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Browsing by department "Geotieteiden ja maantieteen osasto"

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  • Meri, Maija (2020)
    This study addresses the ways in which environmental challenges and power relations are manifested through tourism in the easternmost province of Panama, Darién. Historically, the area of Darién has remained relatively isolated from the rest of the country and tourism in the area is of small-scale. However, the high biodiversity and natural resources have drawn increasing attention, thus resulting in tensions and competing interests between different stakeholders. Local perceptions of tourism bring insight about how people make sense of and engage with touristic activities, and how geopolitical and ecological discourses contribute to environmental inequalities. The theoretical background draws from geopolitical ecology, which states the role and impact of the environment in the shaping of political space and power relations. The research is based on 37 thematic interviews and participant observation carried out during a one-month ethnographic fieldwork in Darién. The findings indicate that tourism has contributed to exposing the environmental challenges in Darién, but also caused controversy over the use of resources for tourism. Tourism brings forward power relations and demonstrates that different players are in an uneven position. The results show that tourism in Darién has been influenced by its remoteness and the nowadays largely misleading assumption of its unstable security situation. Darién faces a broad range of environmental problems, resulting mainly from the State´s weak presence and poor environmental policies. However, tourism has been locally able to enhance environmental awareness and interest towards conservation. Different tourism actors have unequal possibilities in making use of natural resources depending largely on their wealth and social networks. Further geopolitical interests appear through territorial issues and questions concerning land ownership. The findings indicate that by looking at tourism, many underlying tensions related to existing social inequalities, power relations and distribution of ecological benefits can be revealed.
  • Laakso, Jyri (2020)
    Subsurface sediments were investigated by radar acquisition campaigns and sedimentological investigations in Kersilö area, Sodankylä, central Finnish Lapland, in order to provide information about the sedimentology and stratigraphy of the area, and to construct the succession of events related to the glacial and postglacial development of the subsurface sediments. The study area covers an about 150 km2 area around Kitinen river. The subsurface is controlled by unconsolidated coarse-grained sediments with a mean grain-size ranging from sand to gravel. Typical thickness of the overburden varies from 5 to 15 metres, exceeding 20 metres in places. Eastern part of the study area is covered by Holocene peat of Viiankiaapa mire, underlain by clastic sorted sediments and till. Eastern river bank is characterized by sorted sediments interpreted to represent an ancient braided-river environment. Western side of the river presents extensive sorted sediment deposits, interpreted to represent extramarginal-outwash and braided-river sediments. Till beds are more dominant in the western side of the river. Stratigraphy of the Kärväsniemi test site comprises three sandy till beds, estimated to represent Early, Middle and Late Weichselian glaciations. The till units are interbedded by more sorted fluvial sediments, estimated to have Early and Middle Weichselian and Holocene origin. Absolute age determinations from the middle sorted sediment assemblage suggests Odderade Interstadial between the Early and Middle Weichselian glaciations. Ground penetrating radar, utilising 50 MHz and 100 MHz antennas, proves its suitability for investigation of fluvial deposits of a proglacial environment, with abundant coarse-grained sediments. Quality of the data enables identification of lithological interfaces within and between sediment units. Seven radar facies and facies associations are identified, and classified as organic, glacial and fluvial sediments. Fluvial sediments include five radar facies and facies associations characteristic of fluvial deposits. The sediments indicate a succession where glacial deposits alternate with fluvial sorted sediments indicating ice-free events. Fluvial activity is estimated to have been repetitious and especially intensive during the last deglaciation, possibly causing partial erosion of the till beds. Formation of organic peat started in the area after the final retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Clastic surface sediments indicating deglacial to Holocene origin have experienced partial reworking by wind and floodwaters.
  • Lindholm, Tanja (2010)
    Object of this reseach is geochemical characterization of Häme diabase dyke swarm. The analysed dyke (n=42) samples were collected using a hammer. The chemical analysis were performed at Helsinki University for major and some trace elements using XRF analyser and at GeoLab, Washington University for lanthanides and trace elements using ICPMS analyser. The reseach area is situated in the east 35 km north from Tampere and in the west the area of Heinola city. The age of Häme dike swarm is ~1.6 Ga, which is also the age of nearby rapakivi inturions in the area. The Häme dike swarm cuts sharply 1.9 Ga svecofennian bedrock. The Häme swarm has been divided into two sets of dykes based on different strikes, compositional features and in age. One of the sets strikes WNW and the other one NW. Häme dyke swarm resembles continental flood basalts. They are relatively alkaline ironrich continental quartz and olivine tholeiites. Main minerals are olivine, pyroxenes and plagioclase. Their TiO2 (1,4–3,3 p. %), P2O5 (0,4–1,1 p. %), Fe2O3 (12,3–16,6 p. %) and Al2O3 (12,9–18,6 p. %) contents are relatively high and MgO (3,4–5,9 p. %) and CaO (6,2–8,7 p. %) contents are relatively low. The abundances of incompatible trace elements are high and they show LREEenriched REEpatterns, also their Ni and Cr contents are relatively low. In Spider diagram you can see negative Eu, Nb and Ti anomalies in and positive Pb anomaly. Geochemical data doesn’t correlate with two different strike sets and dykes have no correlation with their geographical settings.
