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Faculty of Science


Recent Submissions

  • Issakainen, Jani (2021)
    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive neurophysiological method for evaluating brain activity by measuring electrical potential at the scalp. The electrical potentials originate mainly from postsynaptic cortical currents created by neuronal activity. It is a valuable tool for both research and clinical practice. EEG can be used e.g. to diagnose epilepsy, focal brain disorders, brain death, and coma. Intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) is an important tool in clinical EEG. Healthcare professionals use it to induce epileptic activity in patients to help diagnose their conditions. In these tests, various IPS frequencies are used with eyes-closed, eyes-open, and eye-closure conditions. IPS test is listed in clinical practice guidelines in EEG globally, and it is mainly used to diagnose photosensitive epilepsy, i.e., to detect epilepsy-related abnormal sensitivity to flickering light. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive neurophysiological method in which minute magnetic fields — produced by the same postsynaptic currents as in EEG — are measured with special superconductive sensors around the head. MEG is a valuable tool for research and clinical practice with increasing world-wide utilization. The main advantages of MEG over EEG are easier source modelling and higher resolution at cortical areas. IPS has not been introduced to MEG since the IPS stimulators used in EEG are not compatible with MEG. IPS in MEG could improve the analysis of IPS and provide better tools for diagnoses. Currently, data analysis of IPS is typically limited to healthcare professionals examining the visualization of the raw data while looking for induced epileptiform activites and lateralizing them. In this thesis, an MEG-compatible IPS stimulator is introduced and alternative ways of analyzing IPS data for both MEG and EEG are showcased. Although analysis methods were applied with decent signal-to-noise ratios, further research is needed—especially to compare responses between patients with epilepsy and healthy subjects.
  • Torkko, Jussi (2021)
    Urban greenery is vital to the people in our increasingly urbanizing societies. It is diverse in nature and provides numerous life improving qualities. Traditionally urban greenery has been assessed with a top-down view through the sensors of aerial vehicles and satellites. This does not equate on what is experienced down at the human level. An alternative viewpoint has emerged, with the introduction of a more human-scale viewpoint. To quantify this human-scale greenery, novel and disparate approaches have been developed. However, there is little knowledge on how these modelling methods and indices manage to capture the greenery we truly experience on the ground level. This thesis is an undertaking to better understand what the greenery experienced by people on the ground level, termed humanscale greenery (HSG), means. The goal was to grasp how the various modelling methods, indices and datasets can be best used to capture this phenomenon. Simultaneously, the study tries to better comprehend how different people experience greenery. To achieve this, human-scale greenery values were collected via interviews at randomly selected study sites across Helsinki. These values were then compared to modelled values at the same sites. The methods and indices tested include modern approaches developed specifically for HSG and traditional greenery assessment methods. Along the greenery values, sociodemographic variables were collected in the interviews and compared to each other in relation to HSG values. The modelled values were on average smaller than HSG values. All methods indicated very strong or strong linear relationships with human-scale greenery. NDVI and semantic segmentation Green View Index (GVI) had the strongest relationships and least deviation. Land use (LU) and color based GVI had the highest error deviations from HSG. The sociodemographic assessment showed hints that age might affect the amount of experienced greenery, but this is uncertain. With a random sampling of interviewees, 25–34-year-olds and less nature visiting people were more common at sites with low HSG. Based on the results obtained here, many different types of novel methods are suitable for modelling HSG with strong linear relationships. However, also traditional greenery assessment methods performed well. It is difficult to curtail the experience of greenery into a single approach. A solution could possibly be obtained via the combination of methods. The results also advocate the usage of machine learning methods for greenery image segmentation. These cannot be applied everywhere due to data coverage problems, but alternative methods can also be used to fill in gaps. The significance of age on the experience of greenery needs further research. Because urban greenery’s benefits are known, attention should also be given onto how different kinds of people are able to experience it. In the future we should also discuss the meaningfulness of assessing absolute greenery in comparison to the types and parts of greenery.
