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Browsing by Author "Zhang, Tinghan"

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  • Zhang, Tinghan (2022)
    Air ions can play an important role in new particle formation (NPF) process and consequently influence the atmospheric aerosols, which affect climate and air quality as potential cloud condensation nuclei. However, the air ions and their role in NPF have not been comprehensively investigated yet, especially in polluted area. To explore the air ions in polluted environment, we compared the air ions at SORPES site, a suburban site in polluted eastern China, with those at SMEAR II, a well-studied boreal forest site in Finland, based on the air ion number size distribution (0.8-42 nm) measured with Neutral Cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) during 7 June 2019 to 31 August 2020. Air ions were size classified into three size ranges: cluster (0.8-2 nm), intermediate (2-7 nm), and large (7-20 nm). Median concentration of cluster ions at SORPES (217 cm−3) was about 6 times lower than that at SMEAR II (1268 cm−3) due to the high CS and pre-existing particle loading in polluted area, whereas the median large ion concentration at SORPES (197 cm−3) was about 3 times higher than that of SMEAR II (67 cm−3). Seasonal variations of ion concentration differed with ion sizes and ion polarity at two sites. High concentration of cluster ions was observed in the evening in the spring and autumn at SMEAR II, while the cluster ion concentration remained at a high level all day in the same seasons. The NPF events occurred more frequently at SORPES site (SMEAR II 16% ; SORPES: 39%), and the highest values of NPF frequency at both sites were in spring ((SMEAR II: spring: 43%; SORPES: spring: 56%). During the noon time on NPF event day, the concentration of intermediate ions were 8-14 times higher than same ours on non-event days, indicating that can be used as an indicator for NPF in SMEAR II and SORPES. The median formation rate of 1.5 nm at SMEAR II were higher then that at SORPES, while higher formation rate of 3 nm ions were observed at SORPES. At 3 nm, the formation rate of charged particles was only 11% and 1.6% of the total rate at SMEAR II and SORPES respectively, which supports the current view that neutral ways dominate the new particle process in continental boundary. However, higher ratio between charged and total formation rate of 3 nm particle at SMEAR II indicates ion-induced nucleation can have a bigger contribution to NPF in clear area in comparison to polluted area. Higher median GR of 3-7 nm (SMEAR II: 3.1 nm h−1; SORPES: 3.7 nm h−1) and 7-20 nm (SMEAR II: 5.5 nm h−1; SORPES: 6.9 nm h−1) ions at SORPES were found in comparison to SMEAR II, suggesting the higher availability of condensing vapors at SORPES. This study presented a comprehensive comparison of air ions in completely different environments, and highlighted the need for long-term ion measurements to improve the understanding of air ions and their role in NPF in polluted area like eastern China