  • Hauhia, Milena (2019)
    The evolution of herbivore mammal teeth has been the subject of palaeoecological research for decades. Hypsodonty, high-crowned teeth, has been linked to global climate cooling and drying during the Cenozoic Era. As grasslands conquered forested areas, terrestrial herbivores had to adapt to different environments and resource changes. Many browsers adapted to more grazing habits. Low vegetation included more exogenous grit, such as dust and sand, which in the result of soil ingestion causes dental wear, as does the phytoliths found inside the coarse grasses. As a result of natural selection, the dental crowns of many herbivorous mammal teeth began to grow, resisting dietary wear. Environments with high levels of volcanism and erosion the airborne ash that settles on plant surfaces and is released from sediments, is also likely to wear down herbivore teeth. One such area is Patagonia in South America. There, the teeth of many species have evolved to become hypsodont under the pressure of environmental stress. In this Master´s thesis, an experimental study was conducted using a mechanical masticator to investigate microscopic tooth wear caused by volcanic ash. Based on the results, it was considered whether the ash causes the hardest part of the tooth, the enamel, to be worn and if so, what kind of wear pattern it produces. The relevance of volcanic ash for the evolution of hypsodonty was also discussed. The experimental study was conducted with a mechanical masticator fitted with modern horse teeth that chewed in four different diet formulas, one tooth pair at a time. The first diet contained, in addition to water, nothing but volcanic ash, the second was a lucerne pellet mixture corresponding to browse and the third and fourth contained the plant pellet in addition to different amounts of volcanic ash. After chewing stage, the microscopic wear patterns of the tooth occlusion surfaces were analyzed. According to the results, the ash causes a pit dominated wear and the browse scratch dominated wear. The diet formulas with both, ash and plant pellet mixture, caused the most wear. Based on this Master´s thesis, it can be concluded that the volcanic ash causes tooth wear and may have influenced the evolution of hypsodonty.
  • Raita, Riku (2020)
    Helsingin kaupungissa suoritettiin vuonna 2017 yksi Suomen historian laajimmista organisaatiouudistuksista. Uudistuksessa virastohallinto lakkautettiin ja yhdistettiin neljän toimialan alaisuuteen. Samassa yhteydessä uudistettiin päätöksentekorakenteita ja menetelmiä sekä siirryttiin kaupungin ylimmän johdon osalta pormestarimalliin. Muutos on ollut totaalinen ja konkreettinen, se on koskettanut jokaista kaupungin virkahenkilöä tai toimihenkilöä. Muutoksen mittakaava huomioiden, olen olettanut muutoksella olleen organisatooristen muutosten rinnalla merkittäviä toiminnallisia ja sosiaalisia vaikutuksia, jotka ovat voineet heijastuneet henkilöstön tehtävistä suoriutumisessa. Tässä tutkielmassa olen analysoinut, miten Helsingin kaupungin kaupunkiympäristön toimialan paikkatieto-organisaatio ja sen paikkatietokyvykkyys on muuttunut ja kehittynyt tarkasteluajanjaksolla 2015‒2020. Ensisijaisesti olen analysoinut paikkatietokyvykkyyden muutosta organisaatiouudistuksen viitekehystä. Paikkatietokyvykkyyden arvioinnin olen suhteuttanut Helsingin kaupungin paikkatietokypsyyden analyyseihin, jotka toteutettiin kaupungissa vuosina 2010 ja 2014. Toisena tutkimuskohteena olen analysoinut kaupunkiympäristön toimialan paikkatietoanalytiikan nykytilaa. Paikkatietoanalytiikan osalta olen analysoinut ketkä ja millä tekniikoilla analytiikka hyödynnetään, missä tehtävissä analytiikan tuloksia hyödynnetään ja mitkä ovat analyysitoiminnan lopputuotteet. Olen selvittänyt myös mitä vaikutuksia tai vaikuttavuutta paikkatietoanalytiikalla on ollut toimialan työtehtävissä. Keskeinen tutkielman aineisto muodostui strukturoidusta kyselytutkimuksesta, joka kohdennettiin koko kaupunkiympäristön henkilökunnalle. Kyselytutkimus sisälsi osittain samoja kysymyksiä, kuin vuoden 2010 paikkatietokysely ja vastauksista muodostui näin vertailukelpoinen aikasarja. Kyselytutkimus sisälsi kysymyksiä myös muista tutkimuksen aihepiireistä. Kyselytutkimuksen lisäksi tein 5 puolistrukturoitua asiantuntijahaastattelua kaupungin paikkatietokehityksessä mukana olleille virkahenkilöille paikkatietosektorin hiljaisen tiedon esille saamiseksi. Molemmat tutkimukset toteutettiin anonymisoituina siten, että tulokset on tulkittu tarkimmillaan toimialan tai kaupungin palveluyksikötasolle. Kirjallisten lähteiden analyysillä kartoitin kansallisen ja Helsingin kaupungin paikkatietoympäristön keskeisimmät hankkeet, joilla on selkeä vaikutus Helsingin kaupungin paikkatiedolliseen toimintaan viimeisen kymmenen vuoden ajalta. Merkittävimmät tekijät ajanjaksolla ovat olleet EU:n Inspire -direktiivistä alkunsa saaneet tietojen avoimuuteen ja yhteiskäyttöisyyteen tähtäävät hankkeet sekä näille alisteiset paikalliset hankkeet. Kirjallisuusanalyysiin sisältyi myös paikkatietokyvykkyyden näkökulmana olleen oppivan organisaation tematiikan sekä vaikutuksen ja vaikuttavuuden erojen hahmottaminen. Paikkatietokyvykkyys tarkoittaa tämän tutkielman kontekstissa organisaation kykyä hyödyntää paikkatietoja ja paikkatietotekniikan luomia mahdollisuuksia tehtävissään ja tuottaessaan palveluita tarkoituksenmukaisella tavalla. Vaikutukset ovat toimenpiteiden suoria tai epäsuoria lyhyen aikavälin seurauksia, vaikuttavuus taas pitkän aikavälin ilmiö, joka perustuu vaikutuksiin ja niiden eri ulottuvuuksiin. Tämän tutkielman tuloksissa olen tarkastellut paikkatietokyvykkyyttä segmentoiden sen strategiseksi kyvykkyydeksi, paikkatietojen hyödyntämisen kyvykkyydeksi, viestintä ja yhteistyökyvykkyydeksi sekä paikkatietotukitoimintojen kyvykkyydeksi. Yleisellä tasolla havaitsin, ettei organisaatiouudistuksella näytä olleen merkittävää vaikutusta kaupunkiympäristön toimialan paikkatietokyvykkyyteen. Vaikutus on ollut hetkellisen disruptiivinen, mutta ohimenevä. Strategisen kyvykkyyden kohdalla on viitteitä tason heikkenemisestä, kun taas paikkatietojen hyödyntämisen kyvykkyys on kehittynyt positiivisesti. Muutoin merkittävää muutosta ei ole havaittavissa suuntaan tai toiseen. Paikkatietoanalytiikan tilannekuva-analyysistä ilmenee, että analytiikka on tuntematonta toimilalalla, mutta koetaan tärkeäksi. Analytiikan osaaminen on keskittynyt kaupunkisuunnittelu- ja kaupunkimittauksen yksiköihin. Menetelmällisesti analytiikka paikkatieto-ohjelmistoilla tai internetkarttapalveluiden kuvaruututulkintaa ja tuotokset pääsääntöisesti perinteisiä tiedon visualisointeja tai rekisteriaineistojen muokkauksia.
