest stand development is described by size-structured empirical growth models by Pukkala et al. (2011, 2013) and by Pukkala et al. (2021), of which the latter has not been used in this line of analysis before. The results of this thesis show, for the first time empirically, that it can be economically optimal to conduct near-clearcuts without investing in artificial regeneration afterwards. Near-clearcuts create favourable conditions for utilizing the unharvested young trees and natural regeneration of pioneer species in generating a new tree cohort. This management strategy is found to be suitable for birch-dominated pine–birch stands with a 1% interest rate, as well as pure birch stands. With a 3% interest rate, continuous cover forestry becomes optimal for mixed stands. A further outcome of this thesis is that continuous cover management of pure pine stands is found to be more viable than in previous optimization studies. Further, it is shown that it is economically beneficial to let birch regenerate in a pine stand and even dominate it, due to improvements in overall ingrowth. The characteristics of the optimal solutions are, however, dependent on the ecological growth model used. In light of the cases studied in this thesis, neither rotation forestry nor continuous cover forestry is categorically superior in terms of timber income. There are demonstrably many cases where taking advantage of the environmental benefits of continuous cover forestry and higher tree species diversity is optimal also with respect solely to maximizing timber revenues.
  • Aaltio, Anniina (2022)
    Rakennusteollisuuden suuret päästöt, alati nouseva ympäristötietoisuus ja tavoitteet kohti hiilineutraaliutta yhdessä väestönkasvun kanssa ajavat rakennusteollisuutta vääjäämättä keskelle muutosta. Puukerrostalojen on nähty toimivan yhtenä ratkaisuna tämän muutoksen edesauttamiseksi. Puukerrostalohankkeiden ekosysteemiin liittyvillä toimijoilla onkin täten mahdollisuus yhdessä toimien löytää uusia rakennusalan innovaatioita, joilla vastata koko alan kohtaamiin ulkopuolelta tuleviin muutostekijöihin, jotka osaltaan luovat painetta niin sisäisesti kuin ulkoisesti. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli saada parempi käsitys liiketoimintaekosysteemikonseptin soveltuvuudesta puukerrostalohankkeisiin ja miten hanketoiminta tukee ekosysteemin toimintaa. Ensimmäisellä tutkimuskysymyksellä pyrittiin saamaan vastauksia yhteistyöstä ja viestinnästä. Toinen tutkimuskysymys käsitteli puukerrostalohankkeissa mukana olleiden toimijoiden ympäristötietoisuutta. Tutkimus toteutettiin tekemällä 10 teemahaastattelua, jotka liittyivät kolmeen eri puukerrostalokohteeseen, jotka sijaitsivat Suomessa eri paikkakunnilla. Tutkimuksen tuloksena havaittiin, että näiden kolmen puukerrostalohankkeen liiketoimintaekosysteemit muodostavat useiden eri toimijoiden verkostoja, jotka toimivat ekosysteemin eri tasoilla yhteisenä päämääränään tuottaa laadukasta ja ympäristöystävällistä rakentamista, joka osaltaan lisää maamme hiilivarastojen määrää. Tätä edellyttää toimijoiden välinen yhteistyö, jossa viestintä koettiin pääsääntöisesti sujuvaksi. Toisaalta haasteita oli havaittavissa keskinäisessä kommunikoinnissa ja toimintatapojen yhteensovittamisessa, johtuen työskentelystä uuden asian äärellä. Aikataulutus, tutut toimijat sekä materiaalitoimittaja vaikuttivat positiivisesti hankkeen lopputulokseen. Hiilijalanjälki ja -kädenjälki laskelmiin toivottiin yhteneväisiä laskentatapoja, jotta vertailtavuus lisääntyisi. Hankkeissa tunnistettiin rakennusten potentiaali hiilivarastona ja puukerrostalohankkeiden ympäristömerkitys nähtiin suurena. Hankkeessa mukana olleet toimijat kokivat, että tarvittaisiin asennemuutosta niin kuluttajien kuin rakennusteollisuuden osalta, jotta puukerrostalohankkeiden määrää saataisiin nostettua. Nähtävissä oli haastateltujen taholta pohdintaa siitä, ovatko yritykset tarpeeksi laajasti omaksuneet ympäristöajattelun ja tullaanko asetettuihin vastuullisuustavoitteisiin pääsemään niin yrityksissä kuin laajemmalti rakennusteollisuuden puolelta. Tästä huolimatta puukerrostalorakentaminen nähtiin positiivisena asiana, jonka myötä on mahdollisuus ottaa askel kohti nykyrakentamista kestävämpää tilaa ja siten olla osana suurempaa, yhteistä muutosta, johon pääseminen edellyttää toimialat ylittävän yhteistyön laajentumista. Tämä kuitenkin vaatisi rakennuskäytäntöjen muuttamista ja rohkeutta tehdä asioita uudella tavalla sekä avoimempaa yhteistyötä eri toimijoiden keskuudessa.