  • Koskinen, Julia (2021)
    This Master’s Thesis examines how Ugandan civil society organizations (CSOs) have responded to land grabs and subsequent negative impacts on local communities that have taken place in the oil region of Albertine graben in Western Uganda and what their role is in the realization of the rights of local communities. Two international oil companies, Total and CNOOC, operate in the area. The companies have received a lot of critique on the negative impacts that oil development has had on local communities. The impacts of the oil development on local communities have been studied widely by academics and by CSOs while the responses and strategies of civil society organizations that work around the matter have been studied less. This thesis aims to shed more light on what is the role of civil society organizations in the land disputes in the Albertine graben. It can give development funders and other actors more insight on what is happening in the Albertine graben, and also help CSOs to understand their roles and how they can impact on the situation. The thesis is based on political ecology and looks at land grabbing from the theories of primitive accumulation and accumulation by dispossession. The theorization of the roles of civil society organizations is based on civil society studies. The method used in the study is semi-structured interview. Six Ugandan CSO representatives were interviewed for the study. Three of the interviewees were from local grassroot organizations and three were from national organizations that operate from Kampala. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. The findings of the study are threefold. The study found that the CSO representatives identified the same impacts of the oil development as previous studies and reports have identified. The negative impacts are mostly tied to land grabbing and exceed the positive impacts of oil development. The study also identified the most important strategies that the CSOs use in order to support the affected communities. The most frequently mentioned strategies include engaging companies and subcontractors; engaging government and local governments; facilitating discussion between companies/government and communities; capacity building, empowerment and sensitizing of local communities; training community volunteers; legal empowerment of the communities; legal aid; strategic litigation; and networking with other CSOs. Lastly, the study theorizes on the role of the CSOs in the matter based on the CSO representatives’ own views and on the strategies that they use. The roles of the CSOs are to empower communities; to act as mediators between the communities and government/companies; amplify community voices; hold companies/government accountable; ensure that the rights of project affected persons are respected; and balance power imbalances between communities and companies/government. These roles are in line with previous theorizations of the roles of civil society organizations in the society. A common factor in all of the land grabs and the following negative impacts of it is the power imbalance between the local communities and the companies/government. Companies and government are powerful because they support each other: while government gets investment from oil, the companies get legitimacy and freedoms to work in the area. This is why it is difficult for civil society actors to challenge the companies and hold them accountable. The local communities are normally poor and have low education levels and thus they are often not aware of their rights or how they could protect themselves against state and corporate abuses. CSOs often lack financial capacity, and as they are seen in a negative light by the government and by companies, it is difficult for CSOs to impact on them. Even though CSOs face a lot of difficulties, including security risks, they use many strategies to influence the situation, and try to fulfil their social, economic and political roles in the society.
  • Aalto, Nelli (2021)
    Ilmastonmuutos on aikamme haastavin ympäristöongelma, joka uhkaa ihmiskuntaa ja elämää maapallolla. Hallitustenvälinen ilmastonmuutospaneeli IPCC on todennut, että ihmisen toiminta on kiihdyttänyt ilmaston lämpenemistä ja että lämpeneminen tulisi pysäyttää 1,5 asteeseen esiteollisen ajan tasoon verrattuna. Yksi tehokkaimmista ilmastonmuutoksen hillintäkeinoista on onnistunut ilmastokasvatus eli ilmastonmuutosilmiön syvälliseen ymmärtämiseen tähtäävä kasvatuksen osa-alue. Ilmastokasvatusta toteutetaan vaihtelevalla laajuudella suomalaisen koulujärjestelmän kaikilla tasoilla varhaiskasvatuksesta alkaen. Ensimmäisen kerran “ilmastonmuutos” -termi mainittiin Lukion opetussuunnitelmassa vuonna 2003 ja uusimmassa, syksyllä 2021 voimaan astuvassa, Lukion opetussuunnitelmassa ilmastokasvatuksen