  • Hautala, Tommi (2020)
    Compared to the previous decades, Helsinki has grown substantially during the 2010's, both in terms of it's population and total floor area. When the city becomes more tightly built year by year and the urbanization process intensifies, so too does the profit cycle of the capital. In these conditions, the voice of the people living in these urban areas becomes even more crucial and questions of how and on whose terms these areas are developedrise to the forefront of urban development. Legitimacy of the current system and administration, development of new participatory policies and responsible use of money all are connected to benefit from active civil society. New experiments and methods of citizen participation have been tested in Finland more frequently since the early 2000's, participatory budgeting being one of morerecent ones. Helsinki's participatory budgeting, titled OmaStadi, started 2018 and was the first large scale use of participatory budgeting process in Finland. Originally developed in Brazil during the 1980's, participatory budgeting gives fiscal and decision responsibility to the residents of the city.In OmaStadi, people can through the Internet plan, propose and vote what kind of projects they want to use money for. Process should be executed yearly with budget of 4,4 million euros. Distributing money based on activity of the residents raises questions of how just and fairly resources are allocated to areas inside the city. Do projects clusters on areas, who are populated by people with high cultural or social capital or who are otherwise in strong position socioeconomically? Or does especially lower middle class find participatory budgeting like it has been in some other countries? The goal of this thesis and stydy is to findout how votes, projects and money are spatially distributed between different areas, using GIS data and statistical methods. Although the main finding of this study is that number or price of projects or number of votes are as a rule not tied to local socioeconomical status, there are some weak signs that point that few certain variablesmight affect these. For example, more projects were proposed to areas where portion of young adults and people living in rental homes was higher. Finding more reliable results requires broader and more extensive study. When OmaStadi becomes more established method in urban planning, project managers should take care that funds are not used to compliment projects that city should take care of anyway. If that becomes the case, OmaStadi shouldalternatively be expanded monetarily, if city of Helsinkiseeks same positive benefits which have been observed in other cities around the world.
  • Bigler, Paula (2019)
    Viiankiaapa mire, located in the municipality of Sodankylä, has drawn public attention after mining company, AA Sakatti Mining Oy published their discovery in 2011. The discovered Ni-Cu-PGE ore deposit, Sakatti, is located mainly under the Natura 2000 protected Viiankiaapa. Viiankiaapa is Natura 2000 protected due to the several natural habitat types and plant species one of these, H. vernicosus is known to thrive at the areas of groundwater influence. The Sakatti deposit is in exploration phase but it is possible that mining will start in future. Knowing the hydrogeology of the area is crucial for preventing possible negative changes if the mining starts. In this study the objectives were to study 1) the influence of groundwater at the western margin of Viiankiaapa, 2) the influence of Sakatti ore deposit to the hydrogeochemistry of the area, 3) the influence of hydrology and hydrogeochemistry to the endangered H. vernicosus species. The sampling was done in September and October 2016, March and April 2017 and continued in summer 2017. Samples were collected from surface water of the mire, groundwater, spring water as well as from different depth of peat pore water using mini-piezometer. EC, pH, temperature, stable isotopes, DSi, main ions, trace elements and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were analyzed. The groundwater influence was visible at the area of Lake Viiankijärvi and Särkikoskenmaa fluvial sediment deposit. Depth profiles of stable isotopes and main ions indicated groundwater flow in deep peat layer and mixing with surface water as the groundwater flow upwards through the peat layer. At the Sakatti ore deposit area the isotopic composition of surface water samples represented mainly season’s precipitation with few exceptions. Possible groundwater discharge was visible at the area between Sakatti main deposit and River Kitinen as well as near Pahanlaaksonmaa. The isotopic chemistry of spring water samples at the bend of River Kitinen had values of mixed groundwater and surface water. It is likely that the mire water infiltrates through the peat layer and fluvial sediments and discharges to the springs and River Kitinen. The bedrock of the area is known to be weathered, which could explain surface water like isotope values in springs and in some of the bedrock groundwater observation wells. Positive correlation was found between H. vernicosus ecosystems and the depth of peat. A ribbon-shaped zone of habitats and 2 – 4 m thick peat layer crosses the mire. The correlation with groundwater discharge was not clear. Ca and Mg concentrations were smaller but pH and alkalinity were higher at the areas of H. vernicosus ecosystems. However the Ca and Mg concentrations resembled areal spring water chemistry, which could indicate groundwater influence. Areas without the ecosystems are located mainly near the Sakatti ore deposit. The influence of the deposit in hydrogeochemistry was locally visible as elevated electric conductivity, main ion and trace element concentrations of the surface water and peat pore water. This most likely explains why the areas without the ecosystems had higher element concentrations.
  • Lintunen, Jenni (2020)
    Most of the happiness and well-being surveys are showing that Finland is one of the happiest countries in the world. Many of the Finnish people can’t relate to these results. Neither the mental health statistics nor suicide rates in Finland are speaking for the well-being of Finnish people. The reason is that the well-being is traditionally measured by objective indicators that include only economic and social factors. The measurements are not measuring subjective well-being despite that it’s essential part for the demographic development and population health. The study investigates how the well-being measures correspond with subjective well-being in Finland years 2002-2016. The research also examines how the well-being measurements are able to measure subjective well-being of different socio-economic groups. The study is a quantitative comparison between descriptive statistics of objective well-being measures and life satisfaction. The examined wellbeing measures are HDI, HPI, SSI, Gini co-efficient, ISEW, GPI and GDP. The life satisfaction attribute data is from European Social Survey. The results of the study show that the examined well-being measures don’t correspond with the level of subjective well-being in Finland. HDI and SSI are higher than life satisfaction. HPI and Gini co-efficient are lower than life satisfaction. Only Gini co-efficient corresponds with the level of life satisfaction experienced from unemployed. Nevertheless the results show that there is some corresponding with the fluctuation of some of the well-being measures and subjective well-being. Gini co-efficient and SSI are as stable as average life satisfaction in Finland and life satisfaction experienced from students and pensioners. HDI has similar slight growth with life satisfaction experienced from laborers. HPI and GPI are more declining compared to the life satisfactions. GPI has similar fluctuation with life satisfaction experienced from unemployed. ISEW and GDP are showing significantly more increase and fluctuation compared to life satisfaction. Subjective and objective well-being are often seen as two separate dimensions. The fact is that overall well-being is formed from both of the dimensions. That is why well-being should be measured with both, subjective and objective measurements.