  • Nurmi, Aleksi (2022)
    Tämä pro gradu -tutkielma on Metsähallituksen tilaama tutkimus, joka on jatkoa aiemmin Linda Uusihakalan julkaisemaan pro gradu -tutkielmaan. Tutkielma perustuu Nuuksion järviylängöltä vuosina 2020 (Uusihakala) ja 2021 (Nurmi) kerättyihin koepesä- ja hajupostiaineistoihin ja niiden analyysiin. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on tuottaa uutta tietoa metson (Tetrao urogallus) suojeluun Uudellamaalla sekä selvittää syitä Nuuksion metsokannan heikentymisen taustalla. Tutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää, 1) onko metsien pirstoutumisella ja maisematason muuttujilla vaikutusta metson pesinnän onnistumiseen, 2) mitkä lajit ovat yleisimpiä metson pesäpetoja Nuuksion järviylängöllä, 3) aiheuttaako supikoira (Nyctereutes procyonoides) häirintää metson soitimelle Nuuksiossa ja 4) esiintyykö supikoiria tilastollisesti vähemmän metson soidinalueilla verrattuna satunnaisesti määritettyihin linjoihin. Tutkimuksessa rakennettiin vuosittain 40 metson pesää imitoivaa koepesää ja 20 hajupostia, joita seurattiin riistakameroiden avulla seitsemän vuorokautta. Koepesiin sijoitettiin jokaiseen neljä fasaanin (Phasianus colchicus) munaa. Tämä aineisto yhdistettiin analyysia varten Uusihakalan aiemmin kerätyn ja eri sijoitteluperusteisen aineiston kanssa. Yhteensä koepesiä oli analyysia varten 80 kappaletta ja hajuposteja 40. Tilastollisessa mallintamisessa käytettiin yleistettyjä lineaarisia malleja (GLM) sekä G-testiä (G–test of goodness-of-fit). Analyyseihin tarvittavat maanpeiteluokat pohjautuivat Suomen ympäristökeskuksen (SYKE) verkkosivuilta avoimesti ladattavaan CORINE Land Cover 2018 -rasterikartta-aineistoon. Rakennetuista 80 koepesästä selviytyi seitsemän vuorokauden aineistonkeruuajankohtana yhteensä 73 pesää eli seitsemän tuhoutui. Pesiä tuhosivat supikoira (n=3), närhi (Garrulus glandarius) (n=2), näätä (Martes martes) (n=1) ja talitiainen (Parus major) (n=1). Pesäkokeiden perusteella pesien saalistus ei ole pääasiallinen syy metsokannan taantumiseen, koska pesäpredaatioaste oli alhainen (9 %). Analyysin perusteella rakennettu alue selitti parhaiten koepesien kohtaloa. Rakennetun alueen suhteellisen osuuden lisääntyminen koepesän ympärillä heikensi sen selviytymismahdollisuuksia. Hajuposteilla pienpetohavaintoja tehtiin yleisimmin supikoirasta (n=16). Supikoiran ohella hajuposteilla vieraili pienpedoista näätä (n=9), kettu (Vulpes vulpes) ja mäyrä (Meles meles) (molemmat n=6). Maisemamuuttujien vaikutusta ei pystytty yhdistämään supikoirahavaintoihin, mutta soidinalueilla supikoirahavaintoja tehtiin merkittävästi vähemmän kuin satunnaisilla koealoilla. Supikoirien aiheuttama saalistus voi olla täten merkittävä riskitekijä metsojen pesinnän onnistuvuudelle etenkin kansallispuiston reuna-alueilla. Pääkaupunkiseudun jatkuva rakentamispaine aiheuttaa metsien pirstoutumista, mikä heikentää metsoille suotuisia elinympäristöjä Nuuksiossa. Suojelun tehostamiseksi supikoirakannat tulisi pitää kohtuullisen alhaisina. Lisäselvitykset viherkäytävien tilasta, liikenteen vaikutuksista ja ihmismelun aiheuttamista haitoista metsokannalle ovat hyviä tutkimusaiheita tulevaisuudessa.
