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Browsing by Author "Westerlund, Jonas"

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  • Westerlund, Jonas (2016)
    In this thesis we prove the Hurewicz theorem which states that the n-th homology and homotopy groups are isomorphic for an (n-1)-connected topological space. There exists proofs of the Hurewicz theorem in which one constructs a concrete isomorphism between the spaces, but in this thesis we avoid the construction by transferring the problem to the realm of CW complexes and cellular structures by a technique known as cellular approximation. Combined with the cellular homology groups and related results this technique allows us to analyse the space on a cell-by-cell basis. This reduces the problem significantly and gives rise to many methods not applicable otherwise. To prove the theorem we lay out the foundations of homotopy theory and homology theory. The singular homology theory is introduced, which in turn is used together with the concept of degree to define the cellular homology groups suitable for the analysis of CW complexes. Since CW complexes are built out of homeomorphic copies of the open unit disk extending to its boundary, it became crucial to prove various properties of these subspaces in both homotopy and homology. Fibrations, fiber bundles, and the Freudenthal suspension theorem were introduced for the homotopical viewpoint, while long exact sequences and contractibility played a great role in the homological considerations. CW approximation then made it possible to apply all this machinery to the topological space in question. Finally, the boundary homomorphisms from the long exact sequence in both homotopy and cellular homology theory turn out to be the same which makes it possible to show the existence of an isomorphism between the groups.