  • Laakso, Jenna (2020)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on luoda katsaus ikääntyneiden palveluasumisen lähiympäristöjen laatuun: ideaaleihin, nykytilaan ja tulevaisuuteen. Aihetta tarkastellaan myös kaavoitusprosessin ja ikääntyneiden osallistamisen näkökulmasta. Tutkielman aluerajauksena on Helsinki. Aiemman tutkimuskirjallisuuden perusteella lähiympäristöjen laadun keskeisimpiä teemoja ovat esteettömyys, viihtyisyys, toiminnallisuus ja turvallisuus. Laadukkaan lähiympäristön kriteerit ovat suurimmaksi osaksi kaikille väestöryhmille yhteisiä. Ikääntyneiden toiveissa korostuvat kuitenkin erityisesti esteettömyyteen liittyvät laatutekijät. Tutkimus toteutettiin kolmessa vaiheessa. Ensimmäisessä vaiheessa selvitettiin ikääntyneiden palveluasumisen yksiköiden määrä, laatu ja sijainti Helsingissä. Toisessa vaiheessa tutkittiin systemaattisella havainnoinnilla lähiympäristön laatua viidessä kohteessa. Kolmannessa vaiheessa tutkittiin teemahaastatteluilla ikääntyneen ja kolmen suunnittelijan näkemyksiä tutkimusaiheesta. Ikääntyneiden palveluasumista on tarjolla melko tasaisesti ympäri Helsinkiä, niin urbaaneissa kuin luonnonläheisissä lähiympäristöissä. Ikääntyneiden palveluasumisen lähiympäristöjen laatu on yleisesti ottaen hyvä Helsingissä. Jalankulkuympäristöt ovat pääosin esteettömiä ja turvallisia, ja puisto ja palvelut ovat lähellä. Kehitettävää olisi kuitenkin erityisesti istuinten määrässä. Lähiympäristön laadun teemoista esteettömyys korostuu selvästi muita enemmän niin suunnitteluprosessissa kuin hallinnon strategioissa. Ikääntyneet osallistuvat aktiivisesti kaupunkisuunnitteluun, mutta palvelutaloissa asuvien ikääntyneiden todellisista osallistumismahdollisuuksista ei ole varmuutta. Laadukkaan kaupunkiympäristön kriteerejä ja ikääntyneiden näkökulmaa aiheeseen on tutkittu yleismaailmallisella tasolla, muttei juurikaan kunnallisella tai valtakunnallisella tasolla. Laadukas lähiympäristö tukee ikääntyneen itsenäisyyden, toimintakyvyn ja elämänlaadun ylläpitoa. Kun tulevaisuudessa yhä useamman ikääntyneen toivotaan asuvan itsenäisesti kotona, laajenee tarve ikääntyneet huomioivalle, laadukkaalle lähiympäristölle koskemaan kaikkia asuinalueita, ei vain palveluasumisen lähiympäristöjä.
  • Priha, Aliisa (2019)
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan peruskouluikäisten lasten kouluvalintojen suuntautumista helsinkiläisellä asuinalueella. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys rakentuu aluevaikutusten ja alueellisen eriytymisen tutkimuksen ympärille. Työn lähtökohtana on tilanne, jossa voimakkaasti kasvavassa kaupungissa paitsi asuinalueet, myös alueiden koulujen oppimistulokset ovat alkaneet eriytyä aiempaa selvemmin ja peruskouluikäisten lasten vanhemmat ovat tulleet tietoisiksi tästä eriytymiskehityksestä. Työ pyrkii selvittämään, voiko vanhemman subjektiivinen käsitys alueen tai koulun lapseen kohdistamista vaikutuksista tosiasiallisesti heijastua kotitaloudessa tehtäviin kouluvalintoihin ja muuttopäätöksiin. Tutkimuksellinen kiinnostus kohdistuu siis ennen kaikkea oletettuihin, ei todennettuihin alue- ja kouluvaikutuksiin. Oletettujen alue- ja kouluvaikutusten käsitteeseen kulminoituu kompleksinen yhteiskunnallisten ja aluetieteellisten ilmiöiden ja prosessien kudelma, jossa vanhempien tunneperusteisesti tekemät valinnat muokkaavat todellisuutta vähintään yhtä paljon kuin itse käsillä oleva ilmiö. Toisin sanoen olettamusten perusteella tehdyt kouluvalinnat tekevät todeksi alkuperäistä ilmiötä ja koulujen eriarvoistuminen kiihtyy. Tutkimuskysymystä lähestytään alueellisesta näkökulmasta tutkimusalueen kautta. Tutkimus on luonteeltaan kvalitatiivinen ja se toteutettiin tapaustutkimuksena helsinkiläisellä asuinalueella. Tutkimusaineisto koostui kymmenestä alueen asukkaan haastattelusta, jotka tehtiin talvella 2018. Analyysimenetelmänä käytettiin sisällönanalyysiä. Tutkimuksen ensimmäinen keskeinen tulos on, että vanhempien subjektiivinen kokemus asuinalueen mahdollisista aluevaikutuksista ja kouluvaikutuksista on merkittävä muuttopäätöksiä ohjaava tekijä. Vanhempien havainnot ja tulkinnat ympäristöstä, sen tarjoamista resursseista sekä mahdollisista haittatekijöistä ovat yhteydessä ohjaustapoihin, joilla he pyrkivät säätelemään lastensa toimintaa sekä lapsen vertaisryhmiä. Toinen keskeinen tulos on, että vanhemmat ovat tietoisia omasta asemastaan paikallisessa kouluvalintatilassa. Sekä koulupaikan vastaanottaminen omasta lähikoulusta että paikan hakeminen oman oppilasalueen ulkopuolelta on harkittu päätös. Kolmannen tutkimustuloksen mukaa kouluvalinta vaatii kotitaloudelta paitsi taloudellista, myös sosiaalista ja kulttuurista pääomaa, ja sosiaalisten verkostojen yhteys kouluvalintaan on merkittävä.