  • Verkkosaari, Heidi (2022)
    This research will study commercial field students' relationship with nature and how it affects their sense of responsibility. The aim is to find out what the students' relationship with nature is like, whether it has a connection to a sense of responsibility and whether the background factors have an effect on the relationship with nature. The issue is topical, as life on Earth is threatened by many environmental problems, such as climate change, the loss of biodiversity and the over-consumption of natural resources. As a result of urbanization, people can somehow become estranged from nature. We need more information about the background factors of our relationship with nature and the connection with a sense of responsibility. Maybe that will help us to maintain our relationship with nature and take responsibility for our environment. Based on previous research, it seems that the more distant a person experiences nature, the less he appreciates it and wants to take care of its well-being. The relationship with nature is always a subjective experience; an individual experiences his relationship with nature differently depending on the experiences, feelings and attitudes towards being in nature and towards it.In the study, I used the Nature Relatedness (NR) Scale to measure the nature relationship. Responsibility refers to a person's responsibility for the effects of his or her actions on, for example, the environment and society. This study focuses on a sense of responsibility; how a person feels responsible. The sense of responsibility was measured with the Responsibility scale (RS). The study was carried out in collaboration with the Ruralia Institute of the University of Helsinki. The data was collected in the autumn 2020. Students were told that the purpose of the survey was to research their relationship with nature and their views on the use of state hiking areas and national parks. Data was collected from 246 Finnish business schools students with the electronic survey. In the analysis of the data, the average sum variables were created from the responses of the survey in order to obtain figures describing the nature relatedness and responsibility for each respondent. The correlation between the nature relatedness and the sense of responsibility was then examined using linear regression. Background variable analyzes were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and cross-tabulation. The study found a positive correlation between the nature relatedness and the sense of responsibility, making students with a stronger nature relatedness also feel more responsible. Background variable studies revealed that women have a slightly better level of nature relatedness than men. In addition, respondents born before the 1990s were found to have a higher level of nature relatedness. However due to the small number of respondents in older age groups, no more precise conclusions could be drawn. The results are similar to those obtained in previous environmental studies. Although a correlation was found between the nature relatedness and the sense of responsibility, the sense of responsibility does not necessarily tell anything about responsible behavior. New ways should be found to explore the connection bet-ween the sense of responsibility and behavior towards nature. More information would also be needed on how various background factors, such as childhood residence, will affect on the relationship with nature. As people's relationships with nature develops throughout life, information on the cause-and-effect relationship between nature relatedness and responsibility could be used even more in the environmental education of not only children but also adults, too.
  • Siira, Riina (2022)
    Demand for plant-based food is growing and alternative protein sources are explored to replace dairy and meat products. Due to weak functional properties of plant proteins compared to milk protein, it is challenging to create the desirable food structure. The coagulation of milk proteins plays an essential role in structure formation of many fermented milk products, but plant pro-teins may not behave in the same way. It is important to study the use of plant proteins in vari-ous food applications to bring organoleptically and nutritionally better plant-based products to the market. The aim of the work was to study transglutaminase (TG) induced gelling of plant-based proteins and determine whether calcium, pH, or enzyme dosage affects the quality of the gel structure. Pea protein isolate and oat protein concentrate were selected as the main raw materials for the study. Three different levels of calcium, pH and enzyme dosages and their effects on protein content (%), firmness (g) and dry matter content (%) of the samples was measured. Experi-mental plan and predictive models of the results was performed with Minitab software. Protein content of the samples was measured by using nitrogen analyzer, firmness of the samples by us-ing TAXT texture analyzer and dry matter content of the samples with moisture analyzer. Tricalcium phosphate was found to weaken the firmness of the samples when the dosage was 0,3 % or more. The most solid gel sample was found in pH 5,1, with small amount of enzyme and 0,05-0,3 % level of tricalcium phosphate. Dry matter of the samples was noted to increase at low pH level. TG increased the dry matter, especially when tricalcium phosphate was not ap-plied. TG was found to be an effective tool to improve protein gelling by forming a solid struc-ture for the samples. Higher amount of TG increased the protein content. It was shown to be possible to modify food characteristics by the studied process parameters, but the data set used in this study was small to provide reliable models. Further research should be done on the ef-fects and relationships between these factors to confirm results of the study.