pitäisi tulla osaksi kaikkia oppiaineita laaja-alaisen osaamisen osa-alueen, eettisyys- ja ympäristöosaamisen, myötä. Kuitenkin yleensä vastuu ympäristö- ja ilmastokasvatuksesta koetaan olevan vain luonnontieteellisten oppiaineiden,kuten maantieteen, harteilla. Oppikirjoilla on yhä vahva asema suomalaisessa koulussa, vaikka koulumaailma onkin viimeisten vuosien aikana muuttunut enenevissä määrin sähköiseksi. Tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet, että opettajat suunnittelevat ja toteuttavat opetustaan usein käyttäen apunaan oppikirjoja. Oppikirja on opetukseen tarkoitettu teos, jonka sisältö peilaa opetussuunnitelman sisältöä. Opetussuunnitelma antaa kuitenkin melko väljät raamit oppikirjailijoille kirjojen sisällön suhteen, joten markkinoilla on keskenään hyvinkin erilaisia oppikirjoja. Ilmastokasvatuksen painoarvo on kasvanut nyky-yhteiskunnassa ja suomalaisessa lukiomaailmassa ilmastokasvatus on ollut perinteisesti maantieteen vastuulla. Perinteisillä oppikirjoilla on yhä merkitystä opettajille työvälineenä ja oppilaille opiskeluvälineenä, joten on mielenkiintoista tarkastella, miten maantieteen oppikirjoissa käsitellään ilmastonmuutosteemaa. Tässä tutkielmassa vertailen keskenään vuosien 2015 ja 2019 Lukion opetussuunnitelmienmukaisia lukion maantieteen GE1 Maailma muutoksessa kurssin oppikirjoja ja sitä, miten näissä käsitellään ilmastonmuutosta. Vertailun kohteena ovat ilmastonmuutosteeman käsittelyn määrä, ilmastonmuutostekstin sisällön pääteemat, ilmastonmuutokseen liittyvät avainkäsitteet ja termit sekä käytetyt havainnollistamisen keinot ilmastonmuutosteeman yhteydessä. Lisäksi tarkastelen, miten vuoden 2019 Lukion opetussuunnitelmassa määritettyihin laaja-alaisen osaamisen osa-alueisiin voidaan vastata maantieteen GE1-kirjojen ilmastonmuutosteemassa. Tulosten perusteella ilmastonmuutoksen käsittelyn määrä on kasvanut ja monipuolistunut GE1 Maailma muutoksessa -kurssin oppikirjoissa huomattavasti siirryttäessä vuoden 2015 Lukion opetussuunnitelman mukaisista kirjoista vuoden 2019 Lukion opetussuunnitelman mukaisiin kirjoihin. Tämä muutos noudattaa opetussuunnitelmissa tapahtunutta ilmastonmuutosteeman käsittelyn kasvua ja suuremmassa mittakaavassa kertoo siitä, miten ilmastonmuutos koetaan koko ajan tärkeämmäksi yhteiskunnalliseksi asiaksi ja miten kansalaisten ilmastokasvatusta pidetään arvossa.
  • Lehtonen, Pyry (2021)
    Geographical accessibility to sports facilities plays an important role when choosing a sports facility. The aim of my thesis is to examine geographical accessibility for sports facilities in Helsinki and Jyväskylä. The data of my study consists of the facilities of three different types of sports in Helsinki, Jyväskylä. The chosen types of facilities are ball parks, disc golf courses and fitness centers. I also use demographic data that cover the age groups of 7-12, 20-24 and 60-64. Mapple Analytics Ltd has produced geographical accessibility data covering whole of Finland which I also use as my data. In my thesis I analyzed geographical accessibility of sports facilities and compare the results to demographic data. Both the geographical accessibility data and demographic data is in 250 x 250 m grid level. the methods I used were Local Moran’s I and Bivariate Local Moran’s I. I applied the methods so that I combined the travel-time data and demographic data. The travel-times are from Mapple Insights API. The travel modes I have used are cycling and driving because people travel to sports facilities mostly by driving or by active methods, especially cycling. The travel-times to ball parks and fitness centers are overall good in both study regions. The good geographical accessibility is caused by that the service pattern is so dense for ball parks and fitness centers. The service pattern covers almost all of the inhabited area in both study regions. However, for some postal areas seem to have not so good geographical accessibility to ball parks. In some areas in Helsinki the geographical accessibility to disc golf course can be considered to be somewhat bad. For the chosen age groups only 20-24-year-olds have unsatisfactory travel-times to disc golf course either by cycling or driving. Other age groups do not show a similar pattern because of the different service pattern of ball parks and fitness centers. Demographic variables do not explain the travel times in this context. It is important to see which postal areas have good or bad geographical accessibility to sports facilities. This helps the future planning of sports facilities. In the future it is also possible to apply non spatial methods to the data I have collected or a similar dataset. It would also be possible to which demographic variable best explains travel-times. Because of Mapple Insighs API data is in 250 x 250 m grid level many applications can be developed using the data.