  • Erkheikki, Maria (2020)
    It is clear for a geographer that a map is a basic tool for presenting the world or parts of it. A map promotes national identity as it creates a meaning and boundaries for a society. It is concrete and provides means to belong to a society. Maps provide material for studying and understanding the history of mankind. They are artifacts worth collecting. This is what makes maps and studying of maps interesting. This field has not been widely researched in Finland despite the awesome collections. These are the reasons behind in the selecting the topic of my master thesis. The history of cartography is a material part of cultural and human geography. Research on map collecting especially, albeit more common abroad, is decades old or scattered in various publications. The challenge of my master thesis is the management of scarcity and partially outdated as well as scattered materials. The development of the research hypothesis has emerged from my strong interest to the subject. One should focus on a specific theme when it comes to collecting old maps. This allows the historic or economic value of the collection to be significant. Collecting of antique maps can be focused on a specific region, cartographer, era or geographic specialty. The characteristics of map collectors can be divided into researchers, selective collectors or investors. The most material aspects of map markets are the places to obtain maps, pricing and investment potential. The downside of map collecting relate to their low survival rate, theft, forgery and ageing of collectors. Maps have been both luxury and commodity items. They have been collected already for centuries for their political, religious, geographical, or esthetical values. During the Renaissance, maps started to spread to a wider group of collectors, driven by innovations and expeditions. They became collection objects of the intelligentsia in the 18th century and incitement for many expeditions and national collections in the next century. The 1920s started the heydays of map collecting both in Finland and Europe. At the same time publications and research related to the history of cartography increased and the field started to gain in valuation. The economic and cultural changes in Finland in the 19th and 20th centuries enabled a wider collecting of maps. There was a need in Finland to know about the history of the nation, society and region and collect related maps. Among the Finland-born scientists and map collectors, Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld became the founding father of the history of cartography and his collection is among the most valued globally. Obtaining Nordenskiöld’s collection to Finland in 1906 gave a strong signal of the importance of the history of cartography and map collecting. Many Finnish businessmen, politicians and cultural influencers became interested in old maps. Meanwhile, the antiquarian business, which acted as a marketplace for maps, was established. The heydays of map collecting in Finland was between 1960-90s. However, the migration of the map markets to the internet meant that the era of big collectors in Finland is over. Finnish map collector Juha Nurminen (b. 1946) was chosen as the subject of this thesis as he is one of the most significant map collectors in Finland. He has reaped a meaningful collection of world maps and other maps of the Nordic and the Arctic over five decades. His collections have been relocated and new uses at their new locations through sales and donations. The research angle of my master thesis is cross scientific, and it mainly represents the history of cartography and the cultural history of collecting both in a European and Finnish context. Qualitative methods are used in the research and written sources, interviews, and pictures as material.
  • Suomela, Helena (2020)
    Teknologian ja oppimisen suhteesta on esitetty monenlaisia näkökulmia ja myös huolia. Keskeisenä osana maantieteen opetusta voidaan pitää karttataitoja, joiden opettamiseen on nykyisin käytössä monenlainen tarjonta teknologian mahdollistamia opetusmateriaaleja, aineistoja ja ohjelmia. Nykyään keskeisenä maantieteen opetusteknologiana voidaan pitää siten erityisesti paikkatietoa. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan karttaopetuksen ja paikkatieto-opetuksen sudetta. Tutkimuksessa on tarkasteltu peruskoulun opettajien kokemuksia ja näkemyksiä kartografian ja paikkatiedon opetuksesta osana maantieteen ja ympäristö- ja luonnontieteen opetusta peruskoulussa 2010- luvun alussa. Tutkimuksen mielenkiinnon kohteena ja sosiaalisena kokemusympäristönä olivat peruskoulun maantieteen ja ympäristö- ja luonnontieteen oppitunnit sekä opettajien kokemukset omasta opetuksestaan ja sen mahdollisuuksista. Paikkatieto-opetusta lähestyttiin opetusinnovaation näkökulmasta, kuten ovat tehneet myös tutkimuksissaan muun muassa Kankaanrinta (2009). Oppilaiden näkemyksiä ei aiheeseen tutkittu, mutta tutkimusta varten käsiteltiin aineisto, jonka avulla oli mahdollista tarkastella, käyttivätkö peruskoulun oppilaat joitain yleisiä kartta- tai paikkatieto sovelluksia tutkimuksen teon aikaan. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli muodostaa mahdollisimman hyvä yleiskuva kartta- ja paikkatieto-opetuksen tilasta 2010-luvun alussa peruskoulussa. Tutkimus jatkaa koulumaantieteen monitietteellistä survey- tutkimusperinnettä ja pohjaa siten maantieteen didaktiikasta, oppimiseen liittyvistä teorioista sekä kartografian ja paikkatiedon oppimiseen liittyviin tutkimustietoihin. Lisäksi opetusinnovaatioiden aiemmat tutkimukset ohjaavat tätä tutkimusta, siten että tutkimuksen kantava ajatus oli innovaation diffuusio ja käyttöönotto erityisesti Rogers (2003) ja Fullan (2007) tutkimusten mukaan. Tutkimusaineistona on 2010-luvun alussa kerätty primaariaineisto, joka koostuu peruskoulun opettajien vastauksista maantieteen, kartografian sekä verkko, kartta- ja paikkatietoopetuksen näkemyksistä. Sekundaariaineistona on samaan aikaan kerätty sekundaariaineisto, joka koostuu peruskoulun oppilaiden vastauksista heidän käyttämistään karttapalveluista. Tutkimus kuvailee, vertailee ja selittää tutkittavaa ilmiötä eli kartta- ja paikkatieto-opetuksen luonnetta peruskoulussa 2010-luvun alussa. Opettajien innovatiivisuutta paikkatieto-opetuksen ja kartografian verkko-opetuksen osalta kuvaa primaariaineiston luokitteluun käytetty tämän tutkimuksen malli. Keskeisiksi tutkimustuloksiksi tässä tutkimuksessa nousivat myös jo aiemmissa tutkimuksissa esiin tullut opettajien melko positiivinen asenne digitaalisuutta ja sen tuomia mahdollisuuksia kohtaan. Lisäksi tämän tutkimuksen mukaan karttoja käytettiin opetuksessa suhteellisen paljon ja karttamateriaaleja (sisältäen myös digitaaliset) kaivattiin opetukseen lisää. Kuten aiemmissa aiheen tutkimuksissa myös tässä paikkatieto-opetuksen mahdollisuudet tunnistettiin ja tunnustettiin selvästi, vaikka itse paikkatieto-opetus oli vielä vähäistä opettajien keskuudessa. Poiketen muista tutkimuksista tässä tutkimuksessa ei ilmennyt opettajien ja oppilaiden tietoteknisten taitojen selviä eroavaisuuksia. Innovaationa paikkatieto-opetus oli tutkimuksen teon aikaa vasta vakiintumassa joidenkin innovatiivisimpien opettajien käyttöön. Varovasti voidaankin todeta, että tämän tutkimuksen teon aikaan verkko-opetus koettiin jo pääasiassa osaksi opetusta, mutta paikkatieto-opetusta ei vielä.