  • Alasentie, Iida (2022)
    Consumption of natural and organic products is one of the recognizable global trends that reflects to the cosmetics market as growing popularity of natural cosmetic products. This thesis focuses on the meanings that are related to the use of natural cosmetics. The key objective of this master’s thesis is to recognize the meanings that users of natural cosmetics give to the products they use. Research literature related to consumer culture and the meanings of consumption were used to form the theoretical framework of the study. The theoretical part also focuses on the political and hedonistic meanings associated with natural cosmetics. In addition to the meanings associated with natural cosmetics, the study aims to understand the role of ecological and health related factors in the use of natural cosmetics and to recognize how certificates affect to the use and trust of natural cosmetic products. The empirical part of the study was carried out as a qualitative study. The material consists of 15 thematic interviews conducted by telephone in July 2021. The interviewees who participated in the study are users of natural cosmetics, who were reached through a Finnish Facebook group related to natural cosmetics. The interviews were transcribed and analysed by means of theory-driven content analysis. The study shows that users of natural cosmetics give 1) functional, 2) social, 3) ecological, 4) health, 5) pleasure, and 6) trust-related meanings to the products they use. Political consumption is a prominent part of the use of natural cosmetics. Especially the social and ecological meanings of the use of natural cosmetics shows signs of alternative hedonism, which can be seen as a more controlled way to act as a consumer. The study shows that users of natural cosmetics give not only individual but also socially important meanings to natural cosmetic products. Users of natural cosmetics are restraining their use of natural cosmetics by buying products with specific features. For example, one natural cosmetics user chooses to purchase products that are only produced in Finland. The study also identifies the trust-related importance of certificates, especially when the product or place of purchase is unfamiliar to the natural cosmetics user. Users of natural cosmetics don’t see the certificate as a necessity since the use of the products is mainly based on the functionality, the ingredients, the price, and the availability of the products. Above all, the study shows that there’s specific type of uncertainty associated with natural cosmetics and their use. This leads to continuous evaluation and balancing between meanings related to natural cosmetics user’s own well-being and to the meanings related to social and environmental issues.
  • Helenius, Annika (2022)
    Ruokavaliolla on suuri vaikutus ihmisen terveyteen, sillä epäterveellinen syöminen voi aiheuttaa erilaisia sairauksia ja ylipainoa. Ruokakaupat ovat suuressa vastuussa kuluttajien ruokavalintoihin liittyen, koska esimerkiksi tuotevalikoima sekä tuotteiden mainonta ja markkinointi vaikuttavat asiakkaiden kulutusvalintoihin. Tätä vaikuttavuutta voidaan hyödyntää terveellisemmän syömisen tavoittelussa. Ruoan verkkokauppa mahdollistaa erilaisia digitaalisia työkaluja kuluttajan valintoihin vaikuttamiseksi. Tässä tutkimuksessa kartoitettiin ruoan verkkokaupan ominaisuuksia, joilla kannustetaan kuluttajia terveellisempiin ostoksiin. Tutkimuksessa tutustuttiin aiheeseen liittyvään teoriaan muun muassa kulutuskäyttäytymisen muutoksesta ja mobiilisovellusten hyväksynnästä. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin ruoan verkkokaupoista jo löytyviä ominaisuuksia, ideoitiin uusia ja tutkittiin kuluttajien suhtautumista kymmeneen valittuun terveellisyysominaisuuteen. Kuluttajien suhtautumista ruoan verkkokaupan terveellisyysominaisuuksiin kartoitettiin laadullisella kyselylomakkeella, jossa oli määrällisiä elementtejä. Aineiston kooksi saatiin n=36. Terveellisyysominaisuuksille saatiin määrällisestä aineistosta keskiarvot viitekehyksen mukaisille tekijöille houkuttelevuus, hyödyllisyys, helppous, luotettavuus ja viihdyttävyys. Laadullinen aineisto analysoitiin sisällönanalyysillä, eli aineistosta etsittiin ja yhdisteltiin merkittäviä teemoja. Parhaimmaksi terveellisyysominaisuudeksi kuluttajat arvostelivat tuotelistauksen suodattamisen ja järjestämisen ravitsemuksellisten ominaisuuksien mukaan. Huonoimmaksi ominaisuudeksi arvosteltiin pelillistäminen. Laadullisen aineiston analyysin perusteella kuluttajille oli tärkeää, että verkkokaupan terveellisiin ostoksiin kannustavat ominaisuudet helpottavat arkea, perustuvat faktoihin, toteutetaan selkeästi, ottavat huomioon ruokasuhteen ja auttavat kuluttajia oman terveellisyyden tavoittelussa ja saavuttamisessa. Näiden tulosten avulla voidaan suunnitella ja tarjota kuluttajille entistä toimivampia digitaalisia palveluita etenkin terveellisyyden saralla, sujuvoittaa ruoan verkkokaupan ostoprosessia sekä mahdollisesti sitouttaa kuluttajia ja saavuttaa lisämyyntiä.
  • Laitila, Tiina (2022)
    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a naturally occurring toxic compound produced by various types of fungi. The presence of AFB1 in food and feed can lead to severe illness, which makes it a serious threat to humans and animals. Due to global climate change, the cases of AFB1 contamination in food will increase since high temperature and humidity favour fungal growth and the production of AFB1. The bioavailability of AFB1 can be decreased by adsorption or biotransformation. Adsorption happens by the utilization of different AFB1 binding agents, which can be either mineral and organic or biological adsorbents. Mineral and organic adsorbents are only used in feed since they may also bind to nutrients. Biological adsorbents are being studied more actively since they maintain the nutritional value of the food. Studies show that Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be used to bind AFB1 from contaminated foods. The aim of this research was to study the capacity of different LAB (viable and nonviable) to adsorb (bind) AFB1 under different pH conditions. The research first evaluated the binding ability of AFB1 by 13 viable and nonviable LAB strains at pH 7. The best binding strains were selected for further study at pH 3 to mimic gastric pH. The AFB1 binding with cells was performed at 25℃ for 90 min. To determine the binding capacity, the solutions were centrifuged and free AFB1 in the supernatant was extracted with acetonitrile, and quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method was used to clean up the samples. AFB1 concentration was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (UPLC-FLD). The LAB strains used in this research were shown to have the ability to bind AFB1. Binding efficacy of AFB1 depended on the bacterial strain. Viability and pH also affected the binding ability. All nonviable cells showed better binding ability (44.9–71.3%) compared to the viable cells (29.0–49.4%). The strains also had better binding capacity at lower pH regardless of the cell viability. The highest binding efficacy (71.3%) was achieved by the nonviable cell of Lactobacillus helveticus FAM 22155 at pH 3. The results of this thesis showed that some LAB strains bind AFB1 and that the binding is stable under stomach conditions. Studies to investigate the stability of the binding under simulated upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract conditions (in vitro digestion) and in vivo studies are needed in order to provide further evidence of the applicability of LAB in lowering the bioavailability of AFB1.
  • Nuorkivi, Taru (2022)
    Bakeries suffer from yearly quality problems in texture of rye bread during the first two to three months after harvest when using newly harvested rye. A cave on the top of the bread below the crust is a typical defect and so are the large holes just under the crust. Previous studies indicate that the endo-xylanase activity decreases over time in the appropriate storage conditions after harvesting. The aim of this Master’s thesis was to understand the impact of the possible difference in the endo-xylanase activity in the newly harvested rye compared to 10 weeks stored rye, on the bread texture properties. The growing conditions were exceptionally dry and hot for the grain samples in this study that might have affected the results. There were six different rye samples from four different locations in Lithuania, Estonia and Finland. The hypothesis in this study was that the decrease in the endo-xylanase activity during the first months after harvest has an impact on the rye baking functionality. The endo-xylanases in a newly harvested rye flour hydrolyze the arabinoxylans in the rye doughs more efficiently compared to the rye which is stored for 10 weeks causing the breakdown of rye bread structure. The xylanase activity, α-amylase activity, fiber content and ash content of the flour samples were analyzed. Furthermore, the texture and specific volume of the bread samples were analyzed. As expected, the xylanase activity decreased over time in the storage according to the swelling number results. There was a decrease in the endo-xylanase activity, but the decrease was not significant. Despite of the decrease in the xylanase activity over time, the sensory evaluation results did not show any significant differences in the texture of the breads baked with the fresh flour samples compared to 10 weeks stored flour samples. The crumb hardness as well as the chewiness of the breads correlated negatively with the swelling curve and endo-xylanase activity results. The breads baked with the 10 weeks stored flour samples were harder compared to the ones baked with fresh flours. There was a positive correlation between the specific volume and the swelling number results as well as between the specific volume and the endo-xylanase activity results. These results confirm that the xylanase activity decreases over time in the stored grains and the decrease in the xylanase activity results in an increase in crumb hardness and decrease in specific volume of the breads.