  • Montonen, Petri (2020)
    Tilting, caused by glacioisostatic land uplift, and sea level have changed dramatically in regions near the Kattegat during Late Weichselian and Holocene. These changes have also had a profound impact on the Baltic Sea by affecting its connections to oceans. To estimate the relative sea level in the Kattegat and nearby regions on the coasts of Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Germany, dataset of 81 raised shorelines and lake isolation thresholds was collected from published peer-reviewed journals. Based on this dataset three spatial models of 11000, 7900 and 4900 year ago time windows were made with ArcMap program. In addition to the dataset, shore level displacement curves and tilting estimates were used in the models. Dummy-point curves of land uplift isobases were made as part of modeling and many methods were used to place these including following current land uplift isobases, shapes of ice sheets and glacial thickness and combinations of other methods. Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) interpolation method was used to interpolate areas between these isobases and to create sea level layers representing sea levels in the models. Clear changes are visible in different time windows. 11000 years ago the Baltic Sea basin had a narrow connection to ocean trough the Lake Vänern, Southern-Sweden and Jylland were connected by land and continental ice sheet was still connected to ocean at the Oslofjord. 7900 years ago ocean connection of the Lake Vänern had terminated, Danish Straits had opened up and sea level was higher than today in north-eastern modeled areas and lower than today in south western areas. 4900 years ago relative sea levels at north-western and north-eastern coasts of Germany were lower than today, Kattegat and Skagerrak had higher sea levels than today and so did the Danish Straits, leading to higher salinity conditions at the Baltic Sea. In this study limited point data was used to obtain spatially extensive data of sea level changes in the Kattegat and the surrounding areas.
  • Seeve, Tiia (2019)
    In this master’s thesis, a guided tour that uses a dramapedagogic approach is developed in an iterative process to be used as a part of geographical education in the setting of a museum of natural history. The guided tour is designed to be as interesting as possible. In the most recent national core curriculum for basic education, use of more participatory and active learning methods, as well as more diverse learning environments, is strongly encouraged to make learning more interesting and meaningful. The guided tours designed in this study are aimed to respond to these needs. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of the students and teachers who took part in the designed guided tours. There were two research questions in the study, first of which was aimed at the design process, and second of which was aimed at the design product, so the guided tours: Q1. How can the interest expressed towards geography be increased with the means of a dramapedagogical guided tour in a museum of natural history, according to literature? and Q2. How did the students and teachers experience the guided tours, from the viewpoint of interest? From its methodological orientation the study was qualitative. The methodology used was design research, which has been thought to be especially suitable for the purposes of educational research because of its ability to combine practice with theory. The method for data collection was semi-structured interview. Collected data was analysed through the means of qualitative content analysis. The participants were two 6th grade classes from a school in Helsinki (n=39) and their teachers (n=2). The answer to Q1 was found from earlier studies that were used to construct an understanding about the factors leading to the formation of an interest experience, and the pedagogical methods that can be used to encourage them. It was observed that different interest factors can be divided into four categories: experiences of autonomy, competence, personal meaningfulness, and social connection. These experiences can be encouraged with pedagogical methods, that were considered when designing and actualizing the guided tours. The answer to Q2 was found through analysing the empirical data. It was observed that the experiences of both students and teachers on the guided tours were positive and included many factors indicating interest in the said four categories. It seems, then, that the guided tours reached their aim of being perceived as interesting, although more research is needed to find out more specifically, for example, which were the main topics of interest, or how long the interest experience will last. The goal of design research is to produce a design product that will have practical applications also outside of the conducted research project. In this study, the teachers involved expressed interest in using parts of the design product in their own teaching practice, and the design product was utilised by the museum of natural museum of Helsinki on the autumn of 2018.
  • Arponen, Jani (2020)
    Researching the development of transport networks and regional impacts of transport networks have a strong tradition in geography research tradition. Research into conflicts in land use is also an important part of geographical research. Conflicts often occur in designing of large infrastructure projects, especially if projects are planned for urban areas and the built environment. Successful handling and resolution of planning conflicts are often essential factors not only from the point of view of the implementation of projects, but also from the point of view of their perceived legitimacy. Planning conflicts may not be clear and predictable, but also complex and multilateral, and those involved in the conflict may not necessarily play only one role during the conflict. This master's thesis examined the conflicts in planning of a large infrastructure project in Vantaa – the Ring Rail Line. The structure of the study is a case study because it examines one specific phenomenon and the factors associated with this phenomenon. In particular, the aim was to examine how the conflicts originated, what they were like in nature and in their involvement, and how they were resolved. The research perspective was the view of the planners who worked for the City of Vantaa and thus became involved in conflicts that occurred in the design of the Ring Rail Line. The view of the Vantaa-based planners was chosen as a research perspective because they supposedly had the most extensive experience of conflicts in the planning process of the Ring Rail Line at different stages of the project, at local, regional and national level. Simultaneously, the research perspective became a Vantaa-based one. The research material consisted primarily of project planning documents, news and other media material related to the project, and interview material produced by semi-structured thematic interviews targeted at selected planners. The theoretical framework for research consisted in particular of conflict theories related to land use planning and general planning theories. Written research material was processed and analyzed by theoretically controlled content analysis, mirroring the research data into a theoretical framework. The interview material was categorized and analyzed accordingly. This allowed conclusions to be drawn from the material on the basis of a theoretical framework and to form an understanding of the conflicts at different stages of the project and the nature and those involved in the conflicts. The research data was categorized using John Agnew's place theory. The material was categorized according to the perceptions of those involved in the conflicts in relation to the target area, significance and potential of the Ring Rail Line. The categorization was substantially complemented by interview material and direct quotes from interviewees. Through the interview material, the viewpoint of the planners was strongly expressed in accordance with the chosen research perspective. Based on categorization and theory-controlled content analysis, it was found that there were four main or most important conflicts in the planning process of the Ring Rail Line. These were the conflict between the cities of Helsinki and Vantaa over the urban structure, the conflict between the City of Vantaa and other municipalities over the growth machine, the conflict between the City of Vantaa, the Finnish state and Finavia over power and interests, and the conflict between the City of Vantaa and the residents over commitment to a place. The four conflicts were not isolated of each other, but all had some similar characteristics and those involved were also partly the same. The analysis of the data also showed that the parties involved in the conflicts also formed a loose strategic alliance with each other, whose members were in turn cooperating and alternately in conflict with each other. A common feature of the consortium was to get the Ring Rail Line implemented, even though there were occasional disagreements about the objectives and significance of the project.
  • Masalin, Teemu (2020)
    Solving global environmental issues requires extensive international cooperation. The United Nations (UN) Environment Conferences have paved the way for international cooperation, by forming agreements on the environment and climate, and the implementation of the measures required by them. Underlying this is sustainable development, a key concept led by the UN. Adherence to the principles of sustainable development aims to ensure the survival of our planet for future generations. The UN implements the principle through international climate agreements. Actions for the environment require knowledge of environmental issues, solutions and opportunities how to contribute. And that requires environmental education. Environmental education plays a key role in learning about the environment and adhering to the principles of sustainable development. The responsibility for sustainable development belongs to everyone and environmental education plays an important role in it in schools. The aim of my master's thesis is to examine global environmental issues and their solutions. I researched what kind of perceptions of global environmental issues and visions of the future the students of the online school had in 2009. In addition, I compare the students' visions of possible solutions with the views of environmental education experts. The material was collected from the international online school for environmental education and sustainable development, Environment Online - ENO in 2009. The study is based on a qualitative survey. The results of the online survey (N = 153) are divided into themed categories based on the responses on environmental issues and solutions. The answers have been compared with the themes that emerged from the expert survey (N = 5). Pupils' perceptions of environmental issues focus on climate change. The solution possibilities reflect the strong environmental education of the Environment Online - ENO: action for the environment, political decisions and environmental education. As an interesting result of the expert survey, I highlight the opportunities brought by technology in environmental education and the development of young people's opportunities for influence. As a case of this study, Environment Online - ENO has shown how important information and communication technology is in international environmental education.
  • Kangas, Niina (2020)
    Kulttuuriekosysteemipalvelut kaupunkiympäristössä ovat merkittävä tekijä viihtyvyyden, hyvinvoinnin ja hyvän asuinalueen rakentumisen kannalta. Aluesuunnittelussa ekosysteemipalvelukäsitteen käyttö on vielä osin uutta, eikä kulttuurisia ekosysteemipalveluita välttämättä huomioida aluesuunnittelussa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää millaisia kulttuurisia ekosysteemipalveluita Keravalla ja tarkemmin Savion kaupungiosassa esiintyy sekä millaisia ekosysteemipalveluita alueella arvostetaan ja hyödynnetään. Tutkimuksella selvitetään myös vastaako suunnittelun näkemykset asukkaiden tarpeisiin kulttuuristen ekosysteemipalveluiden osalta ja tarjoaako suunnittelu riittävän potentiaalin ekosysteemipalveluiden ilmentymiselle. Tutkimuksessa arvioidaan myös mahdollisuutta laajentaa saatuja tuloksia koskemaan laajempaa otantaa. Tutkimus tehtiin arvioimalla kaupungin suunnittelulinjoja sekä analysoimalla kaksi spatiaalista paikkatietokyselyä. Kaupungin suunnitelmat, aluekehityssuunnitelma sekä aluebrändäys analytoitiin diskurssimenetelmällä. Ekosysteemipalveluiden analysoinnissa käytettiin tarjoumateoria-ajatusta perustana. Ekosysteemipalvelut nähdään tarjoumina, joiden potentiaalisesta ilmenemisestä alueen asukkaat ja käyttäjät hyötyvät tiedostamattaan tai tiedostaen. Tutkimuksen tärkeimpänä tuloksena voidaan pitää luontokohteiden kiistatonta merkitystä alueen asukkaiden viihtymiselle. Ekosysteemipalveluiden tarjoamat hyvinvointiin vaikuttavat potentiaalit ovat alueen asukkaille tärkeitä. Kulttuuristen ekosysteemipalveluiden säilymisen osalta ensiarvoisen tärkeää olisi tunnistaa pienten luontokohteiden arvo ja suojelun tarve ja huomioida nämä kohteet aluesuunnittelussa.
  • Määttänen, Aino-Maija (2020)
    Climate change has the strongest impact on high-latitude ecosystems that are adapted to cool climates. In order to better understand and predict the changes in tundra vegetation observed on large scales as well as their feedbacks onto climate, it is necessary to look at what is happening at finer scales; even in individual plants. Technological developments over the past few decades have enabled the spread of cost-effective, light and small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). As very high-resolution data (pixel size <10cm) becomes more and more available, the remote sensing methods used in environmental analysis become subject to a paradigm shift as algorithms and analyzes based on machine vision and learning turn out to be more common. Harnessing new methods is attractive because they allow flexible and highly automated data collection and the production of highly accurate remote sensing products from hard-to-reach areas such as the tundra. However, obtaining reliable results requires careful planning and testing of processing algorithms and parameters. This study looked at how accurately variables derived from aerial images collected with an off-the-shelf digital camera can map the vegetation structure on a landscape scale. In Kilpisjärvi, northern Fennoscandia, a total of ~ 10,000 aerial photographs were collected by drone covering an area of three hundred hectares. In addition, dominant vascular plants were identified from 1183 points in the area, as well as vegetation height. Aerial images were processed into dense three-dimensional point clouds by using SfM (Structure from Motion) method, which is based on computer vision and digital photogrammetry. From the point clouds terrain models and vegetation height models were interpolated. In addition, image mosaic covering the entire area was produced. Based on these data, predictive variables were calculated, which were used together with the terrain reference data in Geographical Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA). The filtered ground points corresponded to observations throughout the region, and the produced elevation models strongly correlated with the ground reference data. The terrain model error was greatest in areas with tall vegetation. Changes in lighting conditions and vegetation during aerial image surveys posed challenges in both phases of object-based analysis: segmentation and classification. but overall accuracy improved from 0.27 to 0.54 when topography, vegetation height and texture variables were added to the classifier and the number of target classes was reduced. Methods based on machine vision and learning can produce important information about vegetation structure, vegetation height, in a landscape. However, more research is needed to determine the best algorithms and parameters in a tundra environment where environmental conditions change rapidly and vegetation is heterogeneous and mixed, causing differences between aerial images and difficulties in analyses.
  • Sinimetsä, Kirsi (2020)
    Pupils’ thoughts, experiences and knowledge about their local environment together with teacher’s pedagogical know-how bring new aspects to teaching. Development of geographical thinking, as well as environmental sensitivity and caring about nature is important. Also noticing that one’s own local environment is important brings new places and views to the class. Local environment has many possibilities.Research questions in this thesis are: 1. what kind of places pupils see as learning environments in their local environment, 2. how the use of diverse learning environments and enpowering pupils are shown in the Curriculum 2014 (Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014), and 3. how can the pupils’ places and the curriculum be combined. I used participatory research in this thesis. Primary school students were co-researchers and experts on their own life and places in this thesis. This thesis researches places in local environment as learning environments.As a method I used Photo-talks (Pyyry 2015). Pupils took photographs of the places they had chosen and these photographs inspired the discussion in small group Photo-talks. The data in this thesis is both the Curriculum 2014 (Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014) and the discussion data collected at the primary school.Supporting the pupils being active and influencing is strongly written in the curriculum. The curriculum 2014 sees pupils as capable individuals who have thoughts. Learning cooperation and interaction is important part of the curriculum. Cooperation between pupils and cooperation between pupils and the teacher increases motivation and makes finding inner motivation possible. In this thesis I think and discuss the possibilities of diverse places with the pupils. The pupils had many thoughts of the places in their local environment as learning environments.Teacher’s pedagogical planning and cooperation with the pupils is important when bringing the know-how thepupils have gathered in their free-time to school environment. Combining free-time and school considering pupils’ places may change the way the places are seen. Considering this it is important to take care that the idea and magic of the places don’t change too much. Pupils’ places can be used as learning environments at school in many ways both in the class room and at the place itself.The pupils’s thoughts and ideas cross the lines between school subjects. Phenomenon-based learning in different learning environments that by the time become more familiar to pupils, makes multidisciplinary and diverse thinking as well as relating and becoming attached to local environment and its places possible. Local environment becomes the web of places.
  • Eloranta, Henni (2020)
    Environmental conditions affect the occurrence of species and changes in conditions change distribution patterns of species. At the time of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ~ 21 ka), climate has been colder and drier and glaciers have spread over large areas of Europe, which has had a significant impact on the occurrence of plant and animal populations and biodiversity up to modern times. According to the traditional view, the Mediterranean peninsulas have acted as refugia for various species, but several paleoecological and phylogeographical evidence have challenged this notion, as they suggest that the more northern regions may also have had suitable habitats for both temperate and boreal species. The aim of this work is to study the potential distribution areas of terrestrial mammals and the distribution of potential species richness in Europe at the time of LGM using species distribution modelling (SDM). Presence/absence records of mammal species were collected by the Societas Europaea Mammalogica with a resolution of 50 x 50 km. After pre-processing, the data provided information on 107 species in Europe west of 32° E. Modelling was carried out using ensemble modelling and climate data was used as explanatory variable. Hindcasting was done separately with three different LGM climate simulations to allow the assessment of the geographical distribution of climatically suitable areas for the species. Maps of the potential species richness of different species groups were compiled from LGM projections of individual species belonging to the species group. There was variation in modelling success between different species, but consensus models could be made for each species and thus also distribution predictions for the LGM. The climatically potential distribution areas of the different species differed clearly in both size and location and were related to the species' current distribution. Overall, the potential species richness during the LGM was higher than average in the Mediterranean peninsulas, the southern Western Europe, the Black Sea region, and the Carpathian region. The focus of the distribution of southern species was in the areas south of the Alps and of the northern species north and east of the Alps. The potential ranges of northern species were also larger on average than those of southern species. For mammals, climatically potential distribution areas were modelled extensively across the glacial Europe. The results support the idea of several suitable refugia for temperate species, some of which are located on the southern peninsulas and some north of traditional southern refugia. Northern species, on the other hand, have been able to find suitable living conditions in much of central and eastern Europe and therefore have not necessarily been limited to certain refugia. In the light of the results, it appears that mammalian glacial distribution patterns may have varied greatly depending on the characteristics of the species and that the climate during the LGM may not have significantly limited the distribution of all species.