  • Jääskeläinen, Oona (2022)
    Plant production and especially food production faces constantly challenges due to plant pathogens. Plant pathogens, such as different kinds of pathogenic fungi, are controlled throughout the production chain. Several vegetables, including carrot (Daucus carota), can get damaged during long storage periods. For example, temperature and moisture of the storage environment in addition to microbes, affect the quality. The crop losses caused by harmful microbes might be reduced by using biological control methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate if fungal pathogens could be suppressed in stored carrots by biological control. The biological control agent used in this study contains Clonostachys rosea J1446 fungus, which has been tested to be effective against many fungal plant pathogens. Three carrot batches were sprayed with C. rosea J1446 suspension. The carrots were stored in cold storage (0.5 °C) from four to six months. After the storage period, the number of infected carrots was counted and the amount of crop loss was measured. In addition, the survival of C. rosea J1446 fungus on the carrots was examined during the storage period. Pathogenic fungi were identified by molecular biology methods and by morphological features. Some of the fungi were selected for dual culture test examining antagonistic effects of three Clonostachys strains. In this study, the amount of diseased carrots was approximately 33 % of the untreated carrots. Symptom in the tip of the carrot was the most common indication of a disease. Treatment with C. rosea J1446 suspension reduced the amount of diseased carrots by 23 % on average and the treated carrots had less weight loss after the storage period. Viable C. rosea J1446 fungus was isolated from the carrots after six months. Most common pathogens found from the disease symptoms were Botrytis cinerea, Cylindrocarpon spp., Fusarium spp. and Mycocentrospora acerina. The results of the antagonism test showed that the three Clonostachys strains reduced the growth of these pathogens. The results of this research indicate that the C. rosea J1446 product could be used as a biological control agent against fungal pathogens on storage carrots.
  • Pietiläinen, Karoliina (2022)
    Declining trend of carbon content in croplands has been reported in Finland as well as globally and at the same time soil degradation has risen to a significant threat for food production. Increasing soil carbon content for example with carbon rich fertilizers may improve soil water retention properties, soil structure, and increase soil carbon sink. The aim of this thesis was to study if the usage of carbon-rich fertilizers (pulp mill sludge, liquid vinasse, bone meal and biowaste compost with biochar) increase soil carbon content, soil water retention and water stable aggregates compared to usage of inorganic fertilizers or unfertilized control in a four-year time period (2016-2019). Material for water retention curve and water stable aggregate measurements was collected in HYKERRYS-project field experiment after harvest in august 2019. Existing data were utilized for determination of soil total carbon content, which had been collected every year after harvest in the topsoil (0-20 cm). The total carbon content was determined with Variomax CN-analyser in 2016-2018 and with LECO CN-analyzer in 2019. Water retention curve was determined by underpressure method in sandbox (for pF 1,5, 1,8 and 2,0) and overpressure method in pressure plate extractor (for pF 2,7, 3,4 ja 4,2) using undisturbed and disturbed (pF 4,2) soil samples collected in topsoil. Water-stability of aggregates was determined with wet sieving method for aggregate size fraction 2-5 mm. Before wet sieving, samples were dry sieved on fraction classes > 5 mm, 2-5 mm and < 2 mm. Soil carbon content (soil C) in the composted pulp mill sludge treatment was by +0,5 % statistically significant (p < 0,05) higher than that in the mineral fertilizer treatment in 2019. Statistically significant regression between added C and measured soil C content supported the view that added C increased soil C contents also in other treatments even if no significant differences between these treatments were detected. None of the treatments significantly improved the water retention or water stable aggregates (p > 0,05). The results of this thesis indicated that adding composted pulp mill sludge over 22 000 kg DM ha 1 (8000 kg C ha-1) in four years is enough to significantly raise the carbon content of a humic clay loam soil, but it is not enough to improve soil water retention properties or the water stability of soil